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Dry Bean Plant Types, Development and Maturity (05/30/19)

Dry edible bean has two basic plant types, determinate (bush) or indeterminate (vining or trailing). Within the vining types, there are upright vine and upright short vine varieties (see bean descriptions Table 24-27 in the North Dakota Dry Bean variety results publication A654-18).

Dry edible bean has two basic plant types,plsc.1 determinate (bush) or indeterminate (vining or trailing). Within the vining types, there are upright vine and upright short vine varieties (see bean descriptions Table 24-27 in the North Dakota Dry Bean variety results publication A654-18). Varieties may be classified according to plant types. As an example, navy beans can be determinate or indeterminate. One of the defining characteristics of determinate types is that stem elongation stops when the terminal flower racemes of the main stem or lateral branches are developed. In North Dakota in indeterminate types, flowering and pod filling may continue as long as temperature and moisture are favorable for plant growth.

Dry bean growth stage, at any point in the vegetative stage, can be observed, by counting the number of nodes on the main stem. Reproductive stage classification begins when the first flower opens (R1) and is described and characterized by observing pod development and seed filling within the developed pod.

         Bean Growth stages

Germination and stand establishment (V1 to V2)

Rapid vegetative growth (V3 to V8)

Flowering and pod development (R1 to R4)

Pod fill and maturation (R5 to R9)

 

In the North Dakota variety trial publication, the total number of days from planting to physiological maturity are provided for most of the test locations. These are good estimates to differentiate maturity between varieties, and they vary among market classes. When planting late, an earlier maturing variety should be selected to account for the reduced growing season.

Dry bean maturity date and development in a season depends greatly on planting date and maturity of a selected variety. Factors affecting development include planting in cool and/or wet soils, planting in dry soils, insufficient or excessive soil moisture, high temperatures during flowering delaying pod set, or low temperatures during maturation. Varietal maturity length also may be extended by preplant herbicide injury, excess of or lack of certain plant nutrients, low plant stands, or hail damage. Some of these factors can be controlled, others cannot.

Resources for dry bean management

-Dry edible bean production crops team website

-Fertilizing Pinto, Navy and other Dry Bean (SF720)

-Pinto Bean Response to Phosphorus Starter Fertilizer in East-central North Dakota (A1883)

-Black and Navy Bean: Response to Row Spacing and Plant Population in Eastern North Dakota (A1921)

 

Hans Kandel

Extension Agronomist Broadleaf Crops

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