NDSU Extension - Dickey County



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Let's Talk Turkey

Breana Kiser, Agriculture and Natural Resource Agent

Many people look forward to Thanksgiving dinner leftovers.

Some people turn up their noses at leftovers, with a holiday exception or two. Many people especially look forward to Thanksgiving dinner leftovers.

Here are a few questions to get ask family about over the Thanksgiving feast, including some questions about history, safety and nutrition. The questions are based on information from the National Turkey Federation and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The answers follow.

1: Who proposed the turkey as the national bird because he thought the bald eagle was of “bad moral character”?
A: Abraham Lincoln
B: Thomas Jefferson
C: Benjamin Franklin

2: What did astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin have for their first meal on the moon?
A: Turkey and all the trimmings
B: Roast beef, potatoes and gravy
C: Hot cereal and Tang

3: How do you know when a turkey is fully cooked?
A: When the pop-up thermometer springs up, the turkey is done.
B: When the turkey leg reaches an internal temperature of at least 155 degrees, the turkey is done.
C: When the turkey breast reaches an internal temperature of at least 165 degrees, the turkey is done.

4: On average, how much turkey does each person in the U.S. gobble up annually?
A: 12.3 pounds
B: 17.6 pounds
C: 20.7 pounds

5: True or false? White turkey meat has less fat and calories than dark turkey meat.

6: According to the American Farm Bureau Federation, in 2008 what was the average cost of a Thanksgiving feast for 10 people?
A: $44.61
B: $54.61
C: $64.61

7: When planning how much turkey to buy, how much should you buy for each person, while also being sure you will have some leftovers?
A: Allow 0.25 pound per person
B: Allow 0.5 pound per person
C: Allow 1 pound per person

8: How long can you store leftover turkey safely in your refrigerator?
A: 2 days
B: 4 days
C: 6 days

The answers:
1.    C: Benjamin Franklin was the turkey enthusiast.

2.    A: The astronauts enjoyed turkey and all the trimmings on the moon. Turkey is served as the Thanksgiving main course in about 88 percent of households.

3.    C: Cook turkey to at least 165 degrees. This is a fairly new recommendation, allowing for a juicy, yet safe main course. Some pop-up thermometers pop out before a safe temperature is reached, so always double check with a meat thermometer.

4.    B: In the U.S., each person eats 17.6 pounds of turkey annually. Of the 273 million turkeys raised, 46 million are consumed at Thanksgiving, 22 million at Christmas and 19 million at Easter.

5.    True. Dark meat tends to be “juicier” because of its higher fat content.

6.    A: You can serve 10 people for less than $5 a person.

7.    C: Besides the usual soups and sandwiches, be adventuresome with your turkey leftovers. Make quesadillas and stir fry.

8.    B: Instead of overdoing turkey for every meal for days, freeze some turkey in recipe-sized amounts. For best quality, use frozen cooked turkey within four months.

Have a Happy Thanksgiving from your NDSU Extension Office! Safe travels and have a great time with your loved ones!
11-22-18 Turkey

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NDSU Offers Soybean Drying Advise

Breana Kiser, Agriculture and Natural Resource Agent

This year’s soybean harvest is generating questions about storage and drying.

11-8-18 Drying SoybeansA challenging soybean harvest is raising many storage and drying questions, according to Ken Hellevang, agricultural engineer with North Dakota State University Extension.

Soybeans at 11 percent moisture have similar storage characteristics as wheat or corn at about 13.5 percent moisture, so 16 percent moisture soybeans might be expected to store the same way as about 19 percent moisture corn.

“It is important to be able to aerate the soybeans to keep them cool,” Hellevang says.

The amount of natural air drying that will occur in late October and early November is limited. The equilibrium moisture content of soybeans for air at 40 degrees and 70 percent relative humidity is about 12 percent, so drying soybeans above 12 percent would be expected with this air condition.

However, the drying rate will be slow at typical in-bin drying airflow rates. An airflow rate of 1 cubic foot per minute per bushel (cfm/bu) is expected to dry 18 percent moisture soybeans in about 60 days. With an airflow rate of 1.5 cfm/bu, the drying time is reduced to about 40 days.

The drying time for 16 percent moisture soybeans is slightly less - about 50 days. Adding supplemental heat to raise the air temperature by 3 to 5 degrees will permit drying the soybeans to about 11 percent moisture in about 40 to 45 days. Increasing the airflow rate proportionally reduces the drying time.

The moisture-holding capacity of air is reduced at lower air temperatures, Hellevang says. As average air temperatures approach 35 degrees, natural air drying becomes inefficient and not economical. Adding heat would cause the beans on the bottom of the bin to dry to a lower moisture content, and it would increase drying speed only slightly.

Hellevang recommends cooling the soybeans to between 20 and 30 degrees for winter storage and completing the drying in the spring. Start drying in the spring when outdoor temperatures are averaging about 40 degrees.

Increasing the airflow rate will increase the drying speed. However, the fan horsepower required to achieve the higher airflow rate becomes excessive unless the grain depth is very shallow.

For a soybean depth of 22 feet, each 1,000 bushels of soybeans will require about 1 horsepower of fan. To achieve an airflow rate of 1.25 cfm/bu will require about 1.6 horsepower per 1,000 bushels and an airflow rate of 1.5 cfm/bu will need about 2.5 horsepower per 1,000 bushels.

“The type of fan greatly affects the airflow provided per horsepower, so use a fan selection software program such as the one developed by the University of Minnesota,” Hellevang advises. “It is available on the NDSU grain drying and storage website. To find the website, do an internet search for NDSU grain drying and storage.”

Soybeans can be dried in a high-temperature dryer, but the dryer temperature needs to be limited to minimize damage to the beans. Refer to the manufacturer’s recommendations for maximum drying temperature.

Typically, the maximum drying temperature for nonfood soybeans is about 130 degrees. Even at that temperature, some skins and beans will be cracked.

One study found that with a dryer temperature of 130 degrees, 50 to 90 percent of the skins were cracked and 20 to 70 percent of the beans were cracked. Another study found that 30 percent of the seed coats were cracked if the drying air relative humidity was 30 percent.

Roughly, with each 20 degree increase in drying temperature, the air relative humidity is reduced to one-half, Hellevang notes. Air at 50 degrees and 80 percent relative humidity will have a relative humidity of about 40 percent when heated to 70 degrees. He recommends monitoring the soybean seeds coming from the dryer and managing the dryer temperature based on the amount of damage occurring.

Hellevang also warns of the risk of fires when drying soybeans. Soybean pods and other trash can accumulate in the dryer and combust. He has this advice to reduce the risk of fires:

  • Assure that trash does not accumulate in the dryer.
  • Assure that the soybeans continue to flow in all sections of the dryer.
  • Monitor the dryer continuously.
  • Clean the dryer frequently to reduce the potential for debris to combust.

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NDSU Offers Advice for Picking the Best Heifers

Breana Kiser, Agriculture and Natural Resource Agent

Selecting good heifers helps build a good cow herd.

Cattle producers consider selecting and developing replacement heifers as the foundation for building an efficient, productive11-22-18 Picking Heifers cow herd.

However, the approaches producers use to identify which heifers to keep for herd replacement out of the calf crop vary with herd management and marketing.

Producers can expect to keep nearly one-third of the heifer calves produced for breeding to replace cows leaving the herd, according to John Dhuyvetter, North Dakota State University Extension livestock systems specialist at the North Central Research Extension Center.

“Typically, 12 to 15 percent of the cows in a herd are culled and marketed annually for a variety of reasons,” he says.

The primary reasons are that cows failed to breed or lost their calf. But cows are culled for being lame and structurally unsound or thin and unthrifty; having poor udders or a bad temperament; or producing lightweight, inferior calves.

If producers need to select replacement heifers while sorting calves for the sale market at fall shipping time and have limited information, the best option is heifer calves showing good size and development, Dhuyvetter advises. Those characteristics indicate the calves were born early in the calving season out of a good-producing mother. These heifers should reflect high fertility and will be less expensive and easier to grow to breeding weights.

The calves can be scrutinized further for desired type (width and muscle, depth and capacity, femininity), structural soundness (correct feet and legs and free movement) and acceptable disposition. When available, calving book notes on calving ease, sickness, the dam’s udder and other issues also can be useful for eliminating unneeded calves.

“Herds with good animal identification and production records have additional information to use in making selections,” Dhuyvetter says.

The records can contain information about the sire and dam, the dam’s lifetime production record for calving date and progeny performance, and the heifers’ actual fall weight, along with adjusted weight to equalize for age differences and in-herd ranking (ratio). Daughters of older cows that demonstrate regular breeding and good weaning performance by their progeny, don’t have birthing problems or need individual care, and of a suitable type and size would be preferred replacements.

When keeping calves beyond weaning, producers have additional opportunities to evaluate the calves by observing and measuring post-weaning performance.

“Keeping additional heifers back for development and breeding provides the opportunity to identify which heifers might perform and maintain condition on a high-forage ration similar to what they will receive as cows,” Dhuyvetter says. “Additionally, by only keeping heifers becoming bred in a very short breeding season, or only retaining the earliest bred and selling those that are bred later or didn’t become pregnant, nature helps you select for fertility and adaptation.”

He notes that a consequence of selection for high-performing sires and continually retaining the biggest heifers likely is a substantial increase in mature cow weights through time. When cow size becomes an issue, it can be managed, in part, at the time of heifer selection.

For example, heifers weighing more than 650 pounds at seven months after weaning and off pasture are likely to grow into 1,600-pound or larger mature cows. Heifers weighing 500 to 600 pounds at this age may help moderate or maintain cow size in the 1,200- to 1,400-pound range.

Several new technologies are available to help producers select heifers more accurately and for traits not easily related to visual evaluation. For instance, ultrasound scanning can help producers evaluate carcass traits, if of concern, in developing heifers. Scans provide an objective measurement of rib-eye muscle area and subjective scoring of marbling, both of which are highly heritable. These measurements are associated with carcass value and can be used for carcass improvement.
Genomics are an even more recent tool in beef cattle selection, including replacement heifers. Several commercialized tests using small tissue, blood or hair follicle samples analyze for genetic markers associated with economic traits in heifers.

In addition to carcass marbling and feedlot performance, genomic scoring is available for calving ease, heifer conception and fertility, disposition, feed intake and efficiency, whether they are horned or polled, coat color and defects. A test also is being commercialized for heterozygosity (having dissimilar pairs of genes for any hereditary characteristic) as a tool in managing crossbreeding.

“The intent at the time a heifer is held as a replacement is she will efficiently produce high-value calves for you during the next 10 years,” Dhuyvetter says. “In addition to using sires most likely to pass the needed maternal characteristics on to his daughters, we have to select the best heifer prospects for building a better cow herd.”

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Leadership, Nutriton and Food Safety Programs Benefit Agriculture

Breana Kiser, Agriculture and Natural Resource Agent

Many NDSU Extension family and community wellness programs support agriculture.

11-15-18 Food Safety ProgramsFinding enough people to serve on local agriculture-related boards and committees can be challenging.

North Dakota has more than 8,300 boards, councils and committees, among them crop improvement association, township officer, soil conservation, weed, water and commodity boards. That means one of every 24 residents over age 18 needs to serve in a leadership role.

To help North Dakotans develop the skills and confidence to serve effectively, North Dakota State University Extension family and community wellness specialists and agents developed Lead Local. It’s a one-day program that teaches aspiring, elected and appointed leaders about ethics, parliamentary procedure, different personality styles and conflict resolution.

This is exactly the training local leaders want and need, according to Carie Moore, who works for the Natural Resources Conservation Service in Cando. She attended Lead Local twice.

“We all know if you are on one board, you’re probably on a few others as well, so this training impacts many boards just through a single person,” she says.

“All organizations need to step up if they want people to get and stay involved,” she adds. “This course gave a lot of the groundwork for those new to boards and for the existing boards on what to do for new and recruiting members.”

Moore is among nearly 275 people from 726 North Dakota organizations, many of them agriculture-related, who have attended Lead Local. Several report that their boards now save an hour of meeting time because the meetings run more efficiently.

If all 726 organizations saved an hour a month, the yearly savings would total $215,099 (based on the value of volunteer time calculated by Independent Sector, which brings together nonprofits, foundations and corporations to strengthen their ability to fulfill their missions).

Related Extension family and community wellness programs that benefit agriculture include:

 - Youth Lead Local - a Lead Local version for junior and senior high students

 - Building Tomorrow’s Leaders - helps ninth- and 10th-graders get involved civically, build skills and confidence to lead, and develop personal and professional networks

 - North Dakota Soil and Water Conservation Leadership Academy - helps participants develop skills to lead soil conservation, watershed and community-based projects that protect water quality for future generations

 - Rural Leadership North Dakota (RLND) - an 18-month leadership development program

The Soil and Water Conservation Leadership Academy was an eye-opener for Corey Bittner, West McLean Soil Conservation District manager, and the district’s board members.

“Very beneficial for our board was the part of the training where they went over Robert’s Rules of Order and how to run a functional and efficient meeting,” Bittner says. “We also learned how to recognize where there are problems occurring and how to approach producers on a potential problem that they could help with fixing.”

Of the 168 people who have participated in RLND since it started in 2003, 36 percent were from the agriculture sector, 20 have run for office and three were elected to state-level positions, including state senator. RLND participants also have used their leadership skills to initiate projects such as farm and ranch agritourism operations, and events, activities and blogs to educate youth and adults about North Dakota agriculture.

“RLND was a real-world experience that I learned from and utilize every day,” says Dickinson-area rancher and RLND Class VI alumnus Will Meyer.

Building Tomorrow’s Leaders was a huge success in Cavalier County, according to Macine Lukach, an Extension agent there. Three months after 24 students from four schools completed the program, nearly half reported taking on a leadership role in an organization they belonged to and said they plan to seek an elected position in their organization’s next election.

Annie’s Project is another key Extension program. It’s a six-week course that empowers women to be better business partners on the farm or ranch.

“Annie’s Project brings women together to learn from experts in production, financial management, human resources, marketing and the legal field,” says Crystal Schaunaman, an Extension agent in McIntosh County and state Annie’s Project coordinator. “There’s plenty of time for questions, sharing, reacting and connecting with presenters and fellow participants. It’s a relaxed, fun and dynamic way to learn, grow and meet other North Dakota farm/ranch women.”

Tori Gross, who farms with her husband in Emmons County, feels that because of the program, she’ll be able to take over the operation’s record-keeping and marketing responsibilities. She is one of more than 1,000 women from 35-plus counties who have completed the program.

Other ways Extension supports the state’s agricultural sector are family and community wellness programs and resources such as:

 - Design Your Succession Plan, (www.ag.ndsu.edu/succession) which helps farm and ranch families transition their operation to the next generation

 - Field to Fork (www.ag.ndsu.edu/fieldtofork) webinars and food preservation, preparation and safety programs with science-based education that combats misinformation about dietary fads and food safety issues, which can impact producers’ livelihood

 - A website with resources to deal with farm stress during difficult financial times (www.ag.ndsu.edu/farmranchstress)

 - Food Entrepreneurship (www.ag.ndsu.edu/food/food-entrepreneurship), North Dakota Local Foods (www.ag.ndsu.edu/food/local-foods), and community and organizational facilitation assistance to help agricultural entrepreneurs develop a business plan, and grow and find markets for their products

 - Healthwise for Guys (www.ag.ndsu.edu/healthwiseforguys), Nourish and Exercise Your Body (www.ag.ndsu.edu/nourishyourbody), sun safety and diabetes prevention programs to reduce the risk of chronic diseases and lower obesity rates in rural areas, where medical services are more limited

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Beef Quality Assurance Required by Processors

Breana Kiser, Agriculture and Natural Resource Agent

11-1-18 BQAAs of Jan. 1, 2019 one of the nation's largest processors of U.S. beef, Tyson Foods, will require that all beef they purchase is sourced from Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) certified producers. Additionally, by Jan. 1, 2020 all cattle transporters hauling to Tyson Foods' harvest facilities will need BQA Transportation (BQAT) certification. Along with Tyson; JBS, Cargill, and Greater Omaha will also require all beef they purchase be BQA certified.

Tyson Foods, which processes a quarter of all U.S. beef, is following the lead of its foodservice customers. Some retail outlets and restaurants, such as Wendy’s, will buy only beef sourced from BQA certified farms and ranches.

BQA remains a voluntary, checkoff program aimed at ensuring proper management techniques and commitment to quality for cattle by farmers to help raise consumer confidence in the end products. The BQA program is a producer driven program in which cattle producers, from the cow-calf producer to the feedlot sector, assume responsibility for producing beef that is a healthy, wholesome, quality product and free from defects such as injection-site lesions and bruises. Producers in BQA programs keep detailed records of husbandry practices and treatments performed on their cattle. Further, producers involved in BQA programs assure their management, husbandry, and animal health practices meet regulatory and industry standards for these practices. 

To become BQA certified producers must first attend a producer training and certification session conducted by NDBQA personnel to participate in the North Dakota Beef Quality Assurance Program. After attending a training and certification session, each producer or operation will be assigned a NDBQA identification number. If calves are produced following NDBQA certification requirements (see Certification Requirements of the North Dakota Beef Quality Assurance Program), and with the appropriate records kept, they may then be marketed as "NDBQA Certified." For the year 2000 calf crop to be certified, producers MUST attend a training session before January 1, 2000. Producers will need to be re-certified every three years. 

Dickey and LaMoure Counties will be holding a training November 15th. One program offered twice in one day.  LaMoure County will be from 8:00 am-12:00pm at Centerfield Bar & Grill, LaMoure and Dickey County will be from 1:00-4:00 pm at Fireside Family Restaurant, Ellendale.  Topics we will discuss are vaccination handling, stop the truck, selecting cattle, and update on the beef audit. Fee for the BQA certification is $15 per operation and covers that operation for 3 years. Limited space available, registration required. Please call the office at (701)349-3249 ext. 2.


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Basic First Aid to Snow Damaged Trees

Breana Kiser, Agriculture and Natural Resource Agent

After the heavy snows last week, many have severally damaged trees.  Know that clean-up is underway, here is some basic first aid to help those damaged trees.

10-25-18 Snow Damaged TreesThe snow bent and broke trees and branches as it fell and then as it accumulated in a broad swath across the county. Many trees now suffer from limb breakage that happened below the snow line. Trees are valuable and resilient, and many will recover if their owners are patient and give them proper care.

 First aid for trees with broken lower branches

Branches that broke below the snow line should be properly pruned from the tree. Use a sharp lopper or pruning saw for the best results, and start by cutting the branch off and temporarily leaving a stub of about 6 inches long. This allows room to work so that the final pruning cut can be made without tearing the bark on the tree. If branches are about 2 inches or larger, use your pruning saw to make a shallow cut on the bottom side of the branch about 5 inches out from the tree. Then saw the branch from the top about 6 inches from the tree. The place where the branch connects to the tree is a thickened area called the branch collar. The final cut should be as close to the branch collar as possible without damaging the branch collar. Avoid the temptation to apply pruning dressings or paints.

These branches will not re-sprout on most evergreen trees, and the tree will not fill in where the branches have been removed. If less than one-third of the tree’s branches have been lost, the tree has an excellent chance of recovery. If half of a tree’s branches are lost, the tree will be very stressed. Do not try to balance out the crown by removing undamaged branches now. Follow up by gradually pruning unbalanced trees back into symmetry over the next few years.

Some tree pests are very good at identifying and attacking these stressed trees, so watch for scale insect and for evidence of wood boring insects over the next few growing seasons. Reduce tree stress by making sure the tree roots have adequate water and the soil has proper drainage.                   

Reduce stress and competition for scarce resources by adding a 3-inch layer of organic mulch, like wood chips, over the tree’s root zone. The critical root zone is the area out to the drip line of the tree. Mulch cools the soil, helps keep soil moist, returns organic matter to the soil, and protects the tree from additional damage by lawn equipment.

First aid for young trees (up to about 15 feet tall)

Young trees that are bent may be able to resume their natural shape with no intervention. If a young tree is broken near its base or if more than half of its limbs are broken, it is time to consider removing it and replacing it. Some hardwoods will respond to this by sending forth strong stump sprouts. If this happens, you can thin out the sprouts over the next three years until you have saved the strongest and straightest sprout as the new tree. Most evergreen trees, such as pines, spruce and juniper, do not respond in the same way and will need to be replanted.

If the top central stem of a young tree is broken, prune it back to the next strongest branch, which will then take over as the leader. Leaders can be encouraged to straighten up by tying them in place with a little masking tape or a thin strip of cotton. Wire, plastic and other non-biodegradable materials will girdle the tree and should never be used as a tie on a tree. Plan to remove the material, even if it is biodegradable, the following year.

Prune broken branches back to the limb to which they are attached, or to the trunk if necessary. Make clean and proper cuts with hand tools, not with a chainsaw. Do not leave stubs, and do not treat pruning cuts with any kind of wound dressing or paint. Prune only the damaged branches, leaving as much of the crown intact as possible. Plan to come back over the next few years for corrective pruning as needed.

First aid for larger trees

In addition to broken branches, look for splits, broken tops, and broken branches higher in the crown. Remove broken branches as described above. Binding a split usually leads to additional breakage later when the binding girdles the tree, so prune below the split if possible, or contact an arborist for bracing and cabling for valuable trees. Bent trees and branches are under a lot of mechanical stress that may be released as they are cut. Leave the work on larger trees to an arborist who is both trained and insured for such work.

Preventing snow and ice damage in windbreaks

Careful selection and planning of tree species, planting site, and planting design are the easiest ways to prevent winter storm damage to trees. Windward trees and shrubs (those closest to the prevailing wind) must tolerate the full force of harsh, winter winds.

However, the trees and shrubs behind them must tolerate the snow and ice that is deposited on their stems and branches. ‘Red pines,’ such as Scotch (Scots’) and ponderosa pine, are commonly planted in the second or third row of trees in windbreaks. These trees have strong, rigid branches that withstand wind well, but break easily when weight comes down on top of them. They are also susceptible to Zimmerman pine moth when planted in large plantings of few species. This insect pest bores into the base of branches and weakens the branch where it joins the main trunk. Some ‘white pines,’ such as Swiss stone, limber, and Korean pine, generally have more flexible branches that can handle heavier snow loads, but often grow slower in ND.

Other options for reducing winter storm damage are: planting deciduous trees in the second and third windbreak rows, to help distribute snow; planting shrubs with more open canopies in the first row, to let more wind and snow under the canopies of the trees behind it; and, planting a dense shrub or tree row approximately 50 feet in front of the rest of the windbreak rows, to catch more snow farther from the rest of the trees. The area between the snow trap row and main windbreak can be cropped, hayed, or planted to a pollinator or habitat mix.


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Fall Checklist for Cattle Producers

Breana Kiser, Agriculture and Natural Resource Agent

Now is a good time to protect the herd from health issues.

10-18-18 CattleFall is when beef cattle producers make many management and labor decisions, including repairing cattle-working facilities, moving cattle to fall grazing, assessing crop residue opportunities and wondering if winter feed supplies will be enough.

Producers have other issues they should consider this time of year as well, according to North Dakota State University Extension livestock specialists. One of those issues is assessing the body condition score (BCS) in cows nursing calves.

“Scheduling pregnancy checks for cows nursing calves provides a good opportunity to identify cows for market and to vaccinate calves preweaning,” says Karl Hoppe, Extension livestock systems specialist at NDSU’s Carrington Research Extension Center. “Pregnancy checking heifers provides the opportunity to market open females directly off pasture.”

Bulls also need to be evaluated in the fall for foot, leg and penile injuries, and BCS, Hoppe says. Mature bulls should have minimal weight loss during the breeding season, while yearling bulls will lose some weight during the breeding season and would benefit from improved nutrition when removed from the breeding herd.
Another key component of fall herd management is an assessment of the risk of certain diseases, and the efficacy and safety of specific products such as vaccines.

“The preweaning vaccination protocol provides an ideal opportunity to follow up on springtime vaccinations and enhance the immune response to respiratory pathogens,” says Gerald Stokka, Extension veterinarian and livestock stewardship specialist.

Respiratory disease is one of the primary risks to weaned calves. The bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is associated with the stress of weaning, diet change, transportation or movement to new surroundings, and often the commingling of different pasture groups on the same ranch.

Enhancing the calves’ immunity to specific potential pathogens can decrease the risk of BRDC, Stokka says. Sorting and vaccinating calves while still nursing their dams reduces the stress of calf processing.

The infection risk is related to several viral and bacterial pathogens. Depending on a veterinarian’s assessment of the risk to the herd, calves may need booster doses at weaning or they simply may be separated from their dams without additional vaccinations.

Modified live virus vaccines (MLV), often called five-way viral vaccines, that are labeled for use on nursing calves can provide excellent protection when properly handled and administered according to label instructions, Stokka says. Mannheimia haemolytica infections often are implicated in pre and post weaning respiratory disease cases, and vaccines against this pathogen commonly will be included, very often in combination with the MLV virus vaccines.

In specific herds, other bacterial vaccines may be necessary, depending on herd history and risk.
“It is important to remember that killed/inactivated vaccines will usually require a booster dose to achieve an adequate level of protection,” Stokka notes. “Consult your veterinarian about specific products related to viral and bacterial vaccines.”

Other health risks to calves include:
-  Clostridial diseases, commonly called “blackleg” - The risk of this infection is difficult to assess; however, the organism that causes these diseases lives in the soil and can cause severe illness and death in susceptible

animals. A second vaccine dose administered in the fall will enhance protection against this family of pathogens.

-  Internal parasites if cattle are on grass - Calves with internal parasites will have reduced feed/forage intake,

resulting in reduced weaning weights. Internal parasites also can have a negative impact on the calves’ ability to respond to vaccination. If dewormer products are used at preweaning, calves should be moved to clean pastures to avoid re-infection. However, with the recent hard frost, the risk of re-infection is negligible.

-   External parasites such as horn fly and face fly - These populations have decreased dramatically and treatment for these no longer is necessary. Treatment for biting and sucking lice is not recommended at this time. The feeding activity of lice will increase with colder weather, so hold off on treatments until signs of lice appear.

If possible, commingle calves from different pastures prior to weaning. This may seem unnecessary; however, calves at this stage are much like preschool children, Stokka says. Allow calves to share their bugs and develop a social order while still nursing their dams. This can greatly reduce the risk of postweaning respiratory diseases.

“Preweaning vaccination events, while stressful, can minimize pathogen stress that is normally associated with

commingling of different pastures, separation from the dam and changes in diet that occur with weaning,” Stokka adds. “Work to ensure that all animal-handling events are conducted in a calm, low-stress manner to the extent possible.”

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On the Move to Better Health

Aimee Ellinger, 4-H/Youth Development and FCW Agent

Do you know how many servings of vegetables you should be getting every day? Can you draw what the USDA MyPlate looks like? Do you know the difference between fruit juice and whole fruits? If you need help answering any of these questions, just find an Ellendale Elementary School 4th grader and they can help you out. Mrs. Middlestead fourth grade class is currently participating in a program called “On the Move to Better Health.” The program is a five-week school-based curriculum. It is based on MyPlate; the current USDA icon for good nutrition. The MyPlate has replaced the food pyramid as the resource for nutrition. The curriculum aims to increase fruits, vegetables and calcium-rich foods in the diets of children and to improve fitness habits. Parents receive newsletters and participate in goal setting and other family-based activities. NDSU extension, along with statewide partners, work together to make this program available for youth across the state.

During the course of 5 weeks, students are learning about healthy habits and tracking their personal habits with the help of parents and teachers. Students focus on the main areas of the MyPlate and learn strategies such as:

● Make half your plate fruits and vegetables. ● Focus on whole fruits.   ● Vary your veggies. ● Make half your grains whole grains. ● Move to low-fat and fat-free milk or yogurt. ● Vary your protein routine. ● Drink and eat less sodium, saturated fat, and added sugars.

Students are also sent home with a weekly newsletter full of information to help families work toward healthier habits as well. The newsletter even contains a spot for families to set healthy goals together. Another feature the newsletter contains is weekly healthy recipes. Here is one of my favorites from the program.

10-11-18 PizzaCheesy Tortilla Minipizzas

4 6-inch whole-wheat tortillas
½ c. chunky-style medium salsa
½ c. reduced-fat mozzarella or Monterey Jack cheese
½ c. chopped green pepper
½ c. frozen corn kernels, thawed
¼ c. chopped onion
¼ c. shredded sharp cheddar cheese

Preheat oven to 350 F. Place tortillas on a baking sheet. Bake for about seven minutes, until crisp. Remove from oven and top each tortilla with about 2 tablespoons of salsa and 2 tablespoons of cheese. Sprinkle with green pepper, corn and onion; top with cheddar cheese. Bake about five minutes, until cheese melts. Makes four servings. Each serving (one minipizza) has150 calories, 4 grams (g) fat, 20 g carbohydrate, 3 g fiber and 100 milligrams calcium.

If you see any members of Mrs. Middlestead fourth grade class out and about, make sure to ask them about there “On the Move Journey.”

This will be my last news article with NDSU Extension, I have accepted a new position in Ortonville, Minnesota and will have already started by the time this article will be printed. I would like to thank you for welcoming me into your communities. I have truly enjoyed my time with Extension and Dickey County. I will miss my 4-H families and partners I have worked with in Dickey County.

Thank you again,
Aimee Ellinger

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Palmer Control Options

Breana Kiser, Agriculture and Natural Resource Agent

Now that Palmer amaranth, a very aggressive weed, has been found in North Dakota, producers are looking for ways to prevent it from spreading.

Most of the Palmer amaranth plants that were found so far have produced very little seed, according to Brian Jenks, weed scientist at North Dakota State University’s North Central Research Extension Center near Minot. It was found in North Dakota for the first time this summer.

“It is possible that these plants germinated and emerged later than most weed seeds,” he says.

10-4-18 Palmer AmaranthMany of the Palmer amaranth plants that were found had seed heads growing just above the tops of soybeans.

“Ideally, these weeds should be pulled and removed from the field,” Jenks says. “However, we may not see every Palmer plant. Although a preharvest burn-down in soybeans is not common, it may stop or reduce seed production of plants that were missed.

“If there were Palmer plants in the harvested field, the remaining stems still may regrow and produce seed if there is a delayed killing frost,” he adds. “Thus, a postharvest desiccation may be warranted to ensure zero seed production.”

Palmer amaranth is known to be resistant to the herbicide glyphosate in other states, so the plants found in North Dakota probably are glyphosate-resistant, too. Thus, glyphosate likely will not be effective as a Palmer amaranth desiccant (drying agent).

Jenks says the burn-down solution Gramoxone may be less effective against Palmer amaranth because the rate for soybean desiccation (dryness) is only 8 to 16 fluid ounces, which is lower than for other crops. Sharpen usually is more effective as a desiccant when tank-mixed with glyphosate, but given that the Palmer amaranth plants found in North Dakota likely are resistant to glyphosate, Jenks does not recommend this mix.

“A better option may be to tank-mix Gramoxone and Sharpen,” he says.

Here are some preharvest desiccant options:

  • Gramoxone - 8 to 16 fluid ounces. Apply with NIS (nonionic surfactants). This has a 15-day preharvest interval (wait time between the application and when the crop can be harvested).
  • Sharpen - 1 to 2 fluid ounces. Apply with AMS (ammonium sulfate) plus MSO (methylated seed oil). This has a three-day preharvest interval.
  • Gramoxone (16 fluid ounces) plus Sharpen (2 fluid ounces) plus AMS plus MSO. This probably is the best option, Jenks says.

Here are recommendations for postharvest desiccant options:

  • Gramoxone - 2 pints. Apply with NIS.
  • Sharpen - 1 to 2 fluid ounces. Apply with AMS plus MSO.
  • Gramoxone plus Sharpen plus AMS plus MSO
  • Gramoxone plus 2,4-D plus NIS

Jenks suggests producers apply these chemicals at a spray volume of 20 gallons per acre to obtain adequate coverage.

“These herbicides work best under warm, sunny conditions,” he notes. “Forecasted highs in the coming days are for temperatures only in the 50s and 60s, with possible light rain. Desiccants will not dry down plants as fast under cool, moist conditions.”

He also cautions producers not to use Roundup or Sharpen preharvest on soybeans grown for seed.



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Stop Hitting Snooze

Aimee Ellinger, 4-H/Youth Development and FCW Agent

Snooze ButtonIts Monday morning and I have hit snooze for the 5th time, I keep trying to push my limit on how fast I can get dressed in the morning. Currently these few extra hours of sleep seem so much more important than picking out my outfit for work or cooking breakfast. Finally, I push the alarm as long as I can, I race to get ready and rush out the door. I know the consequences of hitting snooze in the morning, I feel groggy and unprepared for my day. For some reason though I can’t help hitting that button in the morning that allows me a few more minutes of much needed rest.  Surprisingly I am not alone,  57%  of Americans also love the snooze button. In an article by The Journal for Sleep Specialist, a study by French tech firm Withings, results showed we spend a total of 3.5 months of our lives hitting the snooze button.  Not only are we hitting the snooze more, we also are not getting enough sleep.  In a survey by the Better Sleep Council, 48 percent of Americans stated that they do not get enough sleep. On average adults need seven to eight hours of sleep, we all know this is important but how many of us are getting this much rest?  It’s important to take this recommendation to heart; sleep deprivation can be dangerous to your health and those around you. The most  common issues related to lack of sleep, include fatigue and inability to concentrate. The Longer-term issues related include links to heart disease, strokes, diabetes and mental health issues. A lack of sleep can also mess with our hormones linked to appetite control, leading to weight gain over time.

Now that you know the dangers related with lack of sleep its important to put some healthy practices in your tool box to help you get a better night’s rest.

  1. Increase Bright Light Exposure During the Day- get out and soak in some rays.  Your body will develop a natural rhythm.
  2. Reduce Blue Light Exposure in the Evening- do not use your phone an hour before bed.
  3. Don't Consume Caffeine Late in the Day-when consumed late in the day, the stimulation can stop your body from naturally relaxing at night.
  4. Reduce Irregular or Long Daytime Naps- These naps can have a affect on your sleep at night.
  5. Try to Sleep and Wake at Consistent Times-Your body's circadian rhythm functions on a set loop, aligning itself with sunrise and sunset.
  6. Don't Drink Alcohol- Drinking a couple of drinks at night can have a   negative affect your sleep and hormones.

(17 Proven Tips to Sleep Better at Night, www.healthline.com)

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