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West NIle Fever

West Nile Fever - V1235

West Nile fever, which is caused by the West Nile virus (WNV), is a viral disease seen primarily in birds, horses and people. The virus circulates in nature between mosquito vectors and bird reservoir hosts, with humans and horses as accidental or dead-end hosts.

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Baylisascariasis

Baylisascariasis - V1227

The raccoon roundworm is known as Baylisascaris procyonis or simply Baylisascaris. Humans can develop severe neurologic and/or ocular disease when they accidentally ingest roundworm eggs that are passed by the raccoon in fecal matter that then contaminates the environment. This typically is the result of fecal contamination of a water or feed source.

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Giardiasis

Giardiasis - V1213

Giardiasis is a protozoal infection of humans and animals primarily in the upper small intestine. It is caused by an organism called Giardia duodenalis. Giardiasis is associated with drinking water from unfiltered surface water sources. The reservoir for the protozoa includes humans and a wide variety of wild and domestic animals. Transmission occurs by fecal contamination of a water source and subsequent hand-to-mouth transfer. It also can be transmitted via contaminated food.

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Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis-V1221

Toxoplasmosis is a disease of humans and animals caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The biology of T. gondii is complicated, but the life cycle of the parasite begins with felids (cats, wild and domestic). Only felids can shed the infective form (oocyst) of the parasite in their fecal material.

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Cryptosporidiosis

Cryptosporidiosis - V1212

Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic infection of human and animal importance. The organism can affect the epithelial cells of the human and animal gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Many different species of animals, including poultry, fish, reptiles, and small and large mammals, can act as reservoirs for and become infected with Crytposporidium spp.

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Campylobacteriosis

Campylobacteriosis - V1211

Campylobacteriosis is a bacterial disease transmissible between humans and animals. The onset of the disease is very rapid, with symptoms that include diarrhea, abdominal pain, malaise, fever, nausea and vomiting. The illness frequently lasts two to fi ve days and usually ends in 10 days.

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Calf Diarrhea (Scours)

Calf Diarrhea (aka Scours) - V1630

Infectious calf scours is found in two forms: those involving excess secretion of fluids and electrolytes from the intestine (such as E. coli K99), and those that have reduced absorption from the intestine into the body (other types of E. coli, Salmonella, rotavirus, coronavirus, etc.).

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Handling Liquid Feed Commodities

Handling Liquid Feed Commodities - AS1272

Liquid feeds are useful for conditioning rations, improving palatability, reducing dustiness and providing nutrients to livestock. Many liquid byproduct materials are available for use in beef cattle rations. In addition, a number of commercial liquid supplement products also are available.

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Feeding Corn to Beef Cattle

Feeding Corn to Beef Cattle - AS1238

Corn commonly is used as a feed grain in beef cattle diets throughout the U.S. However, until recently in many parts of North Dakota and other northern-tier states, feeding corn was less common. With the availability and improvement of shorter-season corn varieties, corn plantings in North Dakota increased nearly five-fold from 1995 to 2012. In 2011, 216 million bushels of corn were produced. This has resulted in more interest in using corn as a feedstuff for beef cattle.

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Rabies

Rabies-V1220

Rabies is a fatal viral infection. Transmission of rabies almost always occurs by the saliva-laden bite of an infected mammal. Infection through fresh wounds or mucous membranes is less likely but possible. Droplet infection (aerosol) is possible as well, particularly in congregations of cave-dwelling bats where saliva droplets are dispersed in the air.

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Feeding Barley to Sheep

Feeding Barley to Sheep - AS1624

Barley is a useful feedstuff for sheep. It contains a similar level of energy and higher level than corn. Barley is an excellent supplement to ewe diets during late gestation and lactation or when forage quality is low. Similarly, barley is a good grain source for lamb finishing; however, better feed management may be needed because it tends to ferment more rapidly than corn.

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Understanding Sheep Estimated Breeding Values

Understanding Sheep Estimated Breeding Values - AS1621

Since sheep were domesticated, shepherds have been trying to select breeding animals that will have progeny that are bigger and better. Most often, the traits selected, such as weaning or fl eece weight, affect the productivity of the flock.

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Johne's Disease in Beef and Dairy Herds

Johne's Disease in Beef and Dairy Herds - V1209

Johne’s (pronounced “yo-knees”) disease is a chronic wasting disease in ruminants caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis. This bacterium is closely related to the bacterium that causes tuberculosis in cattle and humans. H.A. Johne, a German veterinarian, fi rst described this disease in 1895; his name is used as the common name for this disease, also known as paratuberculosis.

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Cyanide Poisoning

Cyanide Poisoning - V1150

Cyanide, prussic acid and hydrocyanic acid are all terms describing the same toxic substance. It is one of the most rapidly acting toxins that affect mammals. Cyanide is a lethal ingredient that has been used in rodent and vermin killers.

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Preparing for a Successful Calving Season

Preparing for a Successful Calving Season Nutrition, Management and Health Programs - AS1207

This publication provides information on: • Cow Nutrition Prior to Calving • Colostrum Management • Calving Season – Vaccinations • Parasite Control • General Management

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Sunflower Meal in Beef Cattle Diets

Sunflower Meal in Beef Cattle Diets - AS1623

Sunflower meal is the fourth largest source of protein supplement used for livestock behind soybean, cottonseed and canola meals (Hesley, 1994). Sunflower meal is the residual product when the oil fraction is removed from the black oil seeds by “crushing,” or more specifically, prepress solvent extraction. The supply of sunflower meal in the U.S. varies by year according to acres and yield of sunflowers harvested, with some seasonal variation in output. Most sunflowers are processed from October through March. Oil sunflowers generally are grown in the Great Plains region of the U.S.

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Drylot Beef Cow/Calf Production

Drylot Beef Cow/Calf Production - AS974

The drylot beef cow/calf enterprise is an alternative management system to traditional pasture or range beef production. Strictly defined, it is feeding confined cow/calf pairs in a feedlot environment during part or all of the traditional summer or fall- winter grazing season. In a practical sense, it means feeding confined cows and calves forages, crop residues and grains that may have more value marketed through cattle than as a cash crop. Many cattlemen manage their cows in drylot during the winter and after calving until pastures are ready.

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