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Northeast ND (08/30/18)

Information from the Northeast region of North Dakota.

Small grains harvest is finished across most of the region. Canola harvest is continuing. Reported yields have been average to good for both cool season crops. Wheat protein percentages are high due to dry conditions, which the plants experienced this year.

Rainfall has finally come to the region. Areas have picked up 0.1 to 2 inches of precipitation. Drought stressed soybeans have been losing their leaves across the region. This rain will help pod fill in the fields where the beans have been able to hang on during the dry conditions. However, for some fields especially in the drought pockets and light soils, this rain came too late.

I’ve walked in about 70% of hemp fields in the northeast in last two weeks. Overall, the fields are drought impacted with crop heights averaging around 4.5 ft. Well-watered hemp can reach over 7 ft and few fields were that tall. Walking in the field, I could see where moisture was retained from a waterway or shady shelterbelt by function of the hemp plant height. Hemp is susceptible to white mold. I found it in very low amounts in Grand Forks County where

big rainstorms came through in June and July. With no labeled herbicides, hemp relies on shade to kill weeds. Redroot pigweed and common lambsquarters, to a lesser degree, were able to stretch their growth shapes in long spindles to keep up with the towering hemp. In drought-stressed fields, volunteer canola had no problem competing with 4.5 ft tall stands of hemp.

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Lesley Lubenow

Area Extension Specialist/Agronomy

NDSU Langdon Research Extension Center

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Pulse Crop Disease Scouting Summary (08/30/18)

NDSU pulse crop scouts (WREC: Shawn Postovit, NCREC: Graysyn Kitts) surveyed field pea, lentil and chickpea fields in northwest and north central North Dakota for diseases from late May until early August. Regular rainfall during the growing season led to environmental conditions suitable for disease development in all three crops.

Pulse Crop Disease Scouting Summary

NDSU pulse crop scouts (WREC: Shawn Postovit, NCREC: Graysyn Kitts) surveyed field pea, lentil and chickpea fields in northwest and north central North Dakota for diseases from late May until early August. Regular rainfall during the growing season led to environmental conditions suitable for disease development in all three crops.

Anthracnose and white mold were the primary foliar diseases observed in lentils this growing season. Anthracnose onset was in mid-July when the fields scouted were at the early pod growth stage. Incidence of diseased plants reached up to 18% in some fields (Figure 1). White mold was present in 60% of fields scouted from mid-July to early August with incidence ranging from 1-26% (Figure 1).

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Bacterial blight symptoms were observed in field pea beginning in early June when the crop was at late vegetative to early reproductive growth stages. Incidence reached 40-50% in some fields (Figure 2) with 2-18% of the crop canopy exhibiting symptoms. White mold was not observed in pea fields.

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Onset of Ascochyta blight in chickpea was in mid-June, when the crop was at mid to late vegetative growth stages. Fields varied greatly in incidence and severity of Ascochyta symptoms (Figure 3). In some fields, the percent of plants showing symptoms stayed below 4% throughout the survey, while in others incidence reached 100% by mid-July. The differences observed among fields were most likely due to the amount of the fungal pathogen present in fields (inoculum), rainfall and fungicide application timing.

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Thank You to all the producers who participated in the pulse crop scouting effort!

 

The Northern Pulse Growers Association funded this work.

 

Audrey Kalil

Plant Pathologist

NDSU Williston Research Extension Center

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Northwest ND (08/30/18)

Information from the Northwest region of North Dakota.

A lot of harvest progress has been made over the last two weeks. Conditions have generally been cooler than normal because of the thick haze from western forest fires hanging in the air. Things were getting very dry up until yesterday (August 26th) and soybeans that were green started to turn yellow and pasture grasses were going brown. However, scattered rain showers brought 0.1-0.5” across much of NW ND yesterday and spotty rain continues today.

Many of the small grain fields and pulse crops in the area have been harvested, but there still are acres waiting to be cut. Late-season crops generally aren’t ready yet and it will be a few weeks before sunflower and soybean are harvested.

A meeting on fall weed control will be held in Crosby at the Divide County Courthouse on Thursday, September 13th at 10:00 am. Farmers and crop advisors are encouraged to attend to learn about horseweed (aka marestail) and narrow leaf hawksbeard control.

 

Clair Keene

Extension Cropping Systems Specialist

NDSU Williston Research Extension Center

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North Central ND (08/30/18)

Information from the North Central region of North Dakota

The North Central Research Extension Center received about 0.71” of rain Sunday evening and into mid-day Monday. The Berthold NDAWN station received 0.42”, Bottineau 0.51”, Garrison 0.39”, and Rugby 0.49”.

Pulse harvest seems to have wrapped up in the region. Small grain and canola harvest appears to be about 2/3rds of the way completed in the North Central Region of the state. The summer generation of Canola Flea Beetle is continuing to make an impact; however, not necessarily in area fields, but in area gardens. For canola growers in the area, the new generation of flea beetles feeding on pods are rarely economic. Please note any high population areas as you think about planting canola in the spring of 2019.

TJ Prochaska

Extension Cropping Systems Specialist

NDSU North Central Research Extension Center

 

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Palmer Amaranth Confirmed in North Dakota (08/30/18)

Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) a member of the pigweed family was found in North Dakota for the first time. Laboratory analysis confirmed that a plant found in a row crop field in McIntosh County in southcentral North Dakota is Palmer amaranth.

Palmer Amaranth Confirmed in North Dakota

Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) a member of the pigweed family was found in North Dakota for the first time. Laboratory analysis confirmed that a plant found in a row crop field in McIntosh County in southcentral North Dakota is Palmer amaranth. A diligent farmer was scouting his field and hand-weeding waterhemp when he came across plants that looked unusual and wondered if they could be Palmer amaranth. The farmer pulled the plants to keep them from going to seed. He showed the plants to a local agronomist that contacted NDSU for confirmation.

Palmer amaranth is pigweed that originated in the desert region of the southwestern U.S. and has spread to the Mississippi Delta before invading Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota and South Dakota, as well as other states. The plant in McIntosh County likely came from seeds dropped by migratory birds.

Identifying Palmer amaranth can be difficult because it resembles redroot pigweed, Powell amaranth and waterhemp. One of the best ways to distinguish Palmer amaranth from the other pigweed family plants is its leaf stem, or petiole. Palmer amaranth’s petiole is as long as or longer than the leaf blade. Another characteristic is Palmer amaranth’s distinctive, long, snaky seed heads. The seed heads can grow up to 2 feet long. Visit NDSU Extension’s Palmer amaranth website at https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/palmeramaranth to learn more about Palmer amaranth and how to identify it.

Anyone who sees a plant that looks different and suspects it may be Palmer amaranth should contact their ag-retailer, crop consultant, industry or their local NDSU Extension agent as soon as possible.

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Tom Peters

 Extension Sugarbeet Agronomist

NDSU & U of MN

 

Brian Jenks

Research Weed Science, NC R&E Center, Minot

 

Ellen Crawford

Information Specialist, Extension Ag Communication

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Clubroot of Canola Alert (08/30/18)

Canola growers are strongly encouraged to scout canola fields for clubroot; particularly growers in Cavalier County.

Clubroot of Canola Alert

Canola growers are strongly encouraged to scout canola fields for clubroot; particularly growers in Cavalier County.

In North Dakota, confirmation of clubroot has been limited to few localized fields in Cavalier County. However, clubroot likely occurs in more fields than currently detected and favorable conditions for disease development and symptom expression at the end of the season have opened a critical window for scouting.

Infected plants are less tolerant to warm and dry conditions because their root system has been compromised by clubroot (Fig. 1). The dry conditions that prevailed during the past several weeks have stressed canola plants with clubroot, accentuated disease symptoms and made them much more visible. As stressed plants die prematurely, patches in fields that may resemble drought-stress appear (Fig. 2). Infected roots have galls that are brittle and may disintegrate easily when plants are pulled from the ground (Fig. 3).

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NDSU Extension and canola pathology personnel, with support from the Northern Canola Growers Association, are conducting end-of-season field surveys to identify infested fields, but surveyors typically scout a relatively small number of fields in each county. We suggest growers investigate ‘dry spots’, use a shovel to dig out plants, and investigate roots for galling. Growers who suspect clubroot are encouraged to contact Dr. Venkata Chapara at the Langdon REC (701-256-2582), Dr. Anitha Chirumamilla at the Cavalier County Extension office (701-256-2560) or Dr. Luis del Río Mendoza in the Department of Plant Pathology (701-231-8362) or through NDSU Extension (701-231-8363). The NDSU canola pathology program led by Dr. del Río Mendoza has the capability to perform laboratory tests to verify clubroot presence in soil samples.

Growers who know their fields are infested with clubroot should take precautions to reduce its spread to other areas. Some of these precautions include working the ground of infested fields the last and cleaning the equipment before leaving the infested fields to avoid moving chunks of dirt in it. Tillage operations, like disking, plowing, and harrowing, facilitate the distribution of clubroot resting spores from galls into the soil profile and may bring some spores to its surface; thus, we recommend using no-till practices in infested fields. Spores located in the soil surface may be spread by equipment, wind, water overflow, and on boots. When walking on infested fields, we recommend wearing disposable shoe covers to minimize transport of soil.

In the upcoming year, growers who grow canola in areas where clubroot is known to occur are encouraged to plant clubroot-resistant hybrids and consider extending crop rotations to three years with non-host plants like wheat, barley, soybeans, or corn before planting canola again.

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Sam Markell

Extension Plant Pathologist, Broad-leaf Crops

 

Venkat Chapara

Assistant Research Professor (Plant Pathology)

NDSU Langdon REC

 

Luis del Rio Mendoza

NDSU Plant Pathology Professor

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SCN Sampling (08/30/18)

FAQ about Soybean Cyst Nematode Sampling

SCN Sampling

When to sample? Sample in the fall when SCN egg levels are highest, and consequently, the most likely time of year to detect SCN. Sampling can be done before or after harvest, but it should be done before any tillage is done in the field.

Where to sample?

SCN moves with soil, so consider the most likely way SCN-infested soil might be brought into a field. Additionally, consider “suspicious” areas. The most important areas (Figure 1) to consider include:

  • Field entrance: SCN-infested soil often moves into new fields on equipment. Movement on equipment is the most common way the pathogen transfers and is thought to be responsible for its expansion across the U.S.
  • Flood-prone areas and low spots: Cysts will move with water, so areas that are prone to flooding and water pooling are likely areas where SCN will be introduced. SCN can be moved by birds, on their bodies and in their digestive tracts, and birds frequently visit wet spots in fields.
  • Shelter belts: Cysts can move in dust storms or high winds and are deposited as the wind speed slows. In North Dakota, this usually means shelter belts.
  • Yellow spots showing up in August: The damage from high SCN levels usually begins to appear in August, especially if plants are water-stressed. Any lens-shaped areas of fields turning yellow in August are suspicious.
  • High pH: High pH soils are very favorable to SCN and, as a result, SCN damage often is noticed first in high pH spots in fields.

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How to sample?

  • Go where SCN is, and aim for the roots. Sampling is most effective when the samples are collected within a few inches of the soybean stem and 6 to 8 inches deep into the soil.
  • More samples are better. Take 10 to 20 soil cores or thin shovel slices in a suspicious area and bulk the sample.
  • Keep the sample relatively cool and get it to the lab quickly. SCN is a tough worm, but SCN will struggle if the sample sits on the dash of a pickup in the August sun.

 

What do the results mean?

Lab results will be presented as eggs/100 cc soil, which is the number of eggs in approximately a 6-ounce can. “J2,” which refers to the second-stage juvenile worm, also may be included. Think of the egg level as your “risk” factor: the higher the number, the greater the risk. Very low levels (less than 100) could be false positives and should be viewed with some caution. We recommend resampling. Very high levels (greater than 10,000 egg/100 cc) likely will impact soybean production for years to come.

 

What do you do if you have SCN?            

We recommend beginning management strategies if you find any positive samples.

 

What do you do if you don’t find SCN?

Be vigilant and sample again next year.

Sam Markell

Extension Plant Pathologist, Broad-leaf Crops

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Minnesota SCN Soil Sampling Program (08/30/18)

The Minnesota Soybean Research & Promotional Council (MSRPC) and University of Minnesota Extension have a soybean cyst nematode (SCN) sampling program for Minnesota farmers.

Minnesota SCN Soil Sampling Program

The Minnesota Soybean Research & Promotional Council (MSRPC) and University of Minnesota Extension have a soybean cyst nematode (SCN) sampling program for Minnesota farmers. The program will sponsor fact sheets, sample ID forms, numbered sample bags and laboratory analysis of up to three soil samples per farmer and a total of 1300 samples.

Participating farmers will receive estimates of SCN egg densities and management recommendations based on these densities. Results from individual farms will be compiled to create a geo-referenced map of incidence and severity of SCN infestations in Minnesota.

While any soybean farmer can participate, this program is focused on reaching farmers in the most recently infested northwest region of the state.

Additional information and program materials can be found by:

•   Attending one of the five Soybean Plot Tours in NW MN (Aug. 28-29)

•   Visiting the MSRPC booth at Big Iron (Sep. 11-13)

•   Contacting your SWCD office (kits may be available at Norman, Mahnomen, Clearwater, Polk, Red Lake, Pennington, Marshall, Kittson and Roseau County SWCD offices)

•   Sending an email to: apeltier@umn.edu.

Angie Peltier

U of MN Extension Educator, Crops

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North Dakota SCN Soil Sampling Program (08/30/18)

The NDSU Extension Service and the North Dakota Soybean Council are working together again to coordinate a soybean cyst nematode (SCN) soil testing program.

North Dakota SCN Soil Sampling Program

The NDSU Extension Service and the North Dakota Soybean Council are working together again to coordinate a soybean cyst nematode (SCN) soil testing program. A total of 2,000 SCN soil test bags will be available to growers on a first come first serve basis.

Anyone interested in soil sampling for SCN can pick up to three pre-labeled SCN soil test bags from their County Extension office. To submit a sample; fill the bag with soil, provide site information and send the bag to the partner lab (Agvise). Results will be mailed directly to the growers who submitted the sample(s). The laboratory fees are covered by the North Dakota Soybean Council.

The ND SCN sampling program began in 2013 and has been instrumental in understanding where SCN is located in the state. To date, over 3,000 samples have been submitted by North Dakota growers, and about 1/3 of those have had some level of nematode eggs.

The egg levels and geospatial positions from previous years samples that were used to generate SCN distribution maps in North Dakota show ‘hot spots’ in much of the SE and movement west and north (Figures 1 and 2). In 2018, we will use egg level data and add to the map. Importantly, NDSU does not have access to any personal information – just the egg level and geospatial data to generate a map.

We encourage everyone to sample fields for SCN. We thank the North Dakota Soybean Council for funding the effort.

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Sam Markell

Extension Plant Pathologist, Broad-leaf Crops


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Recommendations for Planting Winter Wheat – 2018 (08/30/18)

Given the more favorable spread between winter wheat and spring wheat prices (certainly compared to last year) and the early harvest of many crops to date, planting winter wheat this fall may make sense for many operations.

Recommendations for Planting Winter Wheat – 2018

Given the more favorable spread between winter wheat and spring wheat prices (certainly compared to last year) and the early harvest of many crops to date, planting winter wheat this fall may make sense for many operations. Winter wheat can provide important green cover this fall on early harvested fields. Furthermore, winter wheat can help spread out work and it frequently out-yields spring wheat. The following suggestions are recommended to aid in producing a successful winter wheat crop:

1-      When possible plant winter wheat into standing stubble. Survival of winter wheat during the winter is enhanced when it is covered with snow during the coldest months of the year. Standing crop residues can effectively retain snow. Tall, erect flax and canola stubble works best, but any erect stubble that retains snow is recommended. Planting winter wheat into wheat stubble is not ideal for disease reasons, but as long as disease-insect management is planned, wheat stubble can be an acceptable residue.

 

2-      Plant a winter hardy variety, especially if you are not planting into a standing residue. Ratings for the winter hardiness of currently available varieties are summarized in the Winter Wheat Variety Selection Guide https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/crops/winter-wheat-articles/a-1196-hrww-2017-selection-guide.

Additionally, the results of the 2018 winter wheat variety trials from many of the RECs are now available at https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/varietytrials/winter-wheat/2018-trial-results.

This information can help you select varieties that will likely perform well in your farm. For availability of certified seed refer to the seed guides in North Dakota http://www.nd.gov/seed/field_directory/ and South Dakota.

 

3-      Plant in September: The optimum planting date for the northern half of the state is September 1-15 and for the southern half, September 15-30. In recent years, plantings during the first ten days of October for southern regions of the state have largely been successful. The last practical date that winter wheat can be planted will depend on the weather but there must be enough moisture and growing degree days so that the seed can germinate and the seedling vernalize by spring. Larger seedlings will overwinter better than smaller ones. Target the earlier portion of the recommended planting date range if planting into bare, fallow ground.

 

4-      Plant 1 to 1.5 inches deep: Adequate moisture for establishing winter wheat is often a concern as the soil profile is usually depleted of moisture in the fall. If there is little or no moisture in the soil’s surface, planting shallow (1 to 1.5 inches deep) and waiting for rain is recommended. Furthermore, these relatively shallow planting depths allow for faster emergence when temperatures are rapidly decreasing.

 

5-      Seed about a million seeds per acre: Generally, a seeding rate of 900,000 to 1.2 million viable seed per acre is adequate. The higher seeding rate may be appropriate if planting late or when planting into poor seedbeds. Since winter wheat tends to tiller more profusely than spring wheat, 1.2 million seeds per acre is the upper end of the recommended seeding rate. Excessively high seeding rates can result in more lodging by harvest time, particularly if you are using a taller variety (like Jerry).

 

6-      Break the green bridge. Breaking the green bridge is critical to reducing the risk of infection of the Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus. This disease is vectored by a tiny mite that moves from green tissue to green tissue by wind. Breaking the green bridge is particularly important when winter wheat is planted early. The green bridge is broken by controlling volunteer cereal crops and grassy weeds in a field, two weeks prior to planting winter wheat. A two-week window of not having a ‘green’ host present assures that the mite has gone through its lifecycle and died before finding a host to feed on and transmit the virus.

 

7-      Avoid varieties that are highly susceptible to scab. Scab is not always a problem in winter wheat. Nevertheless, check the recent Selection Guide for the level of scab resistance in currently available varieties. The following rated are rated as the most resistant: Emerson, Lyman, Moats and Redfield.

 

Joel Ransom

Extension Agronomist for Cereal Crops

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