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NDSU 2018 Soybean IDC Scores Available (08/30/18)

Field choice and selecting a variety with tolerance to iron-deficiency chlorosis (IDC) are the most important management decisions producers will make in avoiding or reducing the negative yield effect of chlorosis.

NDSU 2018 Soybean IDC Scores Available

Field choice and selecting a variety with tolerance to iron-deficiency chlorosis (IDC) are the most important management decisions producers will make in avoiding or reducing the negative yield effect of chlorosis. IDC was prevalent in many soybean fields in eastern North Dakota and northwestern Minnesota during the 2018 growing season.

During the early summer of 2018, the NDSU soybean breeding program tested 201 Roundup Ready and Xtend soybean varieties, as well as 43 conventional and Liberty Link varieties for IDC tolerance. The test results are available at https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/varietytrials/soybean.

Results are based on field studies conducted at two locations with a past history of IDC. Visual ratings were made on a 1 to 5 scale, with 1 representing no chlorosis and 5 being the most severe chlorosis. Ratings were taken twice, at two different growth stages.

Soybean varieties have genetic differences for the expression of IDC symptoms, and some have tolerance to IDC. No soybean variety is immune to chlorosis, but large differences in yellowing and subsequent plant stunting occur between the most tolerant and most susceptible varieties.

Although most soils in North Dakota have sufficient iron, under certain conditions such as high carbonates, high pH, excess moisture, cool temperatures or high nitrate content, soybean plants are unable to take up sufficient iron from the soil. This often results in soybean fields with yellowing and reduced plant growth.

Plant leaves with IDC symptoms are yellow with green veins. Yellowing, browning and stunting of the plants during the early vegetative stages will result in less photosynthesis in these plants, compared with healthy green plants, causing reduced soybean yields.

The yellowing of the leaves usually becomes pronounced when the plants reach the two- to seven-trifoliolate leaf stages. Soybean plants may grow out of IDC symptoms and turn green at the end of the vegetative growth stages but due to the early season IDC, yields still will be reduced.

 

Hans Kandel

Extension Agronomist Broadleaf Crops

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Cover Crop Field Day NDSU Campus (08/30/18)

Cover crop use, the benefits of cover crops, and how they can be used as part of an interseeding system in corn and soybeans will be the focus of a North Dakota State University Extension Field Day on Sept. 18.

Cover Crop Field Day NDSU Campus

Cover crop use, the benefits of cover crops, and how they can be used as part of an interseeding system in corn and soybeans will be the focus of a North Dakota State University Extension Field Day on Sept. 18.

The field day will be at the NDSU campus research plots 0.4 mile west of the corner of 18th Street and 15th Avenue North in Fargo. The sessions begin at 8 a.m. and end at 3 p.m.

The event will highlight 20 different cover crop species and how they can be incorporated into a farming operation or used for fall grazing.

Other topics presenters will discuss are the benefits and challenges of cover crops, forage sorghum and grazing mixtures, and the results of seeding timing and the rate of rye and camelina seeded into standing soybeans. The tour also includes viewing interseeding equipment.

In addition, participants will visit the field research plots near Hickson, N.D., by bus. Stops include a research area with cover crop interseeded into corn and a research site investigating the effect of fall-seeded cover crops on the currently grown corn and sugar beet crops.

After lunch, researchers will present results of interseeding camelina and pennycress in corn and soybeans. The program will conclude with a panel discussion, which will include a question-and-answer session.

Lunch will be provided. Registration is required. Go to https://goo.gl/forms/QsGm0k14UTTXNOlF3

to register online. For more information about the field day and preliminary research results, visit the project’s website at https://www.cropsyscap.org/ .

This field day is part of the outreach effort associated with a National Institute of Food and Agriculture grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture awarded to North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station scientists (Award no. 2016-69004-24784, “CropSys - A novel management approach to increase productivity, resilience, and long-term sustainability of cropping systems in the northern Great Plains”). This research aims to study how cover crops can increase the resiliency and productivity of crops such as corn and soybeans, and improve soil health and land use efficiency.

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Hans Kandel

Extension Agronomist Broadleaf Crops

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2018 IPM Survey Results – Small Grain (08/30/18)

The purpose of the IPM (Integrated Pest Management) Survey is to detect the presence and population levels of diseases and insect pests that are common in wheat and barley grown in North Dakota.

2018 IPM Survey Results – Small Grain

The purpose of the IPM (Integrated Pest Management) Survey is to detect the presence and population levels of diseases and insect pests that are common in wheat and barley grown in North Dakota. Ten survey scouts or insect trappers operated out of the Dickinson Research Extension Center, the North Central Research Extension Center (Minot), the Carrington Research Extension Center, the Langdon Research Extension Center, the Williston Research Extension Center and the Fargo Agricultural Experiment Station. The NDSU IPM scouts were:

  • Brittney Aasand, central and south central counties, worked out of Carrington REC with Greg Endres
  • Marc Michaelson, southwest and west central counties, worked out of Dickinson REC with Ryan Buetow
  • Caleb Cross and Bree Obergfell, north central counties, worked out of NCREC in Minot with Travis Prochaska
  • Scott Roseth and Jace Paryzek, northwest counties, worked out of Williston REC with Audrey Kalil
  • Dan Kraemer and Stafford Thompson, southeast and east central counties, worked out of NDSU campus, Fargo with Jan Knodel, Andrew Friskop and Sam Markell.
  • Kaylee Anderson and Traci Murphy, northeast counties, worked out of Langdon REC with Leslie Lubenow and Benson County Extension Office with Scott Knoke

NDSU IPM field scouts surveyed a total of 1,385 wheat fields (winter wheat, hard red spring wheat, durum wheat) and 105 barley fields for 18 diseases and 6 insect pests of North Dakota in 2018. The survey was initiated on June 4 and continued through August 10. Crops were surveyed from the 2-leaf stage through ripening stages. IPM survey data/maps provide near real-time pest information to North Dakota producers and others in agriculture to assist with scouting and pest management decision making. Pest maps from the 2018 IPM Survey in North Dakota were uploaded weekly onto the NDSU IPM website. Some of the pest highlights for wheat and barley are summarized next.

Insect Pests:

Grasshoppers – Adult grasshoppers were observed in 75% of the fields surveyed. This was an increase from last year’s incidence with only 36% of fields surveyed reporting grasshoppers. The number of grasshoppers per 4 sweeps (1 yd2) ranged from 1 to 25. The hot and dry weather conditions during August favored late season grasshopper infestation; however, most fields only had feeding damage on field edges. Grasshopper ‘hot spots’ in 2018 included Benson, Bottineau, Renville and Ward Counties.

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Grain aphids were very low and observed in only 3% of the wheat fields and 8% of the barley fields surveyed in North Dakota. Grain aphids were first detected on June 19 and populations never developed economic levels (85% of stems infested with one or more aphids).

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Wheat stem maggot was observed in 16% of wheat fields surveyed in ND and the number of white heads ranged from one to 36% of plants infested. Wheat fields with high numbers of white heads, >20% incidence, were observed in Barnes, Cass, Ransom and Sargent Counties in southeast area (see map below).

 

Wheat stem sawfly was found in only 2% of the wheat fields surveyed in ND. In 2018, wheat stem sawflies were observed in northwest (Burke, Divide, McKenzie, Mountrail Counties); north central (Bottineau, McLean, Renville and Ward Counties) and southwest (Golden Valley County) areas of ND. The late summer drought impacted these sawfly-infested areas, increasing favorable conditions for wheat stem sawfly. Although populations were low statewide in 2018, wheat growers reported lodging problems from wheat stem sawfly in Bottineau, Renville and Ward Counties.

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Cereal leaf beetle is no longer a pest of export concern for shipments of hay from North Dakota to California or Canada; however, we still monitor cereal leaf beetle as an economic insect pest of wheat and barley. In 2018, there was only one observation of cereal leaf beetle in wheat in Divide County and no positive observations in barley. North Dakota counties that have had cereal leaf beetle detections in the past include Burke, Divide, McKenzie, Mountrail and Williams counties in northwest; Renville and Ward counties in north central; and Cavalier county in northeast.

Barley thrips were low and observed in only 14% of the barley fields surveyed from June through July. The central area of ND reported most of the barley thrips at an average of <1 thrips per stem, which is below the economic threshold. The rains in early summer helped reduce populations of barley thrips. The 2018 economic threshold for barley thrips was an average of >4 thrips per stem for malting barley.

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Diseases:

The two most common wheat diseases detected by IPM scouts in wheat were tan spot and bacterial leaf streak. Tan spot was recorded in 12.7% (Figure 1) of the fields and bacterial leaf streak was recorded in 10.4% (Figure 2) of the fields. Tan spot severity levels remained low and were not regularly detected on the flag leaf. However, in fields where bacterial leaf streak was found, extensive damage on the flag leaf was noticed likely leading to yield loss. Barley foliar diseases were found in 20% of the fields and were generally at very low severities. Bacterial leaf streak was the most common foliar disease detected (13%), followed by net blotch (11%), then spot blotch (8%).

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Fusarium head blight (scab) risk was moderate to high at various points in the growing season. The greatest areas of risk were in southwestern ND, central ND and northeastern ND. The NDSU IPM scouts visited 272 wheat fields during the time scab is most visible and documented the disease in 25% of the fields (Figure 3). Most fields were at low severity (< 5.0 severity index), while a few fields had moderate to high amounts of scab (> 10.0 severity index).

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Acknowledgments: Sincere thanks to the hard working field scouts of 2018! We also appreciate the help of Darla Bakko, NDSU Dept. of Plant Pathology, for data compilation, and Honggang Bu, NDSU Dept. of Soil Science, for ArcMap programming. This survey is supported in part by the Crop Protection and Pest Management Program [grant no. 2017-70006-27144/accession 1013592] from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the North Dakota Department of Agriculture.

Janet J. Knodel 

Extension Entomology

 

Andrew Friskop

Extension Plant Pathology, Cereal Crops

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New Soybean Gall Midge Found in other States (08/30/18)

A new insect, soybean gall midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) has been found in soybeans fields in neighboring states including Minnesota, eastern South Dakota, western Iowa and eastern Nebraska.

New Soybean Gall Midge Found in other States

A new insect, soybean gall midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) has been found in soybeans fields in neighboring states including Minnesota, eastern South Dakota, western Iowa and eastern Nebraska. The bright orange larvae can be found inside the stems or pith near the base of the plant. The orange larvae look similar to the wheat midge larvae that commonly infest wheat in North Dakota. Some entomologists feel that the soybean gall midge is associated with injury from hail or diseases, such as Sclerotinia white mold. Species identification is being conducted from larvae collected in infested soybeans in other states.

As far as we know, there is no soybean gall midge in North Dakota yet. However, if you see or know of any orange larvae in the base of soybeans, please contact Extension Entomology. It is unknown if this insect will become a new economic pest of soybeans in the future and if it will be discovered in North Dakota.

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Janet J. Knodel

Extension Entomologist

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Chlorpyrifos update (08/30/18)

Chlorpyrifos (trade names Lorsban 4E, Lorsban Advanced, Cobalt, Cobalt Advanced and several generic insecticides) belongs to the organophosphate group of insecticides, IRAC 1B, and is a widely used broad spectrum neurotoxic pesticide for control of many insect pests of field crops.

Chlorpyrifos update

Chlorpyrifos (trade names Lorsban 4E, Lorsban Advanced, Cobalt, Cobalt Advanced and several generic insecticides) belongs to the organophosphate group of insecticides, IRAC 1B, and is a widely used broad spectrum neurotoxic pesticide for control of many insect pests of field crops. Some examples include:

  • Alfalfa – grasshoppers, leafhoppers, armyworms, cutworms, pea aphids, plant bugs
  • Dry beans – aphids, armyworms, bean leaf beetles, caterpillars, cutworms, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, seed corn maggots, spider mites
  • Field corn – cutworms, grubs, seed corn maggot, wireworm, grasshoppers, armyworms
  • Soybean – grasshoppers, Lepidoptera foliage feeders, armyworms, bean leaf beetles, cutworms, soybean aphids, spider mites
  • Sugarbeet – grasshoppers, spider mites, Lygus bugs, sugarbeet root maggots, aphids
  • Sunflower – cutworms, grasshoppers, banded sunflower moths, seed weevils, stem weevils, sunflower beetles, sunflower moths, Lygus bugs
  • Wheat – aphids, grasshoppers, army cutworm, cutworms, wheat midge, cereal leaf beetle

In addition, chlorpyrifos has played an important role as a rotational use product for growers to delay the development of insecticide resistance for some insect pests, such as soybean aphids and spider mites.

The 9th Circuit Court of Appeals recently ordered the EPA to revoke all chlorpyrifos tolerances and cancel all registrations of this widely used insecticide within 60 days.

It is too early in the process to know known how the EPA will react to this ruling or what the outcome will be or if it will affect future insect control. Fortunately, we are at the end of our field season for insect management in 2018. Right now, it is still legal to continue using chlorpyrifos according to label directions for insect pest control in field crops. If chlorpyrifos registrations are canceled, there is usually a window of time provided for growers to use up existing stock. Below is a link to EPA’s website on why and how the EPA would revoke a pesticide tolerance, which includes relevant laws and procedural steps:

https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-tolerances/revoking-pesticide-tolerances

 

 

Janet J. Knodel

Extension Entomologist

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The Complexity of Nitrogen (08/16/18)

My project with Abbey Wick includes a cover crop site NE of Gardner.

The Complexity of Nitrogen

My project with Abbey Wick includes a cover crop site NE of Gardner. Within it is corn after cover crop or not, soybean after cover crop or not, and spring wheat with cover crop or not that we harvested just last Thursday. The spring wheat followed soybean, so one would expect and I think we received a nitrogen credit. Also, the residual nitrate-N this spring was just under 60 lb/acre. Granted, the wheat variety was a lower protein spring wheat, but even so, the 200 lb/acre N rate treatment made 13.8% protein. The yields were in the mid-70 bu/acre range. It took over 300 lb N/acre for the variety to make 13.8% protein! What?(!)

The ND spring wheat N calculator rate for a 2-yr-into no-till field in eastern ND with high yield potential and residual N of about 50 lb/acre after soybean is about 155 lb N/acre. In our study, the yield of 155 lb N/acre would again be over 70 bu/acre, and the protein for the 160 lb N/acre treatment was about 13.5%.

I received a call a couple days ago from a farmer in eastern ND and my calculator scenario above was almost identical to his results. He asked me what he should have done to get greater protein. I asked him if he was really willing to apply another 100 lb N/acre (cost about $40/acre more roughly) and he told me of course not. If it had rained (which it didn’t- pretty dry in NE ND all season), the wheat would have been on the ground. Exactly!

When it’s dry as its been this season in most of the state (but with decent early season rain, thankfully), the efficiency of any N applied and the release of N from the soil is extremely low. If the season had supported a higher yield, the efficiency of N available would have been much higher and yield would have been higher, and maybe even more protein if there had been July rain. This year it took far more N per bushel (and per protein gain) than in a ‘normal’ year, whatever that is. That’s why N rate and yield are not linked.

 

Dave Franzen

Extension Soil Specialist

701-799-2565

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Southwest ND (08/16/18)

Information from the Southwest region of North Dakota.

Peas, barley, and some spring wheat have been harvested in the region. Canola is nearing maturity. Sunflowers in the region range from the R-5 to R-6 growth stages. According to NDAWN, from August 1st through August 14th Dickinson has received 0.02 inch of rain. Over the same period, Beach received 0.05 inch and Hettinger received 0.22 inch. Corn and soybeans are showing drought stress across most of the region. Earlier this growing season corn and even soybeans were looking great, with rains across the region missing many over the past month; yields will suffer without rain in the near future.

Ryan Buetow

Extension Cropping Systems Specialist

NDSU Dickinson Research Extension Center

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South Central (08/16/18)

Information from the South Central region of North Dakota.

The region has received one-half inch or less rainfall during August. The current dry and warm period has been good for early season small grain harvest and haying but rough on corn and especially soybean yield potential.

Harvest is essentially complete with winter cereals, field pea and barley. The Carrington REC has some preliminary variety trial data for these crops: www.ag.ndsu.edu/varietytrials/carrington-rec/2018-trial-results.

Spring wheat acreage is about half harvested. Ergot is present in spring wheat throughout the south-central region (see Andrew Friskop’s article).

Early planted corn is in the dough to dent stages (R4-5), which puts the crop about a month away from maturity. Soybean generally are in the R5-6 growth stages (seed development). It continues to be common for soybean fields to show ‘gray’ areas from moisture and heat stress, while some fields have areas being pushed to maturity, showing plant yellowing and leaf drop (see pictures). Early maturing dry bean varieties are at maturity (R9 stage).

                Upcoming Carrington REC crop tours:

 *Row Crop - corn, dry bean and soybean (CREC): August 23; 4 p.m.

Endres 

Greg Endres

Extension Cropping Systems Specialist

NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center

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Northeast ND (08/16/18)

Information from the Northeast region of North Dakota.

Canola swathing is happening across the region. Sunflowers have wilting petals. Small grains harvest is full gear across the region. I’ve seen a few fields already chiseled plowed. With the early harvest, we have a great window to utilize cover crops this year. However, we will need rain to germinate the cover crops. Since most farmers rotate away from small grains, an alternate option of leaving the volunteer grain to grow will provide cover crop functions of cover for erosion and keep a living soil biosphere.

Rainfall is needed across the region. Large cracks are showing up in clay dominant soil. Soybeans are wilting especially in the drought pocket in NE Cavalier and northern Pembina counties. Some dry bean fields have nearly lost all their leaves. The corn has been coping fairly well. Corn is still hovering around 300 growing degree days above normal.

 

Lesley Lubenow

Area Extension Specialist/Agronomy

NDSU Langdon Research Extension Center

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Northwest ND (08/16/18)

Information from the Northwest region of North Dakota.

Harvest started in earnest last week with most growers starting with lentils and pea. Small grain harvest has begun and many fields of spring wheat, durum, and barley are ready for harvest. Canola and flax won’t be far behind, but depending on planting date, may spend a little longer in the field. Temperatures soared into the 100’s late last week and over the weekend, hastening the dry down of mature crops. However, temperatures fell off on Monday with highs only in the upper 60’s for most of NW ND and a few scattered showers that stopped harvesting. Less than 0.1” fell in most places, so growers are back to harvesting today. Highs in the upper 80’s to mid 90’s are predicted for the rest of the week with only very small chances of rain, so harvesting should be able to continue uninterrupted.

 

Clair Keene

Extension Cropping Systems Specialist

NDSU Williston Research Extension Center

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This site is supported in part by the Crop Protection and Pest Management Program [grant no. 2017-70006-27144/accession 1013592] from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed are those of the website author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

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