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Fruit Tree Varieties

Early Maturing Apples
(August 10 - September 5)

Heyer #12: Medium-large size fruits; yellow when fully mature. Pick before fully mature for storage; bears at a young age. Cooking and preserving. Ripens in mid August; 2-4 week storage.

Lodi and Improved Yellow Transparent: Very early with greenish-yellow fruit. Heavy bearer with poor quality fruit; better than Yellow Transparent. Cooking and fresh eating; poor storage. Very susceptible to fireblight. Ripens in mid August.

Norland: Canadian introduction. Medium sized good quality red fruits; reddish flesh and tart. Eating and cooking. Very hardy, annual bearing small tree. Ripens in mid August. Poor storage.

Westland: Canadian introduction. Large red striped fruit; tart and tends to get mushy. Pick before fully mature. Cooking apple. Very hardy, small, annual bearing tree. Matures in mid August. Poor storage.

Parkland: Canadian introduction. Medium sized red fruits; tart and tends to get mushy. Eating and processing. Compact trees. Ripens in mid August. Poor storage.

Anoka: Greenish-yellow fruit streaked with red; fruits at a very young age. Trees are brittle and short lived. Use for eating and cooking. Susceptible to fireblight. Ripens in mid August. Poor storage.

Mantet: Medium sized yellow fruit striped and blushed with red; similar to `McIntosh’ with crisp, juicy flesh. Fruits often drop prematurely. Hardy and productive tree tends to be a biennial bearer; requires fruit thinning. Excellent quality for fresh eating and sauce; very good taste. Very susceptible to fireblight and scab. Matures in mid August. Poor storage.

Oriole: Medium greenish-yellow fruit striped with red; bruises easily. Medium sized tree; vigorous and hardy but tends to be short lived. Shy annual bearer; use fresh or cooked. Moderately susceptible to fireblight and scab. Matures in mid August. Poor storage.

Duchess and Red Duchess: Red striped (red) medium sized fruits. Reliable, hardy and bears at a young age. Tends to be a biennial bearer; fruit thinning may help. Very good for pie, sauce and jelly but too tart for fresh eating. Moderately resistant to fireblight. Matures in mid August. Poor storage.

Hazen: Large dark red fruit with a mild pleasant eating flavor and a blocky shape; tends to be an annual bearer. Natural semi-dwarf tree; bears at a young age. Moderately resistant to fireblight. Matures in mid August. Poor storage.

Dakota Gold: Medium-large yellow fruits with a bit of red blush; firm with a slight tartness. Good for eating out of hand and for sauce and pies. Tree is very hardy, tolerant to fireblight and an annual bearer. Matures in mid August. Poor storage.

State Fair: Striped red, medium sized fruits; crisp, juicy and white fleshed with a pleasing acid taste. Good for fresh use and cooking. Moderately resistant to fireblight; susceptible to scab during wet conditions. Matures in late August to early September. 1 month storage.

Beacon: Medium sized bright red fruit; sweet aromatic flavor and corky texture. Slight red tinge in the fruit. Tends to be an annual bearer but ripens unevenly. Fair quality; use fresh or cooked. Upright spreading tree; borderline in hardiness. Sunscald can be a problem. Very susceptible to fireblight. Matures in late August. Poor storage.

Mandan: Red streaked over yellow fruit of medium size; bears fruit at a young age. Juicy yellow flesh; mild taste. Use fresh or cooked. Trees are productive and hardy; moderately resistant to fireblight. Matures in late August to early September. Two months storage.

Zestar: Red streaked, medium to large sized fruits with a blocky round shape; crisp and juicy fruit texture with a flavor balanced in acid and sugar content but tasting more sweet than tart. Fruit adheres well to the tree and can usually be harvested in one to two pickings. Tree are hardy, moderately vigorous; average susceptibility to apple scab and moderate resistance to fireblight in greenhouse tests. Matures in late August to early September; about a week after `State Fair’. Six to eight week storage.

Breakey: Canadian introduction. Medium sized fruit with yellow and red streaks; sub acid mild taste. Very hardy; fast growing tree. Matures in early September; poor storage.

Midseason Maturing Apples
(September 10 - September 25)

Dakota: Medium sized fruits; deep red color over yellow. Firm and crunchy; sub acid mild taste. Use fresh or cooked. Very hardy and productive trees; moderately resistant to fireblight. Matures in mid September. Six week storage.

Wealthy: Medium sized, yellowish striped fruit blushed with red; good quality for fresh use or cooking. Tendency to drop at harvest time; biennial bearing habit. Moderately tall tree with a very weak structure. Good pollinator. Very susceptible to fireblight. Matures in mid September. Stores about a month.

Minjon: Red fruits; flesh is somewhat tart, often pink. Biennial bearer; tends to overload in bearing year. Below average fruit size; early thinning may help. Fruit hangs tightly; resembles Jonathan. Questionable hardiness. Moderately susceptible to fireblight and apple scab. Matures in mid September. Stores for about 6 weeks.

Red Baron: Medium sized cherry red fruits; blocky shaped. Crisp, juicy and pleasantly tart; tends to oxidize when cut. Good for fresh eating. Trees have strong limbs; moderately resistant to fireblight. Matures in mid September. Stores for 2 months.

Goodland: Medium sized fruit; washed red over a creamy green. Crisp with a pure white flesh. Good for storing and excellent for eating. Productive; annual bearer. Hardy; moderately resistant to fireblight. Matures in mid September.

Lakeland: Medium sized red fruits with light creamy yellow flesh; sometimes a tint of red. Good quality for cooking and dessert; slices hold shape when cooked. Trees are hardy but only moderately vigorous when young; susceptible to fireblight and apple scab. Matures in mid September. Stores for about 6 weeks.

Sweet Sixteen: Red striped, medium to large sized fruit. Sweet, crisp, fine textured apple with moderate acidity. Unusual ‘cherry candy’ flavor. Good for fresh eating. Moderately resistant to fireblight but some susceptibility to scab. Matures in mid September. Stores about 2 months.

McIntosh, Gala, Jonathan, Spartan and Paulared: Lack hardiness.

Northern Lights: Medium sized attractive red fruits; sub acid to slightly acid taste. Fair eating quality. Vigorous hardy trees. Matures in late September. Stores for 2 months.

Honeycrisp: Medium to large sized fruit is solid to mottled red over yellow color; flavor is sweet, mild, delicate and slightly aromatic. Crisp and juicy texture. Flesh is slow to brown when cut. Good for fresh eating, salad, and cooking. Annual bearing with a good fruit size. Ripens unevenly and hangs on the tree well; hardy tree. Matures in late September. Stores for 3-4 months.

Wolf River: Very large, round somewhat flattened fruits; pale yellow to green color with red stripes. Very old variety. Borderline in hardiness. Cooking apple. Matures in late September.

Wodarz: Medium-large yellow fruits with a red blush; firm white flesh with sweet taste. Flavor similar to Yellow Delicious. Tree is hardy and fairly resistant to fireblight. Matures in late September. Stores well.

Late Maturing Apples
(October 1 - )

Cortland: Medium sized red apples; don't discolor when sliced. Sweet to tart with an aromatic flavor. Good for fresh eating, salad, and cooking. Fruit hangs well on the tree; tends to be an annual bearer. Vigorous tall tree. Questionable hardiness. Moderately resistant to fireblight; very susceptible to apple scab. Ripens in late September to early October. Stores 2 months.

Northwest Greening: Large, smooth green fruits which turn yellow when mature; tart flavor. Good cooking apple. Fruit hangs on well in the wind; annual bearing. Large, vigorous, hardy tree but subject to limb breakage. Very resistant to fireblight. Matures in late September to early October. Stores 2-3 months.

Haralred: Medium sized, red fruits; good quality. Very popular, crisp, tart, juicy apple for cooking and eating. Sets fruits in clusters. Tree is hardy and vigorous, but relatively small; good tree structure. Fruits at a young age. Tends to be a biennial bearer; thinning may help prevent overloading. Moderately resistant to fireblight; scab can be a problem. Matures slightly earlier than `Haralson’. Stores for about 3-5 months.

Haralson: Medium sized red and yellow striped fruits. Fruit and tree are similar to `Haralred’ except for fruit color and a slightly later maturity. Russeting can be a problem with high rainfall and humidity; more common with `Haralson’. Matures in early October. Stores about 3-5 months.

Redwell: Large, bright red fruits; fruits set singly on shoots or terminals. May fail to color up in some years. Slow to come into bearing. Annual bearing habit; thinning is usually not necessary. Medium sized tree; excellent growth habit. Moderately susceptible to fireblight. Matures in early October. Stores for about 3 months.

Prairie Spy: Medium sized yellow fruit with red blush; creamy white flesh with slight aroma. Russeting around the stem end; mild flavor and excellent quality. Very slow to bear fruit; shy producer. Red selection holds fruit better. Good for fresh use and cooking. Susceptible to sunscald, fireblight and apple scab. Matures in mid October. Stores about 3 months.

Honeygold: Medium to small sized fruits; golden to yellow-green in color with a pink blush. Flesh is crisp, juicy and has a flavor similar to `Golden Delicious’. Use fresh and cooked. Susceptible to fireblight. Matures in mid October. Stores 2-3 months.

Fireside and Connell Red: `Connell Red’ is a red selection of `Fireside’. Large fruits of excellent quality and distinctive mild, almost sweet flavor; not a good cooking apple. Prematurely picked apples may be bland. Large, vigorous trees; annual bearing habit. Moderately susceptible to fireblight, apple scab and sunscald. Matures in mid October. Stores about 3-4 months.

Red Delicious, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, Winesap and Regent: Lack hardiness and too late.

Keepsake: Too late for our area.

Crab Apples
(Self-Sterile)

Rescue: Fruit is large, greenish-yellow with red stripes. Quite soft and sweet. Good eaten fresh and for jelly. Very hardy; profuse white blooms. Moderately susceptible to fireblight. Matures in mid August.

Traill: Fruits are yellow with an orange-red splash; yellow flesh. Firm, crisp, very juicy and sweetly sub-acid. Good for fresh use; excellent for cooking. Good crab; productive and hardy. Moderately resistant to fireblight. Matures in late August.

Dolgo: Bright red, small fruits (1.5"); sour but best jelly crab. Hardy tree for grafting tender varieties; top working. May be used as an ornamental. Resistant to fireblight. Matures in late August to early September.

Whitney: Yellow fruits striped with red; tender yellow flesh. Fine flavored but easily perishable. Tends to be mealy; best for pickles. Could be replaced by `Chestnut’ which has better quality. Slow growing tree. Moderately susceptible to fireblight. Matures in late August to early September. Poor storage.

Centennial: Medium-large (1.5-2") oval shaped fruits; medium to bright red in color. Flesh is white tinged with pink, crisp, tender and juicy. Fresh, sauce and jelly. Small to medium sized trees with a biennial bearing habit; productive. Bears fruit at a young age. Moderately resistant to fireblight. Ripens in late August to early September. Poor storage.

Chestnut: Large (2") fruits; greenish-yellow with red stripes and russetted skin. Crisp, juicy fruits with a spicy flavor and yellow flesh. Number 1 eating crab. Very good quality. Vigorous medium sized tree with strong crotches. Some susceptibility to fireblight; very susceptible to apple maggots. Matures in mid September. Stores about one month.

Red River: Red, large crabs with good quality. Allow to hang on the tree about 10 days after first colored. Use fresh and for cooking. Very hardy. Moderately resistant to fireblight; apple maggots can be a real problem. Matures in late September to early October. Stores about 2 months.

Pears
(Self-Sterile)

Summercrisp: Large fruit (3.5" x 2.75") with creamy white flesh; harvest when still green with a red blush. Best consumed before ripe; eating quality is best while the flesh is firm and crisp. Refrigerate right after harvest; not desirable for canning. Annual bearer; good pollinizer. Fireblight resistant??? Harvest in mid August; may be stored up to six weeks. Trial planting.

Ure: Best quality Canadian Pear. Small fruits (2" x 2.5") with a greenish-yellow color and red blush; juicy with a creamy white flesh. Sturdy branching and hardy. Delicious for fresh eating; processing. Pick and use before fully ripe. Matures in mid September.

Nova: Eastern Canadian Introduction. Large round juicy fruits; use green or ripe. Hangs well without premature drop. Fireblight resistant???

David: Medium sized (2.75" x 2.25") fruits of greenish-yellow color and creamy white flesh; thick skinned fruit with firm flesh. Gritty; cooking and processing. Harvest before fully ripe; mid September. Saskatchewan.

Golden Spice: Small fruits; yellow with a red blush. Light yellow flesh. Fair quality; tart and spicy. Good for canning and spicing; fair for eating. Hardy; some resistance to fireblight. Matures in mid September.

Parker: Medium sized, roundish yellow fruits; fine grained, sweet and juicy. Pick before fully ripe. Good quality for eating fresh or canning. Borderline in hardiness; Fireblight susceptible. Matures in mid September.

Patten: Medium sized high quality fruit; must be used immediately. Fresh eating and canning. Moderately productive; slow to bear fruit. Very borderline in hardiness. Susceptible to Fireblight. Matures in late September.

Luscious: Medium sized yellow fruits; sweet and juicy. Flesh remains firm to the core when ripe. Good dessert pear; not good for processing. Looks like `Bartlett' Pear. Borderline in hardiness; susceptible to Fireblight. Not a good pollinator. Matures in late September.

Gourmet: Medium size and greenish-yellow to yellow fruit; thick tender skin. Flesh is yellowish, crisp, juicy and sweet; good dessert pear. Trees are upright and medium in size; borderline hardiness. Matures in late September.

Bartlett, Kieffer and Seckel: Lack hardiness and mature too late.

European Plums
(Self-Fertile)

Mount Royal: Medium sized (1.5") fruits; bluish-black in color and freestone; orange-yellow flesh. Good eaten right off the tree. Very good quality for dessert and culinary uses. Tree is vigorous and productive; genetic semi-dwarf. Borderline in hardiness. Grow in the sod; tree hardens off better for the winter. Matures in early September.

Dietz: Small (1") fruits; bluish-black in color and almost freestone. Yellow flesh and good flavor; has good fruit adherence. Tends to bloom very early; frost damage to flowers. Good for eating and canning. Hardiest of the European Plums. Ripens in early-mid September.

Stanley: Fruit is medium-large, blue in color and not entirely freestone. Flesh is deep yellow, firm and juicy. Good quality for sauce. Trees are inclined to over bear; thinning may be needed. Very borderline in hardiness. Grow in the sod; tree hardens off better for the winter. Susceptible to Black Knot disease. Ripens in early-mid September.

Hybrid Plums
(Self-Sterile)

Underwood: Medium dark red fruit; large in size (1.75") with a smooth satin like skin. Flesh is yellow, tender, juicy and sweet. Clingstone with a small pit. Good quality for fresh use and jam. Tree is hardy, vigorous and relatively long lived. Good fruit adherence. Matures in mid August.

Alderman: Large sized (1.75") burgundy red fruits. Flesh is yellow, medium soft and sweet; slightly astringent. Clingstone. Good quality. Vigorous tree which bears at a young age; horizontal branching pattern. Matures in mid to late August. Trial planting.

Pembina: Medium-large (1.5"), red, pointed fruits with a heavy bluish bloom; skin is thick. Flesh is yellow, juicy and sweet. Good quality for dessert but only fair for canning. Spreading, vigorous tree which tends to bear in alternate years. Matures in mid-late August.

La Crescent: Medium-large sized (1.5") yellow fruits with a pink blush; thin and tender skin. Yellow flesh is juicy, tender, sweet and aromatic; nearly freestone. Excellent for eating and very good for jam. Tree is vigorous but a shy producer; fair fruit adherence. Matures in late August.

Waneta: Very large (2") fruits are yellow overlain with dark red. Yellow flesh is sweet and juicy. Clingstone with a small pit. Good quality fruit. Matures in late August.

South Dakota: Small (1.25") fruits are red over yellow in color. Flesh is tender, juicy and nearly freestone. Good quality for fresh eating and jelly; fair for jam. Tree is very hardy, has good vigor and is productive. Good fruit adherence but cracking occurs in some years. Good pollinator. Matures in late August.

Pipestone: Large (1.75") red fruits are juicy, sweet and clingstone; flesh is yellow. Very good quality for fresh use and jam. Hardy and productive tree with fair fruit adherence. Matures in late August.

Superior: Very large (1.75"), red fruits; skin is slightly astringent. Flesh is yellow and juicy. Very good quality for eating, jelly and jam. Good fruit adherence. Often overloads; thinning may be necessary. Borderline in hardiness. Late August ripening.

Kaga: Small sized, flattened round shaped fruit. Dark red skin color and yellow flesh; firm and semi-freestone. Sweet with a distinct flavor. Good pollinator. Early September maturity.

Toka: Very similar to `Kaga’. Small sized, deep red colored fruits with yellow flesh. Freestone. Sweet with spicy, tangy flavor. Erect, vase shaped tree. Good pollinator. Ripens in early September.

Cherry Plums
(Self-Sterile)

Opata: Medium sized (1.25") fruit has purple skin and green flesh. Sweet, juicy and of good quality. Fair for eating and good for cooking. Very productive and hardy; shrub-like. Matures in mid August.

Sapa: Fruit is small-medium sized (1"), dull reddish-purple in color; flesh is deep purple-red, juicy and sweet. Clingstone. Good eating and excellent cooking quality. Tree is small, spreading, shrub-like, hardy and very productive. Matures in mid August.

Red Diamond: Medium-large sized (1.25") fruits with dark maroon skin and ruby red flesh. Almost freestone; small pit. Bushes reach 6' in height; bear at a young age. Disease resistant; trial planting. Matures in mid August.

Sapalta: Resembles `Sapa’ but is sweeter and less clingstone. Medium sized (1.25") fruits with purple skin and dark red flesh; sweet and juicy. Excellent quality for fresh eating and cooking. Matures in mid August.

Compass: Small fruit (1") with dark red skin and yellow flesh; tart and juicy. Sauce and preserves. Small, shrub-like tree. Good pollinator. Least desirable of the Cherry Plums. Ripens in late August.

Sour Cherries
(Self-Fertile)

North Star: Medium sized (3/4") fruit with dark red skin and yellow to dark red flesh; nearly freestone. Good quality for pie and sauce. Tree is small (6-8') and very productive. Plant with graft 4" below soil level; mulch for winter. Not as hardy as `Meteor’. Matures in early July.

Meteor: Medium sized (3/4"), bright red fruits. Yellow flesh is meaty and juicy with a small pit; freestone. Good quality for pies. Vigorous standard sized (8-12') tree. Plant with graft 4" below the soil level; mulch. Hardier than `North Star’. Mid July maturity.

Mesabi: Long stemmed red fleshed fruits; considered a tart cherry but the sugar content is midway between tart and sweet. Fruit resembles `Meteor'; smaller pit. Slow growing 10-14 foot tree; good producer. Plant with graft 4" below soil level; mulch. Ripens in late July.

Evans (Bali): Dark red, 1" fruits; excellent for pies, sauces and jams. Good for fresh eating but not considered a sweet cherry. Vigorous growth; natural dwarf. Considered hardy; trial planting. Ripens in August thus avoiding most bird feeding.

Apricots
(Self-Sterile)

Manchu and Manchurian: Hardy with fair to poor quality fruit.

Scout: Morden introduction. Medium (1.5"), golden-yellow fruits blushed with red. Flesh is deep yellow but not juicy; freestone and mild taste. Fair quality. Use for processing. Trial planting. Matures in late July.

Moongold: Fruit is medium sized (1.75"), freestone and creamy apricot in color. Flesh is light yellow and moderately juicy; sweet flavor. Ripens unevenly with some splitting; fruit may drop prematurely. Good quality and borderline in hardiness; processing. Flower very early; frost damage occurs many years. Plant with graft 4" below soil level. Ripens in late July.

Sungold: Fruit is small (1.25"), freestone and golden-orange in color. Fresh is orange, tender, moderately juicy with a mild sweet flavor. Fruits hang tight until harvested. Good quality; processing. Vigorous and borderline in hardiness. Flower very early; frost damage occurs many years. Plant with graft 4" below soil level. Matures in early August.

Goldcot and Moorpark: Lack hardiness.


Todd Weinmann, Extension Horticulturist & Master Gardener Coordinator
Phone: (701) 241-5707
E-mail: todd.weinmann@ndsu.edu

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