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Dry Bean Growing in North Dakota (06/11/20)

NDSU authors have revised the “Dry Bean Production Guide” (A1133-20 Figure 1).

NDSU authors have revised the “Dry Bean Production Guide” (A1133-20 Figure 1). The publication is intended for agricultural producers growing dry bean as a crop. The text covers basic plant adaptation, crop production, variety and field selection, fertilization, inoculation, seeding, weed control, diseases, insects, rotational benefits and harvesting.

Dry beans is a human food high in protein, phosphorus, zinc, iron, vitamin B1 and fiber, among many other nutritional traits. Dry beans are an important staple food in many areas of the world, especially in Central and South America, and Africa. Pinto is the most important market class in North Dakota, based on acreage and value, followed by navy and black bean. These three market classes account for approximately 95% of the total acres of production. Kidney, pink, small red, cranberry and others are grown on limited acres.

Dry bean plant development has been divided into vegetative (V) and reproductive (R) stages. Vegetative stages are determined by counting the number of trifoliolate leaves (V1 to Vn) on the main stem beginning above the unifoliolate leaf. Reproductive stages are described with pod and seed characters in addition to nodes. At the time of first flower (reproductive stage indicated by R), secondary branching begins in the axis of lower nodes, which will produce secondary groups of flowers and pods. A node is counted when the edges of the leaflets no longer touch.

With hot weather and thunderstorms, hail can occur. The amount of crop damage in dry bean caused by hail will depend on the intensity, size of hail stones and duration, as well as stage of development. The dominant growing point of the dry bean plants is located at the top of the plant where new leaves are emerging. There are also axillary buds in leaf axils that can serve as growing points where new branches can develop. If the top of the plant is damaged, or the stem is cut off above the cotyledonary node, the plant will re-grow from one or more of the axillary buds. Severe hail damage can delay plant maturity. Limited yield reduction will result from hail damage during the early stage of plant development, as there is time available for plant recovery.

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Hans Kandel

Extension Agronomist Broadleaf Crops

This site is supported in part by the Crop Protection and Pest Management Program [grant no. 2017-70006-27144/accession 1013592] from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed are those of the website author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

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