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New and Emerging Crops

 

December 16, 2013 Meeting Minutes

SBARE New and Emerging Crops Committee
Carrington Research Extension Center

The State Board of Agricultural Research and Education’s New and Emerging Crops Granting Committee conference call was called to order at 10:00 a.m.  Voting members present were Bob Landman, Holly Mawby and Cal Hoff.  Non-voting members present were Dr. Burton Johnson and Blaine Schatz.  Also present was Lori Capouch.

It was motioned and seconded to nominate Cal as chairman. 

The meeting began with presentations on the following proposals:

Developing a Blackberry Production System for North Dakota
Researcher: Harlene Hatterman-Valenti
Amount requested: $7,987 (year 1 of 2) 

This project will compare the growth and production of three blackberry cultivars when subjected to an annual production procedure.  Grant funds will be used to offset costs associated with the proposed research.

Introduction of Raspberry Cultivars for Small Fruit Production in North Dakota
Researcher: Wenhao Dai
Amount requested: $10,255 (year 1 of 2)

In this project, we will introduce raspberry cultivars that are not only winter hardy, but also produce high quality and yield for both small fruit production and home grown in North Dakota and surrounding areas.  This project has a great potential to increase production of small fruits, which will benefit all North Dakotans and enhance the quality of life in communities and family farms.

Selection and Breeding of Vegetable Crops for Local Production
Researchers: Chiwon W. Lee
Amount requested: $9,627 (year 1 of 2)

North Dakota has a short growing season.  Vegetable growers in the state often suffer poor harvest due to early frost.  Vegetables and other specialty crops that mature early are needed for local growers.  This project will initiate a vegetable selection and breeding program at NDSU with special attention on early maturing tomato, pepper, eggplants as well as squash and pumpkin.  Genetic improvement for nutritional quality such as increasing pigmentation and antioxidant levels will be emphasized.  New cultivars developed from this project will be used by the growers of farmer’s market vegetables as well as home growers. 

Developing high antioxidant medicinal herb (Oregano and Spearmint) varieties for food safety, preservation and health application
Researchers:  Dr. Kalidas Shetty
Amount requested: $7,135 for one year ($4,318 for second year)

Advancing sustainable agricultural systems requires crop diversification and development of new-emerging specialty crops with multiple applications, which add value to wider food systems in terms of food safety, food processing, preservation, human and animal health improvement, and economic advancement.  Innovative tissue culture-based crop improvement strategies have been developed using species in the family Labiatae (Synonym:  Lamiaceae) to screen high phenolic, high antioxidant varieties.  These crops will be targeted for calu-added applications to enhance crop protection, food safety, food preservation and improving human health.  Therefore the major objectives of this proposal are to use innovative tissue culture-based clonal screening using microbial, anti-metabolites and abiotic stress stimulation to select single seed originating, high phenolic antioxidant-enriched crop phenotypes from diverse ecotypes in the family Labiatae as a value-added crop for North Dakota.  Specific Labiatae species, spearmint (Mentha spicata) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) will be targeted to advance proof of concept to develop new value-added crops with enriched phenolic phytochemicals to enhance crop protection in Northern Plains through inhibition of seed-borne bacterial and fungal pathogens, improving seed vigor and seedling emergence in important local crops (wheat, bean, corn, canola and sugar beet), improving food safety through antioxidant preservation of meat, and potential for improving child and adult health by developing healthy beverages and foods.  The success of these integrated crop value addition strategies will help advance economic and environmental sustainability of agricultural systems in North Dakota and other states of Northern Plains.

Planting dates and mulch effect on sweet corn growth and yield
Researcher: Xinhua Jia
Amount requested: $5,000

The main goal of this study is to determine the advantage of plastic mulch on increasing the market availability of sweet corn earlier in the season in colder climates such as North Dakota.

Cultural Practices Using Selected Grass Secies for Bio-Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Crude Oil
Researcher: Deying Li
Amount requested: $6,151 (year 1 of 2)

Oil and gas industry is very important to the economy of North Dakota.  Despite the low probability, major spills happy occasionally, and result in great damage to oil industry, as well as agricultural industry and the life of local residents.  Direct outcomes of this study include practical guidelines for remediation using selected grasses and soil amendments, and evaluation criterion on soil contaminated with crude oil.  The potential impact of this project is to maintain a sustainable agriculture in the state of North Dakota while satisfying our energy needs, to balance our short term energy practices with long term land productivity, soil health, and ecosystem.

Forage Brassicas as New Crops for North Dakota
Researcher: Marisol Berti
Amount requested: $5,200

The project will be conducted in two environments in North Dakota (Carrington and Prosper).  The main objectives will be to identify the best cultivars (in biomass production) of different brassicas species used as forage full crop and cover crop.  In addition, this project will determine the forage quality of this forage brassicas species.

Operational and Market Analysis of Mechanical Harvesting of Cattails for Biomass in North Dakota
Researcher: Dr. Ganesh C. Bora
Amount requested: $4,135

The objective of this project will be to determine the detachment force needed during harvesting of cattails.  Using this information, a design for the cutter bar for harvesting cattails would be developed.  A study would be done to determine an appropriate vehicle for attachment of the cutter bar.

Funding decisions

The committee members individually ranked the projects 1-3-5 with “1” representing the highest ranked proposals.  The individual rankings were used to determine the overall ranking of each project.  The non-voting members did not participate in the ranking process and exited the meeting.  Dr. Johnson excused himself from the meeting prior to funding decisions being made.

It was moved and seconded to grant negotiated funding as follows:

  1. $5,387.66 to the project titled “Selecting superior juneberry cultivars from North Dakota”
  2. $9,854.66 to the project titled “Selection and Breeding of Vegetable Crops for Local Production”
  3. $10,482.66 to the project titled “Introduction of Raspberry Cultivars for Small Fruit Production in North Dakota”

The motion carried unanimously.

It was moved and seconded to deny funding to the following projects

  1. Developing a Blackberry Production System for North Dakota
  2. Developing high antioxidant medicinal herb (Oregano and Spearmint) varieties for food safety, preservation and health application
  3. Planting dates and mulch effect on sweet corn growth and yield
  4. Cultural Practices Using Selected Grass Species for Bio-Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Crude Oil
  5. Forage Brassicas as New Crops for North Dakota
  6. Operational and market Analysis of Mechanical Harvesting of Cattails for Biomass in North Dakota

There being no further business, the meeting was adjourned.

 

January 5, 2011 Meeting Minutes

State Board of Agricultural Research and Education
New & Emerging Crops Committee Meeting
North Dakota State University, Morrill Hall 5A

The State Board of Agricultural Research and Education’s New & Emerging Crops Granting Committee meeting was called to order at 10 a.m.  Voting members present were Steve Enger, Bob Landman, Holly Mawby and Cal Hoff.  Non-voting members present were Blaine Schatz and Dr. Burton Johnson.  Also present was Lori Capouch.

The meeting began with presentations of the proposals under consideration.

Sweet potato variety selection and date of planting
Researcher: Lorna Bradbury
Amount requested: $4,778 (year 1 of 2)

This project will evaluate several varieties of short season sweet potatoes to determine if they are capable of producing a crop in western North Dakota’s climate. One variety, which has already shown some promise, is Georgia Jet.  That variety will be planted at several different dates in May and June to determine the best time to plant sweet potatoes in western North Dakota.

Camelina variety performance trials in North Dakota
Researcher: Burton Johnson
Amount requested: $4,500 (year 2 of 2)

Camelina is a potential crop that could quickly become an alternative oilseed crop in North Dakota.  Camelina crop performance needs to be determined through research to make production the most successful across the state.  This research will document variety performance at different regions of the state.

Seeding date determination for selected new pulses and grain legumes in North Dakota
Researchers: Burton Johnson
Amount requested: $3,000 (year 1 of 2)

This research will identify optimum seeding date for selected pulses and legumes not commercially grown for production in North Dakota. Determination of proper seeding date for new crops introduced into a growing region is essential for optimizing crop performance and sustainability.

Screening potential new pulses and grain legumes for adaptation in North Dakota
Researchers: Burton Johnson
Amount requested: $3,000 (year 1 of 2)

This research will identify new pulses/grain legumes showing adaptation to North Dakota and the region.  This will have the potential to increase pulse/grain legume diversity and production, and contribute to greater economic return to producers as the state’s pulse industry continues to evolve.

Developing natural herbicide tolerance and resistance in lentil
Researchers:  Kevin McPhee
Amount requested $5,900 (year 1 of 2)

Individual breeding lines of lentil will be selected for tolerance and resistance to herbicides targeting broad leaf weed species. As lentils are broadleaf plants, they are susceptible to many of the most effective chemicals available. Genetic resistance to these chemicals will allow the lentil breeding program to develop varieties that are resistant to these chemicals making them available for application during the lentil growing season.

Utilizing pruning, thinning, and leaf pulling to ripen grapes in North Dakota
Researcher: Harlene Hatterman-Valenti
Amount requested: $9,533 (year 1 of 3)

This project will determine the effects of variable numbers of nodes retained per vine, cluster thinning, and leaf pulling on vine growth, fruit yield and composition, and shoot lignifications for the main cultivar grown by three North Dakota grape growers that are in separate growing degree day regions (base 50) according to 30 year average data by NDAWN.

Development of grape varieties in North Dakota – germplasm collection and evaluation
Researcher: Harlene Hatterman-Valenti & Wenhao Dai
Amount requested: $10,563 (year 2 of 2)

In this project, researchers will evaluate North Dakota native grape germplasm and other introduced grape materials to develop new grape cultivars or breeding materials which are winter hardy, good fruit quality, tolerant to drought and alkaline soil and ideal for grape production in this region. Overall, this project has the potential to increase grape production, which will benefit all North Dakotans and enhance the quality of life in communities and family farms.

Field evaluation of X-disease resistant chokecherry lines for small fruit production in North Dakota
Researcher: Deying Li
Amount requested: $8,188 (year1 of 3)

In this project researchers will select 20 X-disease resistant chokecherry hybrids for field test to confirm the X-disease resistance and to evaluate yield and fruit quality under the field condition. Researchers are expecting to release three to five new chokecherry cultivars in three to five years. Overall, this project has a great potential to increase production of small fruit trees and conserve natural resources, which will benefit all North Dakotans and enhance the quality of life in communities and family farms.

Identification and collection of xeriscape grasses for saline soil in North Dakota
Researcher:  Qi (Chee) Zhang
Amount requested:  $8,720 (year 1 of 2)

Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is the most common turfgrass species use in North Dakota because of its fine leaf texture, dark green color and superior freezing tolerance. It requires frequent irrigation and fertilization to remain functional and maintain its aesthetic qualities under intense use. Furthermore, Kentucky bluegrass is sensitive to drought and saline conditions which are common problems throughout North Dakota. Kentucky bluegrass typically exhibits poor establishment, stunted growth, and leaf chlorosis under stress (e.g., drought, salinity, low fertilization), re-establishment may be necessary under severe conditions. With increasing environmental and economical concerns on turfgrass management, there is interest to identify xeriscape grasses wit h high drought and salt tolerance and low management requirement to replace Kentucky bluegrass for low-maintenance areas, such as low budget residential home lawn, golf course rough, and roadside. Buffalograss, blue grama, alkaligrass, and prairie junegrass are native grasses of the Northern Great Plains which have shown potential to be used as turfgrass. Several turf-type cultivars of the aforementioned native species have been released with finer leaf textures and a higher tolerance of frequent mowing. However limited information is available on the stress tolerance when the aforementioned native species managed under turfgrass condition. Furthermore, no management recommendations have been developed on establishing and managing native grass species as low-input turf. Therefore, researchers are proposing greenhouse and field studies to identify drought and saline tolerant native grasses that can be used in low-input turf management regimes in North Dakota.

Development of a tritipyrum doubled haploid population with durum wheat and Thinoprum distichum genomes
Researcher:  G.F. Marais
Amount requested:  $12,620 (year 1 of 2)

Thinopyrum species are a valuable source of new useful traits for the continued genetic improvement of small grain cereals. These include both simply inherited traits such as resistance to pests that are easier to transfer and complex multigenic traits (such as salt and drought tolerance) that are extremely difficult to transfer,. A very specific genetic mapping population is being developed which will consist of hybrids between cultivated wheat and the wild maritime grass, Th distichum The 42 chromosomes of the hybrids (called tritipyrums) will consist of 28 wheat (genus Triticum) and 14 Thinopyrum chromosomes. The Thinopyrum chromosomes in each tritipyrum line will constitute a balanced set which will, however, be highly diverse in terms of the combinations of alien chromosomes it contain. The purpose of the population will be two-fold: first, to use it as a tool to systematically study, map, access, and transfer the useful genes contained in this grass species. Second, the tritipyrum lines will be evaluated agronomically to determine its merit for further development as a hardy new cultivated crop.

Funding Decisions

The committee held a discussion regarding the proposals.  Due to a conflict of interest, Dr. Johnson excused himself from this portion of the meeting.  Dr. Schatz remained to answer any technical questions and excused himself prior to the committee members’ ranking the projects.

Following the discussion, the voting committee members ranked the proposals to determine priority.

It was moved by Mawby and seconded by Landman to grant negotiated funding as follows:

  1. $4,778 to the project titled “Sweet potato variety selection and date of planting.”
  2. $4,500 to the project titled “Camelina variety performance trials in North Dakota.”
  3. $3,000 to the project titled “Screening potential new pulses and grin legumes for adaptation in North Dakota.”
  4. $10,563 to the project titled “Development of grape varieties in North Dakota – germplasm collection and evaluation.”

The motion carried unanimously.

It was moved by Hoffman and seconded by Landman to grant negotiated funding as follows:

  1. $7,469 to the project titled “Utilization pruning, thinning and leaf pulling to ripen grapes in North Dakota.”
  2. $6,415 to the project titled “Field evaluation of X-diseases resistant chokecherry lines for small fruit production in North Dakota.”

The motion carried unanimously.

There being no further business, the meeting was adjourned.

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