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Whole-grains contain all elements of the kernel-bran, germ and endosperm. The bran and germ contain a variety of health-enhancing components-dietary fiber, phytochemicals, vitamins, trace minerals and small amounts of unsaturated fat. This publication provides the recommended daily amounts, the health benefits and recipes of whole grains.
Based on the type of livestock facility, manure can be handled and stored as a liquid (less than 5 percent dry matter), slurry (5 to 10 percent dry matter) and/or solid (greater than 15 percent dry matter). Figure 1 shows the relative consistency of the various types of manure that common animal species excrete. Depending on manure consistency, manure application equipment and application methods differ significantly.
Feed quality analysis, especially forage testing, involves determining nutrient levels. It is one of the most effective feed and forage management tools to eliminate guesswork and effectively match forage and feed supplies to animal nutrient requirements, design supplemental feeding programs and evaluate forage production. Visual appraisal does not reflect forage nutrient content reliably. Laboratory analysis is the recommended way to determine forage nutrient content and value. Once you have the lab report, understanding the terminology is equally important for interpreting forage nutrient analysis reports effectively. Below are definitions for common components of a nutrient analysis report.
A pleasantly sweet, refreshing milk fl avor is the key to consumer acceptance. Flavor quality starts at the farm. Check the flavor of your milk regularly because milk fl avor can change suddenly if production conditions are altered. For the most effective fl avor evaluation, milk samples should be warmed in the range of 55 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Temperatures below 50 F tend to mask potential off-flavors.
Roughage is the term used to define a feed containing a large percentage of fiber. Forage refers to well-made hays and silage harvested from grass or clovers. While these designations certainly aren’t perfect, the role of roughage is clear: to ensure proper rumen function. Forage plays a signifi cant role as a primary source of roughage. However, forages remain the one feedstuff most likely to be of low quality on the farm.