NDSU Extension - Ramsey County

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May 15, 2017

Howdy!!!

 

I am off to the field as I put this column together.  Every spring and fall I usually get a phone call to help in the field and they take care of me very good.  They usually have everything ready when I arrive, usually mid morning, give orders or where and what and leave me alone unless I break down, and you know breakdowns will happen.  Usually not planned and every once in a while carelessness fall into place. 

This past weekend I had the usual experience of running farm equipment and had the same experience as any other year, highway drivers thinking they are in a real big hurry.  I wish people all got a good look at the vehicle on T.V. Sunday night to only see what speed and farm machinery look like after being in a hurry and especially being in a hurry.  These big pieces of equipment cannot always pull over in the spur of the moment due to either culverts, bridges, signs or something else but given the chance will make room for you to pass and besides driving a little slower should not make anyone late other than what happened on Saturday or Sunday.  A young lady passed me on Saturday driving way faster than the speed limit and texting too boot.  REALLY!!!

 

Fertilizer with the Seed

The restrictions on fertilizer rate that can be relatively safe to apply with the seed are based on a combination of salt and urea injury hazard. Both can reduce seed germination when fertilizer is applied with the seed. The table values meant to guide growers are based on pounds N + K2O in the blend. The tables for small grains can be found in circular SF1751 on my website under extension publications. Tables for use in canola and other crops can also be found on my website under the specific crop. The rate is also based in solid-seeded crops on row spacing and the tool that may or may not spread the fertilizer over a band area within the soil at seeding depth. These circulars are free to download and readily accessible to read even with a smart-phone.

My webpage extension publication link is https://www.ndsu.edu/soils/personnel/faculty/dr_david_franzen/extension_publications/

Dave Franzen

NDSU Extension Soil Specialist

Preemergence Herbicides are a Proactive Approach for Weed Management

Agriculturalists frequently advocate for use of preemergent herbicides. You heard state Extension Specialists recommend this in presentations during winter meetings and you have read it in trade magazines while you relax at home. Now it is time to put what you have heard and read into action. However, you are not so sure anymore, for some reason. The following evidence is intended to encourage you to apply herbicides preemergence.

Argument one, there is no rain in the forecast. Answer, it is true, residual soil –applied herbicides must be activated by precipitation to effectively control weeds and factors such as temperature, sunlight, and soil type influence herbicide behavior in soils. However, herbicides can lay on the surface for an extended period and remain affective. Most soil-applied herbicides used by farmers today have a medium or low vapor pressure meaning they generally will not volatilize (evaporate) during warm and dry conditions. Second, these herbicides are bound to soil particles and organic matter (adsorption) and will not move provided the soil does not blow.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Daryl Ritchison, Interim Director of the North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network (NDAWN) summarized climate data from Fargo from 1881 to 2014 and found there was at least 0.25 inches of precipitation on an average once every 10 days in May and once every 7 days in June. Research conducted at the University of Arkansas indicated herbicides remained effective after lying on the soil surface for 14 to 21 days before activating precipitation. They stated the challenge in dry conditions is not degradation of herbicides prior to precipitation, but adequate moisture for weeds to germinate and inadequate precipitation for herbicide activation.

Argument two, I need to finish planting to maximize yield potential. Answer, weeds cost your crop water, nutrients, and yield. Preemergence herbicides increase yield potential by preventing or suppressing early weed competition and reducing weed species mixtures, which can increase the simplicity and effectiveness of postemergence herbicides. Finally, preemergence herbicides results in a narrow distribution of weed sizes and improves consistency of postemergence weed control.

Preemergence herbicides fit in a planned weed management strategy. They often have a unique site of action (SOA) that compliment postemergence herbicides and reduce the onset of weed resistance. Finally, preemergence herbicides protect from the unknown; weather conditions that may not permit the timely application of postemergence herbicides.

 

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