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Weather/Crop Phenology Maps (05/21/15)

Maps detailing corn accumulated daily growing days, percent normal rainfall, departure from normal average air temperature, and accumulated wheat growing degree days.

Weather/Crop Phenology Maps

wthr.aa.Corn

wthr.aa.Precipitation

wthr.aa.Temperature

wthr.aa.Wheat

F. Adnan Akyuz, Ph.D.

Professor of Climatological Practices

North Dakota State Climatologist

http://www.ndsu.edu/ndsco/

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Crop Management Field School Announcement (05/21/15)

NDSU Extension Service’s annual crop management field school will be offered Thursday, June 18, from 9 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. at the Carrington Research Extension Center (CREC).

Crop Management Field School

NDSU Extension Service’s annual crop management field school will be offered Thursday, June 18, from 9 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. at the Carrington Research Extension Center (CREC). The school will provide hands-on training on crop and weed management using field research and demonstration plots. Field sessions include weed identification, herbicide site-of-action, corn post-emergence nitrogen application; and soybean production management. For further details and preregistration information, go to www.ag.ndsu.edu/CarringtonREC or contact the CREC at (701) 652-2951. Preregistration (completed form and $75) is required by June 15 ($100 after June 15). CCAs participating in the event will receive five continuing education credits.

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Greg Endres

Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems

NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center

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South Central ND (05/21/15)

Information from the South Central region of North Dakota.

South-Central ND

The region’s NDAWN stations indicate rain received during May 1-19 ranged from 3.8 inches (Harvey) to 6.0 inches (Marion), with reports indicating totals near 10 inches. Recent rains (May 16-18) ranged from 0.7-2.6 inches with several inches of snow. The rain (and snow) cooled soils – the region’s average temperatures at the 4-inch depth on bare ground (NDAWN) on May 18 ranged from 36-46 degrees. Also, May 19 had the lowest minimum air temperatures, ranging from 22-32 degrees. Crops with growing points below ground (small grain, corn and field pea) are expected to tolerate the cool soil temperatures, although some foliage may be damaged from the low air temperatures, especially with corn. Emerged soybean was at the greatest risk for plant death. With all crops, inspection for regrowth during this weekend will indicate plant response to the cold environment.

The weather forecast indicates that planting should resume the late this week. A small percentage of corn acres are yet to be planted while soybean will be the primary focus, with about 25% of the acres currently planted. Dry bean and sunflower planting will also commence when soil conditions are fit.

Greg Endres

Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems

NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center

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North Central ND (05/21/15)

Information from the North Central region of North Dakota.

Rainfall based on NDAWN data indicates rainfall totals ranging from 1.32” to 2.31” during the past week in Garrison and Minot, respectively. Individual producer accounts have reported over 3” of rainfall in isolated areas. In addition, Minot received 1.5” of snowfall on May 18. Minimum freezing temperatures in the region ranged from 27 to 31 degrees in Bowbells and Minot, respectively. Duration of freezing temperatures ranged from 2 to 8 hours. Rugby had freezing temperatures 4 days over the last week. Corn GDD based on a May 1 planting in the region are an average of 80, corn planted before this date may be emerged. Damage from freezing temperatures on emerged crops is of concern. Most producers are concerned about emerged flax and canola. Very few soybean fields in the region have emerged.

Shana Pederson

Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems

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Weed Control in Dry Beans (05/21/15)

The following is a question from a consultant in NE. The answer can apply to dry bean growers in ND.

Weed Control in Dry Beans

The following is a question from a consultant in NE. The answer can apply to dry bean growers in ND.

I am a crop consultant in Nebraska and was wondering if you have a weed control program that you would recommend for us to use in our dry edible fields this year. Our main problem weed is waterhemp. Our soils are light sandy and last year we applied 3 pts of Eptam + 1 pt of Dual PPI, followed by 2 pts of Prowl preemergence. About a month later we applied 4 oz of Raptor + 11 oz of Basagran + nonionic surfactant 0.25% v/v and 1.41 lbs AMS per 100 gallons. Four days later we applied 0.5 pts of Reflex with 0.25 % NIS and 1.41 lbs AMS per 100 gallons. This program was successful where we had a light water hemp infestation. However it was a great failure in the heavily infested fields. We did cultivate sometime after the Reflex application. If you don’t mind sharing with me what is the standard practice at your research station I would love to know what you use.  I am sure you are thinking why doesn’t this guy ask the Nebraska weed science people. We have talked to them before but they do not have waterhemp in the dry edible growing areas of Nebraska. Thank you for your help.

Answer: Below are some factors to consider with herbicides used:

1. Eptam has about 3 weeks effective weed control then is broken down rapidly.

2. Dual has about 4 weeks effective weed control then is broken down rapidly.

3. Prowl is mostly non-soluble in water and requires rain or irrigation to move into the soil when weed seeds germinate. Prowl has several weeks of activity after activation.

4. Most all waterhemp is ALS resistant so Raptor would be ineffective. You may know if it is susceptible but I would doubt it.

5. Rates of Basagran and Reflex used are too low.

6. Nonionic surfactant (NIS) is the least effective adjuvant with the herbicides used

7. The rate if AMS was too low.

8. All POST herbicides should be applied to waterhemp less than 2 inches tall for greatest control.

Consider these options:

PPI Eptam at 3.5 pt + Sonalan at 2 pt/A or the highest rate allowed for soil type.

Apply Spartan Elite PRE at rates labeled for your soil type. Spartan Elite contains sulfentrazone (Authority or Spartan) + Dual. I am not sure if Spartan Elite or Spartan Charge is labeled in NE because of crop injury but you can check. Spartan Elite has shown synergistic weed control in NDSU research. Sulfentrazone give 8-10 weeks residual control. PRE herbicides require incorporation with water.

If all herbicides are incorporated sufficiently this program should provide excellent weed control through canopy. If waterhemp emerges apply the following herbicides before waterhemp plants reach 1.5 inches tall:

Apply Basagran at 16 fl oz + Reflex at 4 fl oz/A + methylated seed oil (MSO adjuvant at 1 to 1.5 pt/A + AMS at 8.5 lbs/100 gal

If needed apply the same treatment again after 10 days. No more than 0.75 pt/A can be applied in a growing season in ND so you must check to see your total use limit and adjust rates accordingly and apply consistent with the label.

At NDSU we developed a program called the NDSU Dry bean tank-mix where 4 to 5 herbicides are applied together at reduced rates with MSO adjuvant. Some forms of it are used extensively. It was developed to control a wide range of weeds but in this case with your pivot weed being waterhemp we can adapt it for that weed. For example since waterhemp is resistant to ALS herbicides then Raptor can be eliminated unless you have other weeds that Raptor will help control. Refer to page 33 in the following file for the Dry bean tankmix listing:

http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/weeds/weed-control-guides/nd-weed-control-guide-1/wcg-files/5-Soy.pdf

Sequential POST applications are very important in dry bean weed control but must be done to SMALL weeds if it is to work. Refer to paragraph E3 and E4 on page 81 in the following file for information on Basagran and the effect of MSO adjuvant and on Reflex:

http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/weeds/weed-control-guides/nd-weed-control-guide-1/wcg-files/5-Soy.pdf

Also refer to paragraph F5 and F6 on page 83 in the same file listed above for more information on the NDSU Dry bean tank-mix.

MSO adjuvant is the most effective adjuvant for Basagran, Raptor, Reflex and many other herbicides. It high effectiveness may also cause some level of burn to dry beans leaves. Usually it temporary and the beans grow out of it. You will have to make the choice if you or your growers are willing to accept some potential crop injury from use of a very effective adjuvant. You can use an NIS with little or no crop injury but poor weed control or use an MSO with some potential dry bean injury but with the greatest weed control.

Rich Zollinger

Extension Weed Specialist

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Conversion of Dry to Wet Metribuzin (05/21/15)

Question: I was wondering if you could help me clarify some questions that we have been getting from crop consultants and retailers lately. There is a trend of growers wanting to use liquid metribuzin instead of dry formulations due to ease of handling and sprayer cleanout issues. I have seen a lot of confusion in the field about what the conversion of dry formulations to the liquid equivalent is.

Conversion of Dry to Wet Metribuzin

Question: I was wondering if you could help me clarify some questions that we have been getting from crop consultants and retailers lately.  There is a trend of growers wanting to use liquid metribuzin instead of dry formulations due to ease of handling and sprayer cleanout issues.  I have seen a lot of confusion in the field about what the conversion of dry formulations to the liquid equivalent is. 

We contacted one of the technical service representatives for the manufactures of liquid metribuzin and were told to multiply the ounces of desired dry metribuzin by 1.58 to yield the ounces of liquid desired. Can you confirm that this conversion is accurate, it would help us let retailers and growers make an informed buying decision.

Answer: Thanks for sending. This would be an excellent problem for our undergraduates to use in their weed science courses. I think everyone is right if calculations are done correctly. It is most important to compare apples to apples and use active ingredient (ai) rates for both DF and 4L metribuzin formulations. 

                4 oz 75DF = 0.25 lb 75DF = 0.188 lb ai = 3 oz ai. 

                I was not aware the liquid formulations are 3.8 instead of 4 lb/gal. If so then:

                3 oz ai of a 3.8 lb ai/gal metribuzin = 6.32 fl oz Metribuzin 4L

                The conversion factor of 1.58 will work only when using oz of product not lbs. the calculation below is correct:

                4 oz 75DF x 1.58 = 6.32 DL 

In the weed guide we show metribuzin rates as lb 75DF/A. If incorrectly using 0.25 lb 75DF then the calculation will yield an incorrect number: 

                0.25 lb 75DF x 1.58 = ~0.4 fl oz 4L

Rich Zollinger

Extension Weed Specialist

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Control of Cover Crops (05/21/15)

Question: I am wondering if you have done any work on residual control of turnips and radish planted as a cover crop. We had several areas planted last fall and with the dry weather they did not germinate. I am wondering what by best option for residual control in soybeans will be. I am thinking Authority Assist.

Control of Cover Crops

Question: I am wondering if you have done any work on residual control of turnips and radish planted as a cover crop.  We had several areas planted last fall and with the dry weather they did not germinate.  I am wondering what by best option for residual control in soybeans will be.  I am thinking Authority Assist.

 Answer: Turnips and radish are in the Brassica family which is the same family as wild mustard and canola. ALS herbicides are very effective as others listed in the weed guide. Look at ratings for wild mustard in the weed guide.

Rich Zollinger

Extension Weed Specialist

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Rivers to Nowhere (05/21/15)

Now is a good time before bustling back to the field to drive around the fields and look, and take pictures and make notes of ditches that go nowhere.

Rivers to Nowhere

Now is a good time before bustling back to the field to drive around the fields and look, and take pictures and make notes of ditches that go nowhere. These are the long, thin lakes at the edges of many fields all across eastern North Dakota. Ditches were originally artifacts of building up the roadway, with I think little thought to actual drainage. Things are different now, and if there are some dusty township drainage district minutes from long ago, it is time to think about reviving them. Most interesting are the feverishly pumping tile drains going into the ditch, that goes nowhere and probably is recycled back underground into the field to be pumped into the ditch and so on and so on….

Where to start? Think about where the stream is. Maybe the land is so landlocked that some thought has to be given to eventually building a man-made wetland in part of a field just to hold the water. But let’s assume that looking over the landscape the general slope of the land goes towards a stream a few miles down the road. You look at the ditch. The culvert is half clogged with dirt and debris (it’s not soil in a culvert). Clean it out. The ditch has blown half full of soil from years of tillage. It’s time to dredge it out and put it back in the field, and reseed the ditch. Make sure it’s graded so it goes somewhere. Visit with neighbors and see about grading the rest of the ditch line so that when the water leaves your farm it doesn’t pond their farm and instead goes onward into the stream.  And don’t farm the ditch!

Tiling is Step One. Making sure the water can go somewhere is Step Two (actually it was Step One, but somehow it was skipped in 1920).

Dave Franzen

NDSU Extension Soil Specialist

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Sulfur Losses in Rainfall (05/21/15)

The high rainfall over the past week has resulted in S losses, particularly in sandier soils, especially on hilltops and slopes.

Sulfur Losses in Rainfall

The high rainfall over the past week has resulted in S losses, particularly in sandier soils, especially on hilltops and slopes. Even if sulfate sulfur was applied preplant or at planting, supplemental S on these soils may be necessary. Small grains, corn and canola are most susceptible to S deficiency. For some reason unknown to me or my soil fertility colleagues, soybean is not nearly as susceptible as the aforementioned crops. Supplemental S can be applied as dry ammonium sulfate over the top, or streamed in small grains as ammonium thiosulfate. Do not broadcast ammonium thiosulfate over any crop, except injected into an irrigation rig. Supplemental S can also be applied to corn side-dress, by adding ammonium thiosulfate to the UAN solution. Coulter application in corn is best when rainfall is not expected for several days.

Dave Franzen

NDSU Extension Soil Specialist

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Nitrogen Supplements (05/21/15)

There are three reasons why growers might need to consider supplemental N fertilizer a little later on in the growing season.

Nitrogen Supplements

There are three reasons why growers might need to consider supplemental N fertilizer a little later on in the growing season. The first is because some growers succumbed to talk of drought and decided to error on the side of lower yields and lower N rates. If this happened, the recent recharging of the subsoil in the state (the whole state, really), has changed the yield outlook. Pay attention to the wheat and corn N calculators, because these are economic based. It doesn’t make any sense to pay $10 to make $5; people can grow broke that way. But if there is a difference between what was applied and what is needed based on the calculator, then planning for topdress/sidedress N is in order.

The second reason is if wheat growers planned to go for bushels to offset low grain prices and chose a high yielding variety such as Faller to make this happen. What was not considered enough is that in years of low grain prices, protein varieties trump high yielding varieties for return. If a growers’ Faller makes 100 bushels per acre, wheat price is $5/bushel at harvest, but the dock for 12% protein is $2 per bushel, does $300 per acre pay for expenses. If a growers’ Glenn under similar conditions made 80 bushels per acre, but hit 14% protein, $400 looks a lot better than $300 per acre. So given the rainfall we just had and cooler temperatures and high temperatures not in the foreseeable future, higher yields and lower protein are also in your future. Therefore, to minimize protein discounts, supplemental N between now and jointing would be a very good plan unless it hits 110 degrees somewhere in the next few weeks and doesn’t rain again this summer.

The third reason for considering supplemental N is N loss from high rainfall in the eastern 2/3 of the state. A 4-8 inch rain over several days will both leach N from sandier soils, particularly hilltops and slopes, and produce denitrification losses in higher clay soils. In the Fargo area, for example, the soils have now been muddy for at least 8 days. Basing the following estimate on similar conditions in 2010, 2011, 2013 and 2014, we probably have lost over 20 pounds of N so far in these soils and the corn is barely up. Any additional rain and muddy days in high clay soils will result in losses of about 1.5% per day. A high N strip would more accurately illustrate any losses, but without such a strip, using the estimate will be in the ballpark.

For small grains, stream-bars or urease inhibitor (NBPT products such as Agrotain® or another NBPT containing product, or Limus® from BASF, which contains NBPT and NPPT, are effective- no other chemistries available in the USA have been shown effective) treated urea would be recommended up to jointing. Protein enhancement only is recommended immediately post-anthesis, in a Crop and Pest Report to be named later. Corn side-dress can happen anytime after planting, but is ideally applied from V4 to V8 before the large corn N demand kicks in.

A word of caution for those interested in Y-tubes: This apparatus was designed in the central corn belt. Having worked there nearly half my career, nearly every morning the corn plants are wet with dew; really wet, soaking wet with dew. Walk into a corn field in central Illinois at 6AM and your jeans will be wet to the thighs within 20 feet of the ditch. Here, many mornings there is hardly any dew at all. Sometimes, there is, and most times there is not. We do not have the early morning water that would make a Y-tube as effective as in moister climates. If there is no dew, streaming in the mid-row is just as good.

Just saying.

Dave Franzen

NDSU Extension Soil Specialist

 

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