North Dakota State University www.ag.ndsu.edu Crops Family-Youth-4-H Economics-Community-Leadership Home-Lawn-Garden-Trees Environment-Natural Resources Energy Livestock Nutrition-Food Safety-Health
 

North Dakota Tree Handbook


Table of Contents

Section I – Introduction
Species List by Common Name
Species List by Scientific Name
Woody Plant Nomenclature
Trees and Shrubs – Make Life Easier on the Prairies
How to Use the North Dakota Tree Handbook
 
Section II – Plant Species Characteristics and Applications
Quick Reference Legend
Tree Growth Beneath the Ground
Tree Growth Above the Ground
Tree Form
USDA Plant Hardiness Zones
Hardiness Zone Map of North Dakota
Windbreak Suitability Groups Species List by Windbreak Suitability Groups
 
Section III – Plant Pictures and Descriptions
Shrubs
Small Trees
Medium and Tall Trees
Conifers
 
Section IV – Tree Care and Maintenance
Weed Control in Tree Plantings
Woody Plant Pests
List of Annotated References on Tree Pests
Diagnosing Tree Problems Using Injury Symptoms
Insects
Diseases
Abiotic Factors
Common and Scientific Names of Woody Plant Pests
 
Section V – Appendix
Glossary
Reference Materials
How Windbreaks Work
Windbreak Establishment
Windbreaks and Wildlife
Windbreaks in Sustainable Agricultural Systems
Windbreaks for Rural Living
Windbreaks for Livestock Operations



Species List by Common Name

Common Name Genus/Species
SHRUBS
Almond, Russian
Buffaloberry, Silver
Caragana (Siberian Peashrub)
Cherry, Mongolian
Cherry, Nanking
Chokecherry
Cotoneaster, European
Cranberrybush, American
Currant, Golden (Clove)
Dogwood, Redosier
Euonymus, Winterberry
Forsythia, Meadowlark
Honeysuckle, Amur
Honeysuckle, Freedom
Indigo, False
Juneberry (Saskatoon Serviceberry)
Lilac, Common
Lilac, Late
Plum, American
Potentilla (Shrubby Cinquefoil)
Rose, Hansen Hedge
Sandcherry, Western
Sea-buckthorn
Silverberry
Spirea, Vanhoutte
Sumac, Fragrant
Sumac, Skunkbush (Lemonade)
Sumac, Smooth
Sumac, Staghorn
Viburnum, Arrowwood
Viburnum, Nannyberry
Willow, Sandbar
Prunus tenella
Shepherdia argentea
Caragana arborescens
Prunus fruticosa
Prunus tomentosa
Prunus virginiana
Cotoneaster integerrimus
Viburnum trilobum
Ribes odoratum
Cornus sericea
Euonymus bungeana
Forsythia
x `Meadowlark'
Lonicera maackii
Lonicera
x `Freedom'
Amorpha fruticosa
Amelanchier alnifolia
Syringa vulgaris
Syringa villosa
Prunus americana
Potentilla fruticosa
Rosa
species
Prunus besseyi
Hippophae rhamnoides
Elaeagnus commutata
Spiraea
x vanhouttei
Rhus aromatica
Rhus trilobata
Rhus glabra
Rhus typhina
Viburnum dentatum
Viburnum lentago
Salix interior
SMALL TREES
Apple, Common
Apricot, Manchurian
Chokecherry, Amur
Crabapple, Flowering
Crabapple, Siberian
Hawthorn, Arnold
Ironwood (American Hop-hornbeam)
Lilac, Japanese Tree
Maple, Amur
Maple, Tatarian
Mountain-ash, European
Pear, Ussurian (Harbin)
Russian-olive
Malus pumila
Prunus armeniaca
var. mandshurica
Prunus maackii
Malus
hybrids
Malus baccata
Crataegus arnoldiana
Ostrya virginiana
Syringa reticulata
Acer ginnala
Acer tataricum
Sorbus aucuparia
Pyrus ussuriensis
Elaeagnus angustifolia
MEDIUM AND TALL TREES
Ash, Black
Ash, Green
Ash, Manchurian
Aspen, Quaking
Birch, Paper
Boxelder
Buckeye, Ohio
Cottonwood
Elm, American
Elm, Japanese
Elm, Siberian
Hackberry, Common
Honeylocust, Common
Linden, American (Basswood)
Linden, Littleleaf
Maple, Silver
Oak, Bur
Oak, Mongolian
Poplar, Hybrid
Poplar, White
Walnut, Black
Willow, Golden
Willow, Laurel
Willow, Redstem
Willow, White
Fraxinus nigra
Fraxinus pennsylvanica
Fraxinus mandshurica
Populus tremuloides
Betula papyrifera
Acer negundo
Aesculus glabra
Populus deltoides
Ulmus americana
Ulmus davidiana
var. japonica
Ulmus pumila
Celtis occidentalis
Gleditsia triacanthos
Tilia americana
Tilia cordata
Acer saccharinum
Quercus macrocarpa
Quercus mongolica
Populus
hybrids
Populus alba
Juglans nigra
Salix alba
`Vitellina'
Salix pentandra
Salix alba
`Chermesina'
Salix alba
CONIFERS
Arborvitae, American
Arborvitae, Siberian
Douglas-Fir, Rocky Mountain
Fir, White (Concolor)
Juniper, Rocky Mountain
Larch, Siberian
Pine, Jack
Pine, Limber
Pine, Lodgepole
Pine, Mugo
Pine, Ponderosa
Pine, Scotch
Red-cedar, Eastern
Spruce, Black Hills
Spruce, Colorado (Blue)
Thuja occidentalis
Thuja occidentalis
`Wareana'
Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca
Abies concolor
Juniperus scopulorum
Larix sibirica
Pinus banksiana
Pinus flexilis
Pinus contorta
var. latifolia
Pinus mugo
Pinus ponderosa
Pinus sylvestris
Juniperus virginiana
Picea glauca
var. densata
Picea pungens



Species List by Scientific Name

Genus/Species Common Name Family
Abies concolor
Acer ginnala
Acer negundo
Acer saccharinum
Acer tataricum
Aesculus glabra
Amelanchier alnifolia
Fir, White (Concolor)
Maple, Amur
Boxelder
Maple, Silver
Maple, Tatarian
Buckeye, Ohio
Juneberry (Saskatoon Serviceberry)
Pinaceae
Aceraceae
Aceraceae
Aceraceae
Aceraceae
Hippocastanaceae
Rosaceae
Amorpha fruticosa
Betula papyrifera
Caragana arborescens
Celtis occidentalis
Cornus sericea
Cotoneaster integerrimus
Crataegus arnoldiana
Elaeagnus angustifolia
Elaeagnus commutata
Euonymus bungeana
Forsythia
x F. `Meadowlark'
Fraxinus mandshurica
Fraxinus nigra
Fraxinus pennsylvanica
Gleditsia triacanthos
Hippophae rhamnoides
Juglans nigra
Juniperus scopulorum
Juniperus virginiana
Larix sibirica
Lonicera
x `Freedom'
Lonicera maackii
Malus pumila
Malus baccata
Malus
hybrids
Ostrya virginiana
Indigo, False
Birch, Paper
Caragana (Siberian Peashrub)
Hackberry, Common
Dogwood, Redosier
Cotoneaster, European
Hawthorn, Arnold
Russian-olive
Silverberry
Euonymus, Winterberry
Forsythia, Meadowlark
Ash, Manchurian
Ash, Black
Ash, Green
Honeylocust, Common
Sea-buckthorn
Walnut, Black
Juniper, Rocky Moutain
Red-cedar, Eastern
Larch, Siberian
Honeysuckle, Freedom
Honeysuckle, Amur
Apple, Common
Crabapple, Siberian
Crabapple, Flowering
Ironwood (American Hop-hornbeam)
Fabaceae
Betulaceae
Fabaceae
Ulmaceae
Cornaceae
Rosaceae
Rosaceae
Elaeagnaceae
Elaeagnaceae
Celastraceae
Oleaceae
Oleaceae
Oleaceae
Oleaceae
Fabaceae
Elaeagnaceae
Juglandaceae
Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
Pinaceae
Caprifoliaceae
Caprifoliaceae
Rosaceae
Rosaceae
Rosaceae
Betulaceae
Picea glauca var. densata
Picea pungens
Pinus banksiana
Pinus contorta
var. latifolia
Pinus flexilis
Pinus mugo
Pinus ponderosa
Pinus sylvestris
Populus alba
Populus deltoides
Populus
hybrids
Populus tremuloides
Potentilla fruticosa
Prunus americana
Prunus armeniaca
var. mandshurica
Spruce, Black Hills
Spruce, Colorado (Blue)
Pine, Jack
Pine, Lodgepole
Pine, Limber
Pine, Mugo
Pine, Ponderosa
Pine, Scotch
Poplar, White
Cottonwood
Poplar, Hybrid
Aspen, Quaking
Potentilla (Shrubby Cinquefoil)
Plum, American
Apricot, Manchurian
Pinaceae
Pinaceae
Pinaceae
Pinaceae
Pinaceae
Pinaceae
Pinaceae
Pinaceae
Salicaceae
Salicaceae
Salicaceae
Salicaceae
Rosaceae
Rosaceae
Rosaceae
Prunus fruticosa
Prunus maackii
Prunus besseyi
Prunus tenella
Prunus tomentosa
Prunus virginiana
Pseudotsuga menziesii
var. glauca
Cherry, Mongolian
Chokecherry, Amur
Sandcherry, Western
Almond, Russian
Cherry, Nanking
Chokecherry
Douglas-Fir, Rocky Mountain
Rosaceae
Rosaceae
Rosaceae
Rosaceae
Rosaceae
Rosaceae
Pinaceae
Pyrus ussuriensis
Quercus macrocarpa
Quercus mongolica
Rhus aromatica
Rhus glabra
Rhus trilobata
Pear, Ussurian (Harbin)
Oak, Bur
Oak, Mongolian
Sumac, Fragrant
Sumac, Smooth
Sumac, Skunkbush (Lemonade)
Rosaceae
Fagaceae
Fagaceae
Anacardiaceae
Anacardiaceae
Anacardiaceae
Rhus typhina
Ribes odoratum
Rosa
species
Salix alba
Salix alba
`Chermesina'
Salix alba `Vitellina'
Salix interior
Salix pentandra
Shepherdia argentea
Sorbus aucuparia
Spiraea
x vanhouttei
Syringa reticulata
Syringa villosa
Syringa vulgaris
Thuja occidentalis
Thuja occidentalis
`Wareana'
Tilia americana
Tilia cordata
Ulmus americana
Ulmus davidiana
var. japonica
Sumac, Staghorn
Currant, Golden (Clove)
Rose, Hansen Hedge
Willow, White
Willow, Redstem
Willow, Golden
Willow, Sandbar
Willow, Laurel
Buffaloberry, Silver
Mountain-ash, European
Spirea, Vanhoutte
Lilac, Japanese Tree
Lilac, Late
Lilac, Common
Arborvitae, American
Arborvitae, Siberian
Linden, American (Basswood)
Linden, Littleleaf
Elm, American
Elm, Japanese
Anacardiaceae
Grossulariaceae
Rosaceae
Salicaceae
Salicaceae
Salicaceae
Salicaceae
Salicaceae
Elaeagnaceae
Rosaceae
Rosaceae
Oleaceae
Oleaceae
Oleaceae
Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
Tiliaceae
Tiliaceae
Ulmaceae
Ulmaceae
Ulmus pumila
Viburnum dentatum
Viburnum lentago
Viburnum trilobum
Elm, Siberian
Viburnum, Arrowwood
Viburnum, Nannyberry
Cranberrybush, American
Ulmaceae
Caprifoliaceae
Caprifoliaceae
Caprifoliaceae





How To Use the North Dakota Tree Handbook

The North Dakota Tree Handbook has been designed to assist specialists and lay people with forestry responsibilities in developing conservation and community tree plantings. This handbook will be useful to soil conservationists, foresters, arborists, landscape architects, nursery personnel, soil conservation district personnel, and county extension personnel.

The handbook contains four main sections:

Section I   – Introduction
Section II  – Plant Species Characteristics and Applications
Section III – Plant Pictures and Descriptions
Section IV  – Tree Care and Maintenance
Section V   – Glossary and Appendix

The location of the black bar along the edge of the photo pages indicates the suitability of each species for planting close to or under powerlines.

      Top of page = Usually suitable for planting under powerlines.
   Center of page = May be suitable for planting near powerlines, if
                    local authorities approve.
   Bottom of page = Not suitable for planting near powerlines. 

In some sections of this handbook references are made to species of trees or shrubs not identified and described in Section III – Plant Pictures and Descriptions. These additional species are included for purposes of comparison or general information.



Section I–Introduction

This section contains the tools and guidelines to enable the reader to make full use of this handbook.

The Table of Contents lists the major subject matter of the book.

The Species List by Common Name is an alphabetical listing of woody plant species within each of the four size categories: shrubs, small trees, medium-tall trees, and conifers. Species List by Scientific Name lists all 85 plants in alphabetical order by genus and species.

Woody Plant Nomenclature explains the rationale and advantages to scientific naming.

How to Use the North Dakota Tree Handbook explains how each section is arranged and the type of information available within.



Section II – Plant Characteristics and Applications

The species described in this handbook are native and introduced trees and shrubs of North Dakota that are hardy under the conditions given in the descriptions. Though not often used for lumber, these plants are valuable in North Dakota for: soil conservation, energy conservation, crop protection, water conservation, water quality improvement, landscaping, wildlife, aesthetics, and noise and snow control.

Quick Reference. Shows at a glance how each plant relates to each of the 26 characteristics listed. If the column headings do not fully explain the characteristic, refer to the Quick Reference Legend for more detail. The small numbers in parenthesis ( ) in the column headings refer to the numbers in the legend that define that characteristic.

General Tree Growth Characteristics. Describes the physiology of tree growth. Understanding how a tree grows and responds to its environment will often assist people in selecting the most appropriate tree or shrub for a given use.

USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map. Shows the average annual minimum temperatures that can be expected each year in south central Canada and the north central United States. Woody plants are categorized based on the coldest temperature (hardiness zone) in which the plants normally survive.

Hardiness Zone Map of North Dakota. Assists in the selection of species suitable to various parts of the state. Zone A is considered the most favorable and receives the highest annual precipitation. More favorable, sheltered sites may allow a particular woody plant to be grown in zones beyond those recommended. This map is to be used with the Quick Reference.

Windbreak Suitability Groups. Explain in general how soil characteristics affect woody plant survival and growth.

The species list by windbreak suitability group includes 85 woody plant species and their appropriate windbreak suitability groups (soils) in which they can be expected to survive and perform adequately. Trees that might do well in an urban setting may fail when exposed to the conditions found in a conservation planting. Likewise, trees not expected to do well in rural sites may do quite well in an urban setting. This fact underscores the need to consult with a local specialist knowledgeable of soils, climate and other conditions in a particular locale.



Section III – Plant Pictures and Descriptions

Eighty-five species are grouped into four categories to facilitate easier tree plan development. The categories are:

Deciduous Shrubs
Small Deciduous Trees
Medium and Tall Deciduous Trees
Conifers 

The species are listed by common name in alphabetical sequence. Each species is illustrated using four photographs. The pictures show the most outstanding characteristics of each plant. The back of the photo sheet includes information on each tree in the following categories:

  1. General Description – Includes a description of the leaves, buds, flowers, fruit, and form as well as any outstanding characteristics unique to a given plant.
  2. Environmental Requirements – Includes soil adaptation, cold hardiness, and water and light requirements.
  3. Uses – Includes the value of a given plant for a variety of uses such as conservation/windbreaks, wildlife, agroforestry products, and urban/recreational plantings. Note: The authors assume no liability for the effectiveness or safety of the woody plant medical uses listed. For specific details on the medicinal properties and uses of these products, refer to the references listed in the beginning of this handbook.
  4. Cultivated Varieties and Related Species – Includes recommended and currently available varieties as well as related tree or shrub species to assist in making alternative plant selections.
  5. Pests – Includes the most commonly occurring pest problems.



Section IV – Tree Care and Maintenance

Weed Control1. Includes pictures of four commonly used weed control practices. The captions under each picture give the key components of each method. Further details concerning tillage, mulches and cover crops, as well as the types of chemicals, effectiveness and label restrictions, are discussed. Forestry agencies, state universities, county extension offices, and conservation district offices also have information and materials available on tree care and maintenance.

1 Vern Quam and Rich Zollinger co-authored this section on weed control. Picture credits, USDA-Natural Resource Service.

Woody Plant Pests2. Provides diagnostic information on tree diseases and insects. In easy to understand terms, the common pests affecting trees in North Dakota, are described by their mode of activity, the likelihood of continued problems and methods to identify and diagnose the cause of the injury. Major categories are: Insects, Diseases, and Abiotic Factors.

2 Arden Tagestad, North Dakota Forest Service, authored this report in 1994.

Diagnosing Tree Problems Using Injury Symptoms (a section of Woody Plant Pests). Is an easy to use diagnostic tool for people to determine likely causes of tree injury in most field situations. A strength of this key is the reference to specific pages in professional texts that give more details about each pest, including methods of prevention or control.



Section V – Appendix

Glossary
The Glossary provides definitions of tree botanical characteristics as well as other terminology associated with proper tree planting and care in the Great Plains.

Reference Materials
Includes published pamphlets that provide additional information on tree care, windbreaks, and weed control. Funding and authorship of these pamphlets was provided by the University of Nebraska, North Dakota State University and National Resources Conservation Service. The pamphlets were published by the University of Nebraska and address the following issues relating to proper windbreak management:

"How Windbreaks Work"
"Windbreak Establishment"
"Windbreaks and Wildlife"
"Windbreaks in Sustainable Agricultural Systems"
"Windbreaks for Rural Living"
"Windbreaks for Livestock Operations"


North Dakota Tree HandbookNorth Dakota Tree Information Center
NDSU Home PageNDSU AgricultureNDSU Dept. of Plant SciencesND Forest Service