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Emerald Ash Borer - Treatments

Tree injection system
Tree injection system
Since EAB was discovered in the U.S., researchers have focused much of their efforts towards finding effective control treatments.  Experimental results are variable – some treatments are highly effective, but others are less so.  The latest research results can be found in the 2nd edition of ‘Insecticide Options for Protecting Ash Trees from Emerald Ash Borer’: http://www.emeraldashborer.info/files/multistate_EAB_Insecticide_Fact_Sheet.pdf.  A summary is listed below. Note that new research results are coming out all the time, so recommendations may change is the future. As always, follow all pesticide label directions carefully.  

Spray-type treatments with traditional broad-spectrum insecticides have been the least effective at controlling EAB. Quite simply, EAB adults can be active through most of the summer, and the insecticides didn’t last long enough to provide enough control. Additionally, obtaining a thorough spray coverage is very difficult, especially with larger trees.

Systemic chemicals, those that move within the tree, have proven more effective. Those with the active ingredients ‘imidacloprid’ and ‘dinotefuran’ have been researched extensively and are available in multiple formulations. Some formulations can be applied as a soil drench, a soil injection, a granular product applied to the soil surface, a bark-penetrating spray, or a stem injection (professionals only). These chemicals move through the tree to the tissues that EAB feed on. Control is not 100%, but these pesticides do a very good job of reducing the number of EAB larvae feeding beneath the bark.

The most effective insecticide treatment by far has been stem injections with the active ingredient ‘emamectin benzoate’. Test results have shown that this product provides better than 99% control of EAB larvae – and that level of protection lasts for at least two years. Many communities in the Midwest have found that a combination of insecticide treatments, along with timely removal of low-value trees, is incredibly useful in managing the ash trees in their urban forests.

Additional information about EAB is available from the ND Department of Agriculture at: http://www.nd.gov/ndda/pest/emerald-ash-borer-eab.  For more information about tree pests such as Dutch elm disease, gypsy moth, and others, please visit the ND Invasives website at: http://www.ndinvasives.org/.  

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Emerald Ash Borer - Diversity/Replacement Trees

Diverse tree planting
Diverse tree planting
Many years ago, American elm was the most common tree species planted in urban areas of the Great Plains. In some areas, it was the only tree species. Then, Dutch elm disease came and wiped out the tree canopy. People searched for a new species to replace the elms, and they came up with green ash – a tall, fast-growing tree that is tough enough to handle the urban environment. Again, people relied on a single tree species and green ash was overplanted. With the approach of emerald ash borer, the importance of diversity in tree plantings cannot be overstated.

Many species of tall deciduous trees are available for conservation plantings as well as in urban areas. (Some, such as cottonwood or boxelder are probably better suited to conservation plantings.) The ND Tree Selector (http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/tree-selector/) is an online tool that helps users choose tree and shrub species based on a variety of characteristics. Are you looking for something that is fast growing? Or a tree that is long-lived? Perhaps a species with pretty flowers?  The ND Tree Selector can help you find species to consider for your next planting.

And don’t forget to visit with your local professionals – city foresters, nursery owners and many others who have been planting trees for years can make recommendations about which species will do well – and those that won’t! 

Additional information about EAB is available from the ND Department of Agriculture at: http://www.nd.gov/ndda/pest/emerald-ash-borer-eab.  For more information about tree pests such as Dutch elm disease, gypsy moth, and others, please visit the ND Invasives website at: http://www.ndinvasives.org/

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Emerald Ash Borer - Value/Cost

Ash - not EAB - needs removal
A structurally unsound ash tree in Fargo that should be removed. Given its location, it will be expensive to remove.

The financial impact of EAB is incredible. Direct costs include tree removals (don’t forget stump grinding) and planting replacement trees. For those people who want to save specific ash trees, stem injections with the chemical ‘emamectin benzoate’ have been extremely effective – but they’re definitely not free. Indirect costs are also large – losing a prime shade tree can result in an increase in electric bills by more than 25%. That loss of shade has also resulted in an increase in water bills, as exposed lawns have needed additional irrigation. Property values have decreased in some communities as the overall tree cover has declined. One study even found an increase in heart and respiratory diseases in those areas that have been hardest-hit by EAB.

Many North Dakota communities’ urban forests are comprised of more than 50% ash trees. In one study of four North Dakota small towns, the cost of removal-and-replacement was estimated from $22,000 to more than $163,000; that study was completed 5 years ago and costs increase every year. Insecticide injections provide an alternative to removals-and-replacements, and may be a cost-effective option for managing the urban forest. The EAB Cost Calculator from Purdue University allows users to compare the costs of different management alternatives: http://extension.entm.purdue.edu/treecomputer/index.php.

Technical and financial assistance for developing community-level management plans is available from the ND Forest Service. Contact Gerri Makay at , 701-652-2951). 

Additional information about EAB is available from the ND Department of Agriculture at: http://www.nd.gov/ndda/pest/emerald-ash-borer-eab.  For more information about tree pests such as Dutch elm disease, gypsy moth, and others, please visit the ND Invasives website at: http://www.ndinvasives.org/

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Emerald Ash Borer - Firewood

EAB (Emerald Ash Borer) is moved long distances in firewood and other materials. We urge people to "Burn it where you buy it" and "Don't move firewood."

Campground managers, foresters and many others are encouraging their clients “Don’t move firewood” this summer and throughout the year. Movement of infested firewood has been one of the main methods of long-distance dispersal of emerald ash borer (EAB). The legal regulations regarding firewood movement can be rather confusing, with some examples listed below. In order to avoid the hassle, simply “Burn it where you buy it.”

A federal quarantine is in place around all of the known EAB-infested areas of the U.S.  Moving firewood and other ash products out of the quarantine area is illegal unless very specific, highly detailed rules are followed.

  • ND Forest Service – prohibits out-of-state firewood at their campgrounds, but they will provide a free bundle of firewood for each paid campsite.  Additional firewood is available for $3.00 per bundle.
  • US Army Corps of Engineers – at campgrounds in North Dakota, firewood must originate within 100 miles of the campground, unless it has been officially certified as pest-free.
  • MN Department of Natural Resources – in Minnesota, “it is against the law to bring unapproved firewood into any state park, state forest or day-use area.” In these locations, firewood must be purchased from a DNR approved firewood vendor. For more information go to: http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/firewood/index.html.

 

Firewood Alert - flier developed by ND Forest Service.  Urging all campers and others, "Don't move firewood", and "Burn it where you buy it."



 



 

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Emerald Ash Borer - Signs/Symptoms

We need to understand what to look for when determining whether or not a tree has been attacked by emerald ash borer.

Emerald ash borer galleriesThe signs and symptoms of EAB are varied: dieback of the branches in the crown, new branches sprouting from the stem, D-shaped exit holes from the adult insects.  And each one of these can be caused by something other than EAB.  Correct diagnosis and confirmation of the true cause of problems in ash trees is difficult but it’s critically important – treating for the wrong problem is a waste of time and money.  At the other extreme, missing an opportunity to treat a problem is equally as bad.  The first step in determining if EAB is killing a tree is to confirm that it is actually an ash – http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/plantsci/trees/f1633.pdf.  For more information on the actual signs and symptoms of EAB, go to: http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/plantsci/pests/e1634.pdf.

EAB is tricky to diagnose for those who are not been trained.  If you think that your ash tree has Emerald ash borer, please contact one of the following people.

Lezlee Johnson, ND Forest Service – lezlee.johnson@ndsu.edu, 701-231-5138

Joe Zeleznik, NDSU Extension Service – joseph.zeleznik@ndsu.edu, 701-231-8143

Charles Elhard, ND Department of Agriculture – celhard@nd.gov, 701-239-7295

Additional information about EAB is available from the ND Department of Agriculture at: http://www.nd.gov/ndda/pest/emerald-ash-borer-eab.  For more information about tree pests such as Dutch elm disease, gypsy moth, and others, please visit the ND Invasives website at: http://www.ndinvasives.org/.  

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Emerald Ash Borer - Overview/Background

Greater awareness of emerald ash borer will reduce any damage it may cause in the future.

No EAB

Emerald ash borer (EAB) was introduced to the Detroit, Michigan, area in the mid-1990s.  Since then, it has spread outward in an ever-expanding infestation.  EAB is not a strong flier, so long-distance travel has been through people – movement of infested firewood, wood products and nursery stock.  One big lesson that we’ve learned is ‘Don’t Move Firewood’, or ‘Buy it where you burn it’: http://www.dontmovefirewood.org/.  For the latest map showing the current location of EAB, go to: http://www.emeraldashborer.info/files/MultiState_EABpos.pdf

EAB attacks all ash (genus Fraxinus) species that are native to the U.S.  [It does not attack mountain-ash trees, as they are not true ash species, but instead are in the genus Sorbus.]  EAB has a major impact on those communities with a heavy reliance on ash.   In North Dakota, many communities’ urban forests are comprised of more than 50% green ash; in some towns that figure approaches 80%.  The importance of diversification can’t be stressed enough.  For more information on trees that are adapted to North Dakota, see the ND Tree Selector at: http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/tree-selector/

Additional information about EAB is available from the ND Department of Agriculture at: http://www.nd.gov/ndda/pest/emerald-ash-borer-eab.  For more information about tree pests such as Dutch elm disease, gypsy moth, and others, please visit the ND Invasives website at: http://www.ndinvasives.org/

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Rejuvenate Your Old Apple Tree

Now is a great time to prune your old apple tree. Pruning will lead to a healthier tree and higher quality apples.

Cascading branches of a old apple orchard Pruning an old, overgrown apple treeMost apple trees in North Dakota are grown in backyards, not orchards. These trees provide colorful flowers in spring, shade in summer, and a few nice fruits in autumn. That's all nice—but we can do better.

Now is the time to rejuvenate your old apple tree. Prune it!

PRUNE NOW. Late winter is the best time to prune for several reasons: First, the tree is dormant and will suffer less shock. Second, pruning in late winter minimizes the exposure of wounded tissues to the ravages of winter. Third, diseases are less active in winter and you are less likely to spread diseases on your pruning tools. Wound dressings are not needed when pruning in the dormant season.

REDUCE HEIGHT. This will make the tree easier to manage and the apples easier to harvest. Old trees can be pruned into an umbrella shape, with branches cascading in all directions from the main trunk, not allowing tree height to exceed 12 feet (see photo of the old orchard at top right).

DEVELOP A STRONG FRAMEWORK. The most vigorous branches will have glossy bark (not old, scaly bark). The sturdiest branches will have an angle of 60-degrees from the trunk. Using the face of a clock as our guide, the strongest, most productive branches will be at angles of 2 and 10 o’clock. Vertical branches are not fruitful and their narrow crotches are weak. Horizontal branches struggle to support a heavy fruit load.

Trim just above these vigorous, sturdy branches. This will bring the tree down to size (see BEFORE/AFTER figure at right).

REMOVE CLUTTER. Remove water sprouts (vertical, pencil-thick, unfruitful branches). Remove broken branches, branches that rub one another, and inward facing branches.

We want to get more sunlight and air movement in the tree. This will improve fruit color and reduce humidity that promotes diseases in the canopy.

BE PATIENT. To avoid sunscald damage and shocking the tree, avoid removing more than 25 percent of the tree’s wood at any one time. It’s best to give yourself at least two years to rejuvenate the tree.

BE REALISTIC. Apple trees age like people do. We can live 100 years, but we reach our prime at around 25 years. Pruning an old tree will lead to higher yields and much better quality fruit, but your tree is still old. It’s nice to have a tree with character and charm in the backyard, but it doesn’t hurt to have a young and productive tree nearby. Spring is the best season for planting.

Written by Tom Kalb, Extension Horticulturist, North Dakota State University. Photo courtesy of Mark Shirley.

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Trees and Shrubs

Featured Stories, Publications and Videos

Pink Pearls Coralberry

The introduction of improved cultivars has made coralberry a new and showy addition to home landscapes. Its pink pearls are swelling and blushing now. If you are looking for a unique plant that stands out in winter landscapes and holiday displays, consider growing coralberry. 
Read more

 

Planting Trees in Fall Planting a tree

Spring is usually the best time to plant trees but fall can be a good time as well. Nurseries may offer substantial discounts. This article provides guidelines on when and how to plant trees during fall. 
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Gold Rush Taylor's Sunburst lodgepole pine

Nurseries have discovered an amazing array of golden conifers. Some of these plants sparkle in spring, some in winter, and some all year round! These colorful conifers are one of the hottest trends in landscaping today.
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Handy Tech for Watering TreesWatering bag on tree

Many communities have started using watering bags to help their young trees cope with the drought. These communities have turned to this technology to reduce their labor costs while at the same time effectively irrigating trees.
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Japanese Beetle AlertJapanese beetle skeletonizing leaf.

Japanese beetle is one of the most destructive insects in yards and gardens. An estimated 5,000 beetle-infested nursery plants entered North Dakota since March. It’s possible that a new outbreak of this pest will soon emerge in North Dakota.
Read more


EAB logoEmerald Ash Borer Awareness 

Emerald ash borer is destroying ash trees throughout the eastern part of North America. This pest is slowly getting closer to North Dakota, with the closest known infestation in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metro area (March 2012). In these articles we focus on the pest and how to prevent its harmful impacts in North Dakota.

Overview/BackgroundSigns/Symptoms; FirewoodValue/CostDiversity/Replacement TreesTreatments

 

Diagnosing Spruce DisordersDiagnosing spruce disorders 

Spruces suffer from a number of insect, disease and environmental problems. Learn how to recognize and manage these issues.
Watch video; Download publication

    

Birch in the Landscape: The Good, the Bad and the UglyBirch bark

Learn which type of birch to plant, where to plant it in your yard, and how to keep the tree healthy.
Download video and its presentation summary

 

Landscaping in Salty SoilsBuffaloberry 

Plants struggle in saline soils. Salts burn plant roots and contribute to poor aeration and poor drainage. Select plants that tolerate this harsh environment, irrigate deeply, mulch plants, and improve soil structure with additions of organic matter.
Read more

  

Mulch MadnessShredded bark mulch around tree 

Do you enjoy torturing plants? If yes, get some rock mulch and place it around your plants. A rocky bed may look good to us, but plants suffer in this environment. Use shredded bark (or wood chips) instead. This organic mulch is better for many reasons.
Read more

 

Trees in ShockLeaf scorch 

When a tree is dug for transplanting, it can lose 95 percent of its root system. That’s shocking! Learn how to care for your newly planted trees and reduce transplanting shock. Mulch your trees and irrigate regularly.
Read more

  

American elmOur State Tree is Making a Comeback

There has been major progress in the development of elms that resist Dutch elm disease. This includes Prairie Expedition elm from NDSU. New cultivars and improved strategies in managing Dutch Elm Disease have made elm one of the finest trees for North Dakota landscapes.
Read more 

 
Tree Diagnostic Series

Iron chlorosis

This series of 23 cards will help you diagnose common tree disorders in North Dakota. The cards contain diagnostic photos, host range, symptoms and signs, and management tips. 
Download publication

  

Planting treesPlanting Trees and Shrubs

This publication provides information on selecting trees and shrubs from nurseries. Step-by-step instructions on planting bare-root, balled-and burlapped, and potted plants are included.  
Download publication
Download video 

Katsura treeWoody Plant Diversity in Landscapes

Learn why diversity is needed in landscapes and what we can do about it. We’ll discuss issues with monocultures and then give suggestions on underutilized trees and shrubs.
Download video 

  

Norway spruce conesConifers for North Dakota

Conifers, often called evergreens, provide year-round beauty, privacy, and shelter from winds. Learn how to select the best type and cultivar.
Download video 

Additional Publications and Videos


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Basic Guidelines for Pruning Trees and Shrubs 

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Dutch Elm Disease in North Dakota: A New Look

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The Old and the New: Two Needle Diseases of Spruce in North Dakota

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Emerald Ash Borer Biology and Integrated Pest Management in North Dakota

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Ash Tree Identification

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Managing Apple Scab in North Dakota Crabapples

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Integrated Pest Management of Japanese Beetle in North Dakota

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The Root of Tree Health: Beneficial Fungi

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Helping Flooded Trees and Shrubs

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Flood Recovery Guide for Infrastructure in Green Communities

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The Selection and Protection of Fresh-Cut Christmas Trees

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Composting Practices

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Garden Journal

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Horticulture in North Dakota: Seasonal Tidbits and Tips

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Fall Care and Clean-Up of the Garden and Landscape

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Barkophiles: Why We Love Bark

Photos were made available under Creative Commons licenses specified by the photographers: Aberdeen Proving Ground; Greg Morgenson, NDSU; Angela de Março; Michael Katovich, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org; R.W. Smith, Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center; Julia Adamson; Tom Kalb; Karla Ryan; ;Dendroica cerulea; Duaine Marxen; amyVilseskogen and Gardening Solutions. Icons made by Appzgear and Freepik for www.flaticon.com. For questions on this webpage, please contact Tom Kalb.

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Vegetables

Featured Stories, Publications and Videos

Special SaladsAsian greens

Now is a great time to grow salad greens! Explore the mild mustards of Asia including mizuna and tatsoi. These greens come in fascinating colors and shapes. This is the best time of the year to grow spinach and radish too.  
Read more

  

Extend Your Growing SeasonRow cover 

Jack Frost will strike in just over two months. You can extend your growing season by using row covers. These are gauze-like blankets made of spunbonded polyester. They provide a boost of warmth in fall and insulate plants against frost. 
Read more

  

Recommended Vegetable Cultivars for North DakotaPeas

Hundreds of gardeners in ND evaluate promising vegetable cultivars every year. Learn which cultivars grow and taste the best.
Download publication
Download video


Secrets for Growing Sweet PotatoesSweet potato after one year of storage

Can you grow sweet potatoes in North Dakota? Absolutely! Growing your own healthy slips can lead to good yields of quality roots.  
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Safe and Natural InsecticidesColorado potato beetle larvae

What do bugs and gardeners share in common? We both love to eat vegetables. Nobody enjoys eating vegetables treated with poisonous chemicals. It’s good to know that insecticides are now available that are effective, natural and practically non-toxic.
Read more 

 

Know Your ManureManure in pasture

The increased use of pesticides in pastures and hayfields has led to an increased incidence of contaminated manure in gardens. Tomatoes, potatoes, peas and beans are extremely sensitive.
Read more
 

Featured Publications and Videos

CarrotsGrowing Great Vegetables in North Dakota

This publication guides you in preparing the soil, selecting seeds and transplants, laying out the garden, and managing pests.
Download publication
 

 

Square-foot gardenThe Facts of Square Foot Gardening

Square-foot gardening is a method of intensive gardening. This publications lists the advantages and "how to" tips to this practice that is gaining popularity.
Download publication


Raised garden bedGardening Delights For All: Nontraditional, Money-Saving, Sustainable Gardening

Gardening is for everyone: the young, old and everyone in between. In this publication, we describe more "convenient" gardening methods including raised bed, container and square foot gardens.
Download publication
Download video of Building Raised Garden Beds

Swiss chardEdible Landscapes: Gardening Outside the Box

Residential landscapes are usually designed exclusively with ornamental plants. Make your yard do double duty. Learn how to incorporate attractive edible plants into the landscape to provide food for the table AND for your eyes.
Download video

SageHerb It Up!

Think about using herbs to flavor your entrees. Learn about growing and preserving herbs in your garden or in your home. Is there a difference from a spice and an herb? Learn what herbs go with certain dishes.
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Additional Publications and Videos

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Gardening Without Removing the Sod Part 1 and Part 2 

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Fall Garden Care

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How to Grow Giant Onions. Handout: Getting the Most Out of Your Alliums.

 

Photos were made available under Creative Commons licenses specified by the photographers: Julia Sudnitskaya; Jim SincockDave GunnTom Kalb, North Dakota State University; imarsmanMalene ThyssenlooseendsChiot’s RunEmma Farrerlooseends and Rick Bolin. Icons made by Appzgear and Freepik for www.flaticon.com. For questions on this webpage, please contact Tom Kalb

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Lawns

Featured Publications and Videos 

   
Should You Aerate Your Lawn?Core aeration

Almost all lawns will benefit from aeration, and a great lawn demands it. That said, most lawns do not need it. Learn the benefits of aeration, when to aeration, what machine to use, and additional lawn care tips.
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Watering Your Lawnlawn

Most lawns are turning yellow and going dormant. That's fine. If you want to keep your lawn green and growing, you need to water it. Here are some tips.
Read more

 

Lawns: Interpreting Your Soil Test AnalysisSoil testing for lawns

This new publication teaches homeowners and golf course personnel how to take a soil sample and interpret the soil test results to grow and maintain a health lawn. 
Download publication

 

Home Lawn Problems and Solutions for NDField bindweed

This award-winning, comprehensive and illustrated guide helps homeowners to identify and solve common problems in lawns.
View and download sections of this publication


HoWatering lawn seedme Lawn Establishment

Whether you are establishing a lawn or want to improve your existing lawn, this publication will provide steps that lead to a more attractive turf.
Download publication

Dandelion close-upWeed Control in North Dakota Lawns

Discusses types of weeds, good weed management, herbicide use, and a list of effective herbicides for weed control in lawns.
Download publication

 

Red thread on lawnStop Turf Problems Before They Start

Common turfgrass problems in North Dakota will be discussed. Proactive measures that can be taken in the spring to prevent problems from starting in the first place will be emphasized.
Download video

 

JaJapanese beetle grubpanese Beetle in North Dakota

The grubs of Japanese beetle can destroy lawns. Learn about the status of this pest in North Dakota (2015).
Download video


Additional Publications and Videos

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Spring Lawn Care

 

Photos were made available under Creative Commons licenses specified by the photographers: Sergiu BacioiuAnita GouldMatt LowdenCarmen EisbärJohn Kaminski; and Jim Baker, North Carolina State University, Bugwood.org. Icons made by Appzgear and Freepik for www.flaticon.com. For questions on this webpage, please contact .

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