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Summaries of Civil Rights Laws Relevant to Extension

  1. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
         Specifies that no person in the U.S. shall, on the grounds of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
  2. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
         States that the policy of the U.S. Government is to provide equal opportunity in employment for all persons; to prohibit discrimination in employment because of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin; and to promote equal opportunity through affirmative action in each Federal department and agency.
  3. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972
         The specific purposes of Title IX are to prohibit discrimination against individuals in federally funded programs or activities, and in every aspect of employment because of their gender. Title IX provisions include prohibitions against male/female job-related stereotyping, sexual harassment, unequal opportunities for training, advancement and other benefits of employment.
  4. Section 503 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (amended 2014)
         Section 503 prohibits federal contractors and subcontractors from discriminating in employment against individuals with disabilities (IWDs), and requires these employers to take affirmative action to recruit, hire, promote, and retain these individuals. The new rule strengthens the affirmative action provisions of the regulations to aid contractors in their efforts to recruit and hire IWDs, and improve job opportunities for individuals with disabilities. The new rule also makes changes to the nondiscrimination provisions of the regulations to bring them into compliance with the ADA Amendments Act of 2008.
  5. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
         Specifies that no person in the U.S. shall, on the basis of a disability, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
  6. Age Discrimination Act of 1975
         Specifies that no person in the U.S. shall, on the basis of age, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
  7. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
         Title I states that no entity shall discriminate against a qualified individual with a disability because of the individual's disability in regard to job application procedures, hiring, advancement, discharge, compensation, training and other terms, conditions and privileges of employment.
         Title II of the Act states that no qualified individual with a disability shall, by reason of such disability, be excluded from participation in or be denied the benefits of the services, programs or activities of a public entity, or be subjected to discrimination by any such entity.
         A "qualified individual with a disability" is any individual with a disability who, with or without reasonable modifications to rules, policies or practices; the removal of architectural, communication or transportation barriers; or the provision of auxiliary aids and services, meets the essential eligibility requirements of employment, receipt of services or participation in programs or activities provided by a public entity.
  8. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 (CRA)
         Effective November 21, 1991, the Civil Rights Act of 1991 reverses in whole or part several Supreme Court decisions interpreting Title VII. The 1991 CRA includes the following provisions:  Requires the employer to demonstrate that a challenged employment practice is job-related for the position in question and consistent with business necessity. Stipulates that a violation is established when discrimination is a motivating factor, even though other factors also motivated the challenged actions.

See State and Federal Agencies and Laws on the NDSU Equity Office website for additional information about these laws.

Civil Rights Terms used by Extension

Parity
     An Extension program is in parity when the participation of individuals of minority groups reflects the proportionate representation in the population of potential recipients. A program will be considered in compliance when its participation has reached 80% of parity.

Potential Audience/Recipients
     Potential recipients are persons or groups within your defined geographic area who might be interested in or benefit from the educational program. Potential recipients should be estimated for each program carried out in the county Extension office. For instance, county Extension educators may conduct family living programs in nutrition, family financial finances and parenting. Potential recipients should be estimated for each of these three efforts. Potential recipients are estimated by using a combination of county demographic data and the Extension educator's knowledge and information about the population of the county. When a target audience is defined during program planning, it should be inclusive of the entire potential recipients as defined by demographic data.

All Reasonable Effort
     Extension must be able to demonstrate that federally funded programs or activities have been made available to the maximum possible potential audience of a given locale or area. Three steps are required to demonstrate that all reasonable efforts have been made: (a) the use of all available mass media; (b) the use of personal letters and/or flyers or publications; and (c) the use of personal contacts (invitations to participate) by Extension staff.

Adequate Public Notification
     Public notification plans are a part of the delivery mode in the affirmative action goals related to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Extension program outreach should use the most diversified possible communications to attract persons of all races, colors, religions, genders, and national origins to participate. Examples include posters, flyers, minority organization bulletin board notices, stuffers in utility bills, or other public mailings.

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