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Equine-assisted Activities and Therapies

Understanding Equine-assisted Activities and Therapies- AS1745

Equine assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) is a broad term used to describe various activities and therapies that incorporate a horse and human in partnership. This publication will introduce the concepts and help define common terminology associated with the industry of EAAT.

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Borreliosis (Lyme disease)

Borreliosis (Lyme disease) - V1694

Borreliosis (Lyme disease) is the most commonly reported vector-borne (insect-transmitted) disease in the U.S. In this country, it is found primarily in the Northeast, upper Midwest and northern California. Boreliosis is caused by a spiral bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, that is found in a variety of reservoir hosts (birds, small and medium-sized mammals). Humans are infected by a tick bite.

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Tick-borne Infections

Tick-borne Infections - V1693

Tick-borne infections are found worldwide. In the upper Midwest, this group of diseases consists primarily of tularemia, borreliosis (Lyme disease), ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) and borreliosis (Borrelia burgdorferi) have been covered in prior publications; therefore, this discussion will focus on ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. These diseases are passed from ticks to wild and domesticated animal reservoir hosts. Humans are infected when bitten by ticks carrying the pathogenic bacteria.

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Strangles

Strangles - V541

Strangles, which also is known as horse distemper, is a highly contagious disease. The disease causes swelling of the lymph nodes under the jaw and immediate isolation of affected horses. Medical treatment varies widely and mid cases will usually resolve without any antibiotic treatment.

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Encephalitis Virus Infections

Encephalitis Virus Infections - V1677

Arboviral infections are zoonotic (transmissible between animals and humans).

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Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis - V1315

Leptospirosis is caused by the bacteria Leptospira interrogans. Leptopira has more than 180 different serovars (subclassifi cations). Each serovar is adapted to a particular species or maintenance host.

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West NIle Fever

West Nile Fever - V1235

West Nile fever, which is caused by the West Nile virus (WNV), is a viral disease seen primarily in birds, horses and people. The virus circulates in nature between mosquito vectors and bird reservoir hosts, with humans and horses as accidental or dead-end hosts.

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Rabies

Rabies-V1220

Rabies is a fatal viral infection. Transmission of rabies almost always occurs by the saliva-laden bite of an infected mammal. Infection through fresh wounds or mucous membranes is less likely but possible. Droplet infection (aerosol) is possible as well, particularly in congregations of cave-dwelling bats where saliva droplets are dispersed in the air.

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