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There are currently 12 plants on the North Dakota noxious weeds list

Prohibited Noxious Weeds

Absinth wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) Absinth wormwood is a perennial with a sage-like odor. Commonly found in rangeland, CRP and other non-crop areas, it is seldom seen in cultivated cropland. NDSU Extension Bulletin: Absinth Wormwood Control W-838

Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) Control of Canada thistle in North America was first legislated in Vermont in 1795. For over 200 years this weed has spread across the continent and is now considered naturalized. It is a rhizomatous perennial found in cropland, rangeland, CRP and non-crop areas. Exhibiting a wide variety of ecotypes it is extremely adaptable. Flower color ranges from dark purple to pink and even white. NDSU Extension Bulletin: Perennial and Biennial Thistle Control W-799

Diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa Lam.) Diffuse is one of three rapidly spreading knapweed species. Usually described as a short lived perennial it is difficult to differentiate from the other knapweeds in a rosette stage. When flowers are present it is easily identified by the distinct spiny crab-like bracts. NDSU Extension Bulletin: Know Your Knapweeds W-1146

Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) Field bindweed is a perennial vine which is commonly found on roadsides, gardens, and waste areas. Previously a serious cropland weed, herbicides now offer good control of this weed in crops. It is often confused with wild buckwheat but is easily differentiated by the leaf shape. Field bindweed has a rounded leaf tip while wild buckwheat has a sharp point. NDSU Extension Bulletin: Identification and Control of Field Bindweed W-802

leafy spurge bracts and latexLeafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) Considered by many to be the most serious rangeland weed in the state, it spreads rapidly by seeds and rhizomes. The huge root system makes is difficult to control. Several species of flea beetles have proven a very successful  method of biological control in some locations but have been disappointing in other locations.

Although often confused with some goldenrod species it can be easily identified by breaking a stem and observing the characteristic white latex which oozes from any broken leaf or stem. Move your mouse over this photo of the bracts to view a broken stem with latex oozing from the break. Click on the photo for a larger view. NDSU Extension Bulletin:  Leafy Spurge - Identification and Control W-765

Musk thistle (Carduus nutans L) Musk thistle is a robust biennial or winter annual with rosettes reaching a diameter of two feet across and plants reaching heights of nearly six feet or even more. The large flower head is identifiable by large pine cone-like bracts. NDSU Extension Bulletin: Perennial and Biennial Thistle Control W-799

Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) An escaped ornamental, this perennial has spread along many waterways in the state crowding out the native vegetation and seriously affecting wildlife. NDSU Extension Bulletin: Identification and Control of Purple LoosestrifeW-1132

Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens L.) Russian knapweed is a rhizomatous perennial which can be a major problem in cropland, rangeland and waste areas. It can be differentiated from the other knapweeds by the large black roots and the translucent tips on the flower bracts. NDSU Extension Bulletin: Know Your Knapweeds W-1146

Spotted knapweed (C. stoebe spp. micranthos) A biennial or short lived perennial, this knapweed can be identified by the black tips on the flower bracts. NDSU Extension Bulletin: Know Your Knapweeds W-1146

Yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.) This 30 inch tall plant has yellow flowers and 3/4 inch spines on the flower bracts. NDSU Extension Bulletin: Yellow Starthistle-- Identification and Control W-1222

Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria genistifolia ssp. dalmatica L.)  Dalmatian toadflax is a perennial growing up to 3 feet tall. It is an escaped ornamental whose waxy leaves make it difficult to control. NDSU Extension Bulletin: Dalmatian Toadflax and Yellow Toadflax--Identification and Control W-1239

Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) Saltcedar is an escaped ornamental sometimes known as tamarisk. Large plants can use over 200 gallons of water per day. As this water is transpired it leaves salt residue on the leaves. When this residue is washed to the soil surface by rainfall it creates an environment where few other plants can grow. NDSU Extension Bulletin: Saltcedar--Identification and Control W-1223 . ND Dept of Ag: Saltcedar information


New Invasive Weeds

The North Dakota Department of Agriculture has cooperated with several other agencies and groups to develop on online manual relating to new invasive weeds. Some of these are noxious weeds, others are crops which can invade other ecological niches and sites. Still others are plants not currently found in the state but which have the potential to become serious problems. Mapping and control of the weeds listed in this manual may qualify for cost sharing from the ND Dept of Ag

Some counties may have additional problem weeds not currently found in the manual

Common Tansy (Tanacetium vulgare L.) is found in between Bowbells and Lignite in Burke County. Although reportedly present in the area for nearly 50 years it has spread rapidly during the last 10. Previously confined to wetlands and waste areas it is now moving into cropland as many producers change from a system of multiple tillage to minimum or no-till cropping systems. Originally introduced as an ornamental, it is a perennial which spreads through prolific seed production. It is unpalatible to cattle but can be toxic if consumed when little other forage is available. Young plants are often seen as "fern like" when 8 to 12 inches tall but will grow to nearly 4 feet when mature. It flowers in late July and August with clusters of bright yellow flowers at the top of the stems. The Burke County Weed Board has begun spraying this weed as part of their right-of-way program and is considering declaring it a county noxious weed


Identifying New Plants

    An important part of a weed officers job is plant identification. Understanding the terms used by weed scientists and plant biologists to describe and identify a plant is important. This glossary of terms is intended to help you understand plant descriptions and to verbally describe a plant which you are seeking to identify.

Glossary of plant identification terms:

A-B- C-D-E -F-G-H -I-J-K -L-M-N -O-P-Q-R-S -T-U-V-W -X-Y-Z

(Click on any letter to take you to the first term beginning with that letter)

<A>
 
Acute
Sharp-pointed,angle less than 90 degrees
Alternate
Located singly at each node; not opposite or whorled
Annual
Living one year
Anthesis
Flowering, or time when pollination takes place
Apetalous
Without petals
Apex
The tip
Aromatic
Fragrant or having an odor; bearing essential oils
Articulate, articulated
Jointed, with a predetermined point of natural separation
Ascending
Growing obliquely upward (stems); directed obliquely forward in respect to the organ to which they are attached (parts of a plant)
Auricle
Ear-like lobes at the base of leaf blades; lateral appendages at the collar on a grass leaf
Awl-shaped
Narrow and sharp pointed; gradually tapering from a narrow base to a pointed apex;
Awn
A terminal, bristlelike appendage
Axil
An angle formed between two organs (as petiole and stem)

<B>

Bark
Exterior covering of a woody stem or root
Bearded
Bearing long or stiff hairs in a line or tuft, like a barley or durum head
Berry
A pulpy, indehiscent fruit with few to many seeds
Bi-
A Latin prefix meaning two
Biennial
Living for two years
Biological Control
Control or management of a weed species using insects or disease pathogens
Bipinnate
Twice compound, with leaflets arranged on both sides of the axis
Blade
The flattened part of the leaf
Bract
Reduced leaves (frequently associated with the flowers)
Bracteal
Having the form or position of a bract
Bracteate
Having bracts
Bristle
A stiff, slender appendage
Bud
An undeveloped leafy shoot, or an undeveloped flower.
Bulb
An underground bud with fleshy, thick scales
Bulbil, bulblet
A small bulb
Bur
A rough and prickly covering of a fruit

<C>

Callous
Having the texture of a callus
Callus
A hard protuberance 
Capsule
A dry, dehiscent fruit of more than one carpel, usually with more than two seeds
Caulescent
Having a leafy stem
Channeled
Deeply grooved
Cilia
Marginal hairs
Ciliate
Fringed with marginal hairs
Clasping
One organ or tissue partially or totally wrapped around a second. Often refers to the base of the leaves clasping the stem. Some grasses have clasping auricles.
Claw
The long, narrow base of a petal (or sepal)
Cleft
Cut about half-way to the midrib or base, or a little deeper, deeply lobed. There is no sharp distinction between lobed, cleft, and parted, which in general apply to progressively deeper divisions
Clone
A group of individuals of the same genotype, usually propagated vegetatively
Collar
The area on the abaxial side of a leaf at the junction of the blade and sheath
Colony
A group of plants of the same species growing in close association with each other; all members of the group may have originated from a single plant
Colonial
Forming colonies. The term is used chiefly for plants with underground connections between separate aerial stems
Compound
Made up of two or more parts
Compound leaf
A leaf with two or more distinct leaflets
Conspicuous
Obvious; easy to notice
Constricted
Drawn together; appearing to be tightly held
Contiguous
Touching, but not fused; like or unlike parts
Contorted
Bent; twisted
Convolute
Rolled up longitudinally
Copious
An abundance
Cordate
Heart-shaped, with rounded lobes and a sinus at the base

Coriaceous
With a leathery texture
Corm
The fleshy, bulblike base of a stem, usually underground
Corolla
All of the petals considered collectively
Corona
A crownlike structure; appendage between corolla and stamens
Coroniform
Crown-shaped
Cotyledon
The primary leaf of the embryo; seed leaf--Very important for identifying seedlings and young plants
Creeping
Continually spreading; a shoot or horizontal stem that roots at the nodes
Crenate
Toothed with shallow, rounded teeth; scalloped
Crenulate
Finely crenate
Culm
The stem of grass or sedge
Cultural Control
A method of weed control or management usually referring to some method of altering the environment to make it less favorable for the weed. In rangeland it may be altering a grazing program to impact a weed species. In cropland it may be using a specific crop rotation.
Cuneate
Wedge-shaped at the base; triangular with the narrow end at the point of attachment
Curled
Formed in the shape of curves or spirals
Cusp
An abrupt, sharp, often rigid point
Cuspidate
Bearing an elongated, sharp, and firm point at the tip
Cuticle
The waxy layer covering the epidermis of a leaf or stem

<D>

Deciduous
Not persistent; dropping leaves at end of growing season
Delicate
Fine structure or texture
Deltoid, Deltate
Triangular; shaped like the Greek letter delta
Dendritic
Treelike, as in branching
Dense
Crowded
Dentate
With sharp, spreading teeth
Dichotomous
Forked regularly in pairs
Dicotyledons
Flowering plants having two cotyledons, net venation, and flower parts usually in 5s
Diffuse
Widely spreading
Digitate
Compound with members arising from one point; palmately compound
Dilated
Expanded into a blade, as though flattened
Dimorphic
Occurring in two forms
Dioecious
Having staminate and pistillate flowers on different plants
Dissected
Divided into narrow segments
Distinct
Clearly evident; separate; apart
Divaricate
Widely and stiffly divergent
Divergent
Widely spreading
Diverging
Spreading broadly, less so than divaricate
Divided
Separated or cut into distinct parts by inclusions extending to near the base or midrib
Dormancy
An inactive state; period during which plants are not active, such as in winter
Dorsal
Referring to the back or outer surface of an organ; the lower surface of a leaf
Downy
With soft, fine pubescence
Dull
Lacking brilliance or luster; not shiny

<E>

Ecotype
A population within a species or variety adapted to a particular habitat or set of similar habitats
Elliptic, ellipsoid
Oval in shape, widest at middle and tapering equally to both rounded ends
Elongate
Narrow, the length many times the width or thickness
Emarginate
Having a shallow notch at the tip
Embryo
The rudimentary plant in the seed
Endemic
Confined to a particular geographic area
Ensiform
Sword-shaped
Entire
Whole; with a continuous margin
Enveloped
Enclosed within
Estipulate, exstipulate
Lacking stipules
Even-pinnate
Pinnately compound, but lacking a terminal leaflet, so that typically there is an even number of leaflets. (Compare odd-pinnate)
Evergreen
Woody plants that retain their leaves throughout the year
Exceeding
Greater than; larger than
Exocarp
The outer layer of the pericarp (fruit wall)
Exposed
Open to view

<F>

Faint
Lacking distinctness
Falcate
Sickle-shaped
Fall
Outer, spreading and often recurved, bearded perianth segment in Iris
Feathery
Having the texture or appearance of feathers
Felty
Closely matted with intertwining hairs; having the texture or appearance of felt
Fern
A vascular plant with highly divided, delicate leaves
Ferrugineous
Rust colored
Fertile
Capable of producing fruit; does not refer to stamen presence or absence in grasses
Fibrous
Resembling or composed of fibers
Filamentous, filamentose
Composed of filaments or threads
Filiform
Long and very slender, threadlike
Firm
Hard; resisting distortion when pressure is applied; indurate
Fissure
A deep groove
Fistulose, fistulous
Hollow, lacking pith, especially if somewhat inflated
Fleshy
Pulpy; succulent
Floret
Small flower of dense inflorescence
Floriferous
Bearing flowers
Foliaceous
Leaflike
Foliolate
Having leaflets
Foliose
Bearing numerous leaves
Forb
Herbaceous plants other than grasses and grass-like plants
Fragrant
Having a sweet or delicate odor
Fringed
Having a border consisting of hairs or other structures
Frond
The leaf of a fern
Fruit
Ripened ovary (pistil); the seed bearing organ
Funnelform
Shaped like a funnel
Furcate
Forked; often in combining forms, e.g., trifurcate, three-forked
Furrowed
Bearing longitudinal grooves or channels; sulcate

<G>

Glabrous
Smooth and not hairy
Glaucous
Covered with a whitish waxy bloom that rubs off easily.
Glume
A small, chaffy bract; a sterile bract at the base of grass spikelet
Glutinous
Provided with a firm, somewhat sticky covering or component
Grain
General term for the fruit of grass, a dry, indehiscent, 1-seeded fruit in which seed and pericarp are fused
Granulate
Covered with minute, grainlike particles
Grass
Monocotyledonous herbaceous plants of the family Poaceae (Gramineae family)
Grass-like
Herbaceous plants similar in appearance to grasses such as sedges and rushes
Graze
To consume growing and/or standing grass or forb herbage to place animals on pastures to enable them to consume the herbage

<H>

Habit
The general appearance of a plant
Habitat
The environmental conditions or kind of place in which a plant grows
Halophyte
A plant adapted to growth in salty soil
Harsh
A texture disagreeable to the touch; rough; unpleasant
Herb
A plant lacking persistent woody parts aboveground
Herbage
The green vegetative parts of a plant
Herbaceous
Having the character of a herb
Heteromorphic
Of two or more distinct forms or types
Hirsute
Having coarse or stiff, long hairs
Hispid
Having bristly or rigid hairs
Hoary
Covered with a fine white or grayish pubescence
Hooked
Curved or bent like a hook
Husk
The outer covering of some fruits (e.g., Physalis)
Hyaline
Translucent or colorless
Hydrophyte
A plant adapted to life in the water
Hypo-
Greek prefix, meaning beneath

<I>

Incised
Rather deeply and sharply (and often irregularly) cut
Included
Contained within an envelope, projecting beyond it; opposite of exserted
Incomplete flower
A flower that lacks one or more of the kinds of structures found in a complete flower, q.v.
Inconspicuous
Not easily seen; not evident
Indehiscent
Not dehiscent, remaining closed at maturity
Indeterminate inflorescence
An inflorescence that blooms from the base upwards, so that theoretically it could continue to elongate indefinitely (Compare determinate inflorescence)
Indurate
Hard
Inflated
Puffed up; bladdery
Inflorescence
A flower-cluster of a plant; the arrangement of the flowers on the axis
 
 
IPM - Integrated Pest Management
A method of control pests considering a variety of control methods and selecting the method or combination of methods which is the most environmentally and financially sound
Intermingled
Intermixed; mixed together
Internode
The part of a stem between two successive nodes
Introduced
Not native to North America
Irregular flower
A flower in which the petals (or less often the sepals) are dissimilar in form or orientation

<J>

Jointed
Possessing nodes or articulations

<K>

Keel
A central dorsal ridge; the two united front petals of a flower (Fabaceae)

<K>

Lacustrine
Pertaining to or growing around lakes
Laminar
Thin and flat, as in a leaf-blade; pertaining to the leaf-surface, as opposed to the margins
Lanate
Woolly, with intertwined, curly hairs
Lance-linear
Shaped like a narrow lance
Lanceolate
Lance-shaped; much longer than broad, widest near the base and tapering to the apex

Lanuginous
Wooly
Lateral
Belonging to or borne on the side
Latex
A colorless to more often white, yellow, or reddish liquid, produced by some plants
Leaf types
Leaves can be simple or compound. Compound leaf types are divided into palmately compound and pinnately compound
Leaflet
One part (blade) of a compound leaf
Legume
A bilaterally symmetrical fruit produced from a unilocular ovary, dehiscing into two valves, with seeds attached along with ventral suture (Fabaceae)
Ligneous
Woody
Ligule
A strap-shaped limb or body
Limber
Flexible; supple
Linear
Long and narrow with sides more or less parallel
Lingulate
Tongue-shaped
Lobate
Having lobes
Lobe
A partial division of an organ, especially if rounded
Loose
Not arranged tightly together
Lunate
Crescent-shaped

<M>

Macro-
Latin prefix, equivalent to Greek mega-, q.v.
Maculate
Mottled or blotched
Marcescent
Withering, but persistent on the plant
Margin
An edge; border
Marginal placenta
A placenta along the suture of the ovary of a simple pistil (Compare parietal placenta)
Maritime
Pertaining to the ocean or the seacost; growing near the ocean, under the influence of salt water
Marsh
An area of wet soil; a swamp
Mat
A tangled mass of plants growing close to the soil surface and generally rooting at the nodes
Median
Pertaining to the middle
Mega-
A Greek prefix meaning large
Megaspore
A spore that gives rise to a female gametophyte. Megaspores are usually much larger than corresponding microspores, which give rise to male gametophytes (Compare microspore)
Megasporophyll
A sporophyll that bears or subtends one or more megasporangia
Membranaceous, membranous
Thin, pliable, more or less translucent
Mericarp
A portion of a dry dehiscent fruit that splits away as if separate (Apiaceae)
Meristem
Undifferentiated tissue, capable of developing into various organs
Merous
A Greek suffix referring to the number of parts
Mesic
Characterized by moderately moist conditions; neither dry nor wet
Mesocarp
The middle layer of the fruit wall
Mesophyte
A plant adapted to growth under ordinary moisture conditions; intermediate between hydrophyte and xerophyte
Micro-
A Greek prefix meaning small
Micropyle
The opening between integuments into an ovule
Midnerve, Midrib, Midvein
The central or principal vein of a leaf or bract
Minute
Very small, nearly microscopic
Mixed inflorescence
An inflorescence with cymose and racemose components, the sequence of flowering neither strictly determinate nor strictly indeterminate
Mixed panicle
An inflorescence of paniculate appearance, but of mixed cymose and racemose components
Monadelphous
Stamens with their filaments united into one group
Moniliform
Constricted at regular intervals, resembling a string of beads
Mono-
A Greek prefix meaning one
Monocarpic
Blooming only once and then dying; usually applied only to perennials
Monocotyledons
Flowering plants having one cotyledon, parallel venation and flower parts usually in 3s
Monoecious
Having staminate and pistillate flowers on the same plant
Mottled
Marked with spots or blotches
Mucilaginous
Slimy

<N>

Naked
Uncovered; lacking pubescence; lacking enveloping structures
Napiform
Turnip-shaped (roots)
Native
Occurring in North America before settlement by European man
Naturalized
Thoroughly established, but originally coming from another area
Nerve
A simple vein or rib
Nodding
Inclined somewhat from the vertical; drooping
Node
The place on the stem where a leaf is borne
Nodose
Knobby, used especially in describing roots
Nut
An indehiscent, hard, 1-seeded fruit
Nutlet
A small nut

<O>

Obcordate
Inversely cordate or heart-shaped with the attachment at the narrow end
Obdeltoid
Inversely triangular-shaped with the attachment at point of the narrow angle rather than the side
Oblanceolate
Lanceolate with broadest part above the middle and tapering toward the base
Oblate
Flattened at the poles
Oblique
Slanting
Oblong
Longer than broad, with sides nearly parallel
Obovate, obovoid
Egg-shaped, with broader part toward the tip

Obscure
Inconspicuous; not easily seen
Obtuse
Rounded, blunt
Odd-pinnate
Pinnately compound and with a terminal leaflet, so that typically there is an odd number of leaflets. (Compare even-pinnate)
Opposite
Arranged two at each node, on opposite sides of the axis
Orifice
An opening
Ornamental
A plant cultivated for its beauty rather than for agronomic use
Oval
Broadly elliptical
Ovate, ovoid
Egg-shaped with the broader part near the base
Overlap
To extend over and cover part of an adjacent structure
Ovoid
Shaped like a hen's egg. (Term applied to solid objects; compare ovoid, abovate)

<P>

Pale
Not bright; deficient in color
Palmate
Divided in a palmlike or handlike manner (see leaf types)
Papery
Having the texture of writing paper
Parallel-veined
With several or many more or less parallel main veins, the network of smaller veins not obvious. (Compare net-veined)
Pedicel
The stalk of a single flower
Pedicellate, Pedicelled
Borne on a pedicel
Peduncle
The stalk of a flower cluster or of one flower when it is the only member of an inflorescence
Pedunculate
Borne on a peduncle
Pendent, pendulous
Hanging down
Perennial
Lasting several years
Petal
One division of the corolla
Petiole
The stalk of a leaf
Petiolule
The stalk of a leaflet of a compound leaf
Pinnate
Compound leaf with leaflets arranged on both sides of the axis; odd-pinnate if terminal leaflet is present, even-pinnate if terminal leaflet is absent (see leaf types)
Pit
A small depression in a surface
Pith
The soft, spongy center of a stem
Plume
An arrangement of hairs that resembles a feather
Pod
A dry, dehiscent fruit
Polymorphic
Occurring in several different forms
Prehensile
Clasping
Primary branch
Arising directly from the main inflorescence axis
Prominent
Readily noticeable; projecting out beyond the surface
Prostrate
Lying flat on the ground
Proximal
Toward or at the base or the near end (Compare distal)
Pseudo-
A Greek prefix meaning false
Pubescent
Covered with short, soft, downy hairs; a general term for any kind of hairiness
Pustular, pustulate, pustulose
With little blisters or pustules
Pyramidal
Shaped like a pyramid

<R>

Radiate
Spreading from a common center; in Asteraceae, a head with disk florets in center and a whorl of ray florets around the edge
Radiating
Spreading from a common center
Radical
Pertaining to the root; radical leaves are basal leaves that seem to arise from the root-crown
Ray
Outer floret of Asteraceae, often confused with flower petals. (Ray flowers of sunflower heads are an example.
Recumbent
Leaning or reclining
Reduced
Smaller than normal; not functional
Regular
Uniform or symmetrical in shape; actinomorphic
Resinous
Producing or containing resin
Rhizomatous
Possesing a rhizome
Rhizome
An underground stem, usually lateral and rooting at the nodes
Rib
One of the main longitudinal veins of a leaf or other organ
Rigid
Firm; not flexible
Riparian
Pertaining to or growing along stream-banks
Robust
Healthy; full-sized
Rootstock
Underground stem; rhizome
Rosette
A cluster of organs arranged in a compact circle, usually referring to the leaves of a plant prior to the development of the stem or bolting stage
Rough
Not smooth; surface marked by unevenness
Rudiment
Imperfectly developed organ or part, usually non-functional
Rudimentary
Underdeveloped

<S>

Sac
A pouch or bag-like cavity
Sagittate
Shaped like an arrowhead, with basal lobes pointing downward
Saline
A nonsodic soil containing sufficient soluble salts to impair its productivity
Scabrous
Rough; feeling rough to the touch
Scale
Any thin, dry, structure (usually leaf or bract)
Scaly
Having scales
Scar
A mark on the stem where a leaf, bud, flower, or fruit was formerly attached
Semi-
A Latin prefix meaning half
Senescent
Ageing or aged
Seriate
Arranged in a series of rows
Sessile
Without a stalk
Sheath
 the portion of a grass leaf that surrounds the stem
Shiny
Lustrous; possessing a sheen
Shrub
A low-growing woody plant; bush with one too many trunks
Silvery
Lustrous and gray or white; having the luster of silver
Simple
Not compound or not branched
Sinuate, sinuous
With margin strongly wavy
Sod-forming
Creating a dense mat with interwoven root systems
Solitary
Alone; one by itself
Sparse
Scattered; opposite of dense
Spatulate
Spoon-shaped
Species
The smallest groups that are consistently and persistently distinct, and distinguishable by ordinary means
Spike
A simple, elongated inflorescence with sessile flowers
Spikelet
A small or secondary spike
Spine
A sharp, rigid, outgrowth, usually from the wood of a stem
Spiniferous, spinose
Having spines
Spore
An asexual reproductive body capable of developing a new individual
Sprout
The young shoot of a plant; especially the first from a root or a germinating seed
Spur
A hollow, tubular projection from a petal or sepal, usually containing nectar
Stellate
Star-shaped
Sterile
Without functional pistils and thus not producing fruit, may or may not bear stamens
Sticky
Covered with an adhesive-like substance
Stiff
Not easily bent; rigid
Stipulate
Provided with stipules
Stipule
An appendage at the base of a petiole, usually in pairs
Stolon
A horizontal stem that roots at the tip or at the nodes; runner
Stoloniferous
Bearing stolons
Sturdy, strong, rigid
Striate
Marked with slender, longitudinal grooves or lines; appearing striped
Succulent
Fleshy, juicy
Symbiosis
A close physical association between two different kinds of organisms, typically with benefit to both
Symmetrical
Regular in number and size of parts

<T>

Tapering
Gradually narrowing toward one end
Taproot
A primary descending root
Taxonomy
A study aimed at producing a system of classification of organisms that best reflects the totality of their similarities and differences; a classification produced by such a study
Teeth
Pointed lobes or divisions
Tendril
A slender, twisting organ by which a plant clings to a support
Thorn
A stiff, woody, modified stem with a sharp point; more loosely, any structure that resembles a true thorn. (Compare prickle, spine)
Tiller
A shoot from an adventitious bud at the base of a plant
Tooth
A pointed projection or division
Translucent
Semitransparent; transmitting light rays only partially
Transpiration
The emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants
Transverse
At right angles to the long axis; crosswise; in cross-section
Triangular
Having three angles and three sides
Trifoliate
Having three leaflets, such as Medicago polymorpha
Trifurcate
Forked into 3 parts
Trunk
The main stem of a tree or shrub
Tuber
A thick, short branch, usually subterranean, with numerous buds (potato)
Tuberiferous
Bearing tubers
Tuberous
Thickened like a tuber
Tubular
Having the shape of a tube, such as the corolla of some flowers
Tuft
Cluster; bunch
Twig
A small branch of a tree or shrub

<U>

Umbel
A flat-topped or rounded inflorescence in which pedicels or peduncles arise from a common point (Apiaceae)
Umbellate
Resembling an umbel
Undulate
Unevenly wavy on the surface or margin
United
Fused together

<V>

Vein
A thread of fibrovascular tissue in a leaf
Vegetative
A plant growths showing no development of flower buds
Venation
The pattern of veins
Ventral
the upper surface of a leaf
Vernal
Appearing in the spring
Viscid
Sticky

<W>

Wavy
With small, regular lobes on the margin; undulating surface or margin
Whorl
Arranged
Wing
A thin, membranaceous extension of an organ; the lateral petal of a Fabaceae flower
Winter Annual
A plant which starts its life cycle in the fall, lies dormant over winter and completes its life cycle the following year
Withered
Appearing shriveled and shrunken
Wooly
Having curly, soft hairs, usually matted; lanate
Wrinkle
With small ridges and/or furrows on a surface

<X>

Xerophyte
A plant adapted to a dry habitat

For additional information about this page contact course author Dan Folske, NDSU Extension Service/Burke County