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Soil & Fertilizer

Anhydrous Ammonia: Managing The Risks

Anhydrous ammonia has the potential to be one of the most dangerous chemicals used in agriculture today. It is used and stored under high pressures, which requires specially designed and well-maintained equipment. Those who work with anhydrous ammonia must be trained to follow exact procedures in handling it.

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Anhydrous Ammonia: Managing The Risks (AE-1149 (Revised))

Anhydrous ammonia has the potential to be one of the most dangerous chemicals used in agriculture today. It is used and stored under high pressures, which requires specially designed and well-maintained equipment. Those who work with anhydrous ammonia must be trained to follow exact procedures in handling it.

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Nitrogen Extenders and Additives for Field Crops (SF1581)

Nitrogen is lost from soil through the activity of soil bacterial transformation of ammonium to nitrate, and from nitrate, the N can be lost leaching or denitrifcation. There are chemistries available that inhibit the transformation of ammonium to nitrate, and there are also compounds that inhibit urease enzyme activity, decreasing the risk of ammonia volatility.

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Soil Testing Unproductive Areas

Soil Testing Unproductive Areas - SF1809

This publication is intended to provide information on how to sample and analyze area that are affected by soil salinity and sodicity. It explains how to take soil samples representing the affected areas, what kind of tests are needed to assess salt and sodium levels and how to interpret the results.

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ND Fertilizer Recommendations

North Dakota Fertilizer Recommendation Tables and Equations - SF882

The soil test recommendation tables here are based on field research data obtained in North Dakota, South Dakota, western Minnesota and the Canadian Prairie Provinces.

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Fertilizing Sunflower

Fertilizing Sunflower - SF713

This revision is the results of 48 field trials from 2012-2015 studying the yield and oil response of sunflower to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer. The new recommendations include no phosphorus needed for sunflower and nitrogen rate based on region, tillage, soil test nitrate with a cap due to excessive lodging potential at high nitrogen rates.

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Fertilizing Winter Rye

Fertilizing Winter Rye - SF1462

Rye previously was grouped with wheat in fertility recommendations, but rye has unique nutrient requirements that separate it from other grains. Nitrogen requirements are not as high, even though yield may be comparable to wheat. Because economic return for rye is not as high as for wheat, other nutrient recommendations are more modest. A significant amount of rye is grown organically, so suggestions for fertilizing in an organic system also are included.

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Fertilizing Malting and Feed Barley

Fertilizing Malting and Feed Barley - SF723

Barley has been an important cash and rotational crop in North Dakota and the region for many years. It is important as a feed grain, but by far its economic value is linked to the malting industry. Barley requires adequate nitrogen (N) for good yields, but since grain protein in excess of industry limits often results in rejection of a crop, and since excess N leads to smaller kernel size, the line between adequate N and excessive N is fine. In addition, excessive N may result in lodging, which lowers yields and increases the incidence and severity of head blight and other diseases in some years.

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Fertilizer Application

Fertilizer Application With Small-grain Seed at Planting - SF1751

Applying fertilizer with the seed at planting is one successful soil management practice that has long been recognized as a means to improve small grain yields. Grain seeders have been adapted with fertilizer attachments, enabling farmers to apply a small amount of fertilizer with the seed and plant in one operation.

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Fertilizing Hard Red Spring Wheat and Durum

Fertilizing Hard Red Spring Wheat and Durum - SF712

Nitrogen management is a key to successful wheat production. Recommendations include consideration of wheat yield and protein response to added N within three major state agri-climatology zones, and the use of wheat price and N cost in determining N rate. These recommendations are based on the concept that identifies an optimal N rate for greatest net income, not greatest yield.

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Fertilizing Winter Wheat

Fertilizing Winter Wheat - SF1448

Winter wheat fertilization recommendations in North Dakota previously were similar to spring wheat and durum. As a larger research base was developed for spring wheat and durum, separating the winter wheat from other wheats became necessary due to their unique nutrient requirements.

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Active Optical Sensor Algorithms

Active Optical Sensor Algorithms: How they work and how they can be used to calculate N requirements in the field - SF1176-5

Research from 2011 to 2013 has resulted in a data base that supports to use of active-optical sensors to direct side-dress N rates in corn. Previously, rates were determined using a grower best guess.

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Managing Saline Soils in ND

Managing Saline Soils in North Dakota - SF1087

Saline soils have salt levels high enough that either crop yields begin to suffer or cropping is impractical. Excessive salts injure plants by disrupting the uptake of water into roots and interfering with the uptake of competitive nutrients. Several factors contribute to the development of saline soils in North Dakota, but a high water table is a prime requirement. Recognizing how and why salts accumulate is the first step in farming profitably on land interspersed with saline soils. Preventing further encroachment of salinity and addressing remediation strategies are other steps.

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Fertilizing Canola and Mustard

Fertilizing Canola and Mustard - SF1122

Canola is an important crop in North Dakota. It is grown for its oil content for both food and fuel purposes. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) requirements of canola and mustard are similar to those of small grains. Sulfur (S) requirements for canola are higher than most crops. Soil test results direct fertilizer rates for N, P, K and S. Soil cores should be taken from 0 to 24 inches deep and divided into 0- to 6-inch and 6- to 24-inch samples. P and K should be analyzed on the 0- to 6-inch sample, while N and S should be tested on each depth.

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Soil Fertility Recommendations for Corn

Soil Fertility Recommendations for Corn - SF722

Nitrogen recommendations have been revised to consider region, soil, tillage system and irrigation/dryland management. Phosphorus, potassium, sulfur and zinc recommendations are included.

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Soybean Soil Fertility

Soybean Soil Fertility - SF1164

Soybean is unique in nutritional needs in the state compared to other crops. Inoculation, fertilizer application and iron deficiency chlorosis are explained.

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Funding for Irrigation Development

Funding Assistance Programs for Irrigation Development in North Dakota -AE1674

This publications provides information on financial incentives for irrigators and irrigation districts.

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Fertilizing Dry Edible Beans

Fertilizing Pinto, Navy and Other Dry Edible Beans - SF720

North Dakota is the leading producer of dry edible beans in the United States, with the greatest acreage of pinto beans of any state, and significant acres of navy, black and several other types of beans as well. Beans are a warm-season crop that prefers fertile, well-drained soils. Adequate, but not excessive, moisture during the growing season and a dry harvest result in high yield and quality.

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Compatibility of ND Soils for Irrigation

Compatibility of North Dakota Soils for Irrigation - AE1637

This publication is intended as a first step to help current and prospective irrigators understand the principles behind the irrigability of soils in North Dakota. This publication should be used in combination with soil survey information of the land to be irrigated. Soil surveys of every county in North Dakota have been completed and documented.

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Evaluation of Soils for Suitability for Tile Drainage Performance

Evaluation of Soils for Suitability for Tile Drainage Performance - SF1617

The presence of salts and high water tables in North Dakota soils due to an extended climactic wet cycle recently has stimulated interest in the installation of tile drainage systems. The tile controls the water table and encourages the leaching and removal of salts from the soil above the tile lines. This improves soil productivity, culminating in improved crop yields.

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