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Southwest ND (8/31/17)

Information from the Southwest region of North Dakota.

Most in the region have received rain over the past couple of weeks, but the rain levels have been very variable. Between Aug. 16th and Aug. 30th, the NDAWN stations observed 0.57 inch of rain in Dickinson, 0.11 inch of rain in Beach, 0.05 inch of rain in Bowman, 0.01 inch of rain in Hettinger, and 0.05 inch of rain in Mott. The rain earlier in the month has helped push many of the crops along, but effects from the drought are still visible across the southwest. Although there are few acres of soybeans in the region, the soybean fields I’ve seen across the region look surprisingly good. Most corn in the region is in the R5 or dent stage (below) and most sunflowers are in the late R5 to R6 stages. Within both corn and sunflower fields there is a great amount of variability in growth stages, with some late emerging crops scattered throughout the stand.

Small grain harvest is wrapping up across the region with many beginning to work on post-harvest weed control. Canada thistle, marestail, and kochia are in high numbers throughout the countryside. This fall we will be conducting the National Sunflower Association’s Sunflower Crop Survey. In the survey, we are looking for a yield estimate along with yield limiting factors such as insect damage, diseases, and weeds. If you have sunflower fields that you would like surveyed, contact your local NDSU county ANR agent.

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Ryan Buetow

Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems

NDSU Dickinson Research Extension Center

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South Central ND (08/31/17)

Information from the South Central region of North Dakota.

The region’s NDAWN stations indicate August 1-28 rainfall ranging from 6.7 inches (Brampton) to 2.2 inches (McHenry and Pillsbury). Total rainfall from April 1 to August 28 ranges from 14.1 inches (Cooperstown) to 7.4 inches (Wishek). Estimated daily water use by corn and soybean during the past week (August 22-28) averaged <0.1 inch/day.

Most spring wheat fields have been harvested, with yield reports continuing to be variable but trending upwards, whereas grain protein is trending downward.

Carrington REC early season crop variety trial data is being posted at www.ag.ndsu.edu/varietytrials/carrington-rec/2017-trial-results. Currently posted trials include agronomic data on winter cereals, spring wheat, barley, oat, field pea and canola.

Corn planted during the first week in May or earlier generally is denting (R5 stage), which indicates the crop is about a month from black layer (R6 stage). Based on NDAWN growing degree day units accumulated from May 1 planting date to August 28, the region is generally behind the long-term average, but this week’s temperatures should aid in catch-up. Soybean are in the late seed formation stage (R6) to initial maturity (R7); dry bean in the late seed formation (R7-8) to maturity (R9) stages; and sunflower in the seed-development (R7-8) stages.

 

Greg Endres

Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems

NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center

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Northeast ND (8/31/17)

Information from the Northeast region of North Dakota.

Harvest reports continue to stream in for wheat and barley. Last week, the misty weather slowed harvest due to high moisture grain. Barley yields have been excellent. Many counties are reporting yields 90 bushels/acre or higher. Spring wheat yields have ranged 60 to 80 bushels/acre. However, exceptions are present. In these areas, wheat yield reports are ranging lower in the 45 to 50 bushels/acre range. Canola harvest is starting. Potato vine kill is occurring. Pre-pile sugarbeet yield reports are consistent with estimations of a high yielding year and the potential for sugarbeet crop abandonment on some acres.

Soybean aphids are still present in soybean fields. Grasshoppers are regionally spotty. Kochia and common lambsquarters escapes are present in marginal headland areas. Overall, it has been good weather for harvest and good weather to accumulate growing degree units for our corn and soybean crops as the calendar turns to September, the month of first frost dates.

Lesley Lubenow

Area Extension Specialist/Agronomy

NDSU Langdon Research Extension Center

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Northwest ND (08/31/17)

Information from the Northwest region of North Dakota.

Northwest ND has been mostly hot and dry the past week but overnight temperatures are starting to dip into the 50’s. There were some scattered showers last Friday and Saturday, but most areas received less than a ¼.”

Harvest continues to progress and the light rains of the past week have not been enough to slow most producers down. Small grains are being cut, most pulse crops are off, but canola is still standing in many fields. Rain in the past few weeks is helping cover crops and greening up drought-stressed pasture and rangeland a little. Much of the NW is still at a 2” to 6” deficit of total precipitation year-to-date, so any precipitation is still needed to recharge the soil and help perennials recover.

               

Up-coming event: Fall Weed Control Meetings!

A short program will focus on controlling Narrowleaf hawksbeard and Horseweed, two winter annual weeds that are becoming more common and difficult to control in NW ND. Three locations and times offered:

                Tuesday, September 12th with Brian Jenks & Clair Keene

                                9:00 - 10:30 am Williston, at the WREC

                                1:00 – 2:30 pm Ray, at the Ray Golf Course

                Wednesday, September 13th with Brian Jenks & Brandon Biwer

                                10:00 – 11:30 am Crosby, at the Divide County Courthouse

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Clair Keene

Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems

NDSU Williston Research Extension Center

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North Central ND (08/31/17)

Information from the North Central region of North Dakota

After a brief period of some much-needed rain, the North Central region has dried out once again. However, that may be beneficial to some growers attempting to wrap up harvest in small grains and continue the swathing of their canola crops in the region. Along the way, a few insect problems continue to be observed. Wheat stem sawfly, spider mite, and thistle caterpillar have been the main pest issues. One week ago, some soybean aphid was found north of Drake in McHenry County; however, numbers were extremely low. As of now, no control is needed, though, scouting may be beneficial – especially in the McHenry and Pierce County areas were those small populations have been observed.

TJ Prochaska

Area Extension Specialist/Crop Protection

NDSU North Central Research Extension Center

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Weed Seed Production in Small Grains Stubble (08/31/17)

Fields with beautiful golden brown small grain stubble are turning green from late emerging weeds like waterhemp or from regrowth of grass and broadleaf weeds following harvest.

What are various ideas to manage seed production in stubble? There are several to consider:

Tillage is a time-proven method to manage seed escapes in stubble. Tillage is best when weeds are small and before weeds make seed. Tillage may also be beneficial to incorporate volunteer cereals into soil for cover crop to protect soil from blowing or eroding. In an experiment conducted at Prosper, ND in 2016, volunteer wheat provided 40% visual ground cover compared to seeded species, including 60% from winter wheat, 70% from oat and tillage radish, and 85% from cereal ryegrass.

Herbicide options are available to control weeds in stubble fields. Glyphosate (at 0.75 to 1.5 lb AE) plus 2, 4-D amine (at 0.75 to 2 lb.) controls broadleaf and grass weeds in stubble. Gramoxone (Paraquat) (at 0.38 to 1 lb.) with 15-20 gallons of water per acre is another option when weeds are small. Gramoxone will not provide as strong control on volunteer cereals as glyphosate. There are other options but you need to check the herbicide label to be aware of any rotational restrictions for next year’s crop.

For some, mowing may provide effective control of broadleaf weeds that are tall enough, or with seed inflorescences above the height of cut. Keep in mind that fields may need to be mowed multiple times to eliminate weeds that grow back from axillary buds.

Tom Peters

Extension Sugarbeet Agronomist

NDSU & U of MN

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Rare Herbicide Resistance to a Noxious Weed (08/31/17)

A journal report from the Canadian Journal of Plant Sciences has confirmed herbicide resistance to spotted knapweed, a prohibited noxious weed that is primarily controlled with auxinic herbicides.

Rare Herbicide Resistance to a Noxious Weed

A journal report from the Canadian Journal of Plant Sciences has confirmed herbicide resistance to spotted knapweed, a prohibited noxious weed that is primarily controlled with auxinic herbicides. Scientists in Alberta Canada found a population collected from a managed rangeland in East Kootenay, BC that was highly resistant to both clopyralid (Stinger) and picloram (Tordon), with resistance:susceptible (R/S) ratios of >25 600 and 28, respectively. This is the first report of resistance in spotted knapweed. The research found only minor resistance to aminopyralid and no resistance to 2,4-D.

Rich Zollinger

Extension Weed Specialist

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More Herbicide Resistant Crop Technology Anticipated (08/31/17)

Bayer Crop Science has announced the successful deregulation of Balance GT soybean (Event FG72).

More Herbicide Resistant Crop Technology Anticipated

Bayer Crop Science has announced the successful deregulation of Balance GT soybean (Event FG72). Bayer received notice from the Ministry of Agriculture in China that Balance GT Soybean was approved for import. This approval marked the final required global event approval to launch Balance™GT soybean in the United States. BalanceGT is owned by MS Technologies and is being co-developed through a joint development agreement between MS Technologies and Bayer. Bayer and MS Technologies have been collaborating since 2007 with new herbicide tolerance technologies for soybeans. The full Balance system launch is planned for 2018, pending the EPA commercial label registration of Balance Bean anticipated in 2017. In summary, the technology is fully approved for export, however Balance Bean label approval through EPA has yet be completed.

Rich Zollinger

Extension Weed Specialist

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Preharvest Glyphosate on Oilseed Crops (08/31/17)

Monsanto has obtained supplemental labeling for preharvest application of Roundup PowerMAX herbicide and RT3 herbicide on oilseed crops [such as Borage, Canola, Crambe, Cuphea, Echium, Flax (seed), Mustard (seed), Rapeseed, Safflower, and Sunflower] that is valid through the 2017 growing season.

Preharvest Glyphosate on Oilseed Crops

Monsanto has obtained supplemental labeling for preharvest application of Roundup PowerMAX herbicide and RT3 herbicide on oilseed crops [such as Borage, Canola, Crambe, Cuphea, Echium, Flax (seed), Mustard (seed), Rapeseed, Safflower, and Sunflower] that is valid through the 2017 growing season. This use was first approved by the U.S. EPA in June 2013. This supplemental labeling will allow oilseed growers to make preharvest applications this year and allow more time for Monsanto to incorporate this preharvest use information to the main label that will be released. This label has been registered in North Dakota. For those in surrounding states be sure it is approved in your state. Always read and follow label directions.

Note: Paraquat is not registered for preharvest use in wheat. Use in this manner would be considered off-label and the applicator may be subject to fines and quarantine of the wheat crop.

Rich Zollinger

Extension Weed Specialist

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Drought and Herbicide Degradation (08/31/17)

Accounting for Carryover in Next Year's Crops:

Drought and Herbicide Degradation

Accounting for Carryover in Next Year's Crops:

Herbicides break down in the soil primarily through microbial activity, and for atrazine and some residual SU herbicides - through chemical processes. Microbial activity and herbicides degradation is greatest when soils are moist during the growing season, Herbicide breakdown may be slowed greatly in drought conditions. If herbicide residues are significant, they may injure rotational crops in the following season. For this reason, growers need to be aware of herbicide residues and take steps to decrease risk of injury.

Herbicide Carryover Levels: Herbicides vary greatly in soil persistence and carryover to next year's crops.

No risk herbicides: Herbicides presenting essentially no risk of carryover for next year's crops include: All POST grass herbicides (ACC-ase inhibitors), short residual SU herbicides (Express and Harmony), Everest, some phenoxy type herbicides (2,4-D, MCPA, Starane, Banvel (dicamba applied at normal crop use rates), atrazine (<0.38 lb ai/A), Basagran, bromoxynil, Roundup (glyphosate), Liberty (glufosinate), some PPO inhibitors (Aim, Ultra Blazer, Cadet, Cobra, Resource, Sharpen, and Valor), all acetanilide herbicides (Harness/Surpass, Dual, Outlook), and Gramoxone.

Moderate risk herbicides: Herbicides requiring an interval of one year before planting a sensitive crop; Most residual ALS herbicides, including IMI herbicides, atrazine (0.38 to 0.5 lb ai/A), Sencor, DNA herbicides (Prowl, Sonalan, and Treflan), HPPD herbicides including Balance, Callisto, Armezon/Impact, Laudis, products contain clopyralid (Stinger, Curtail), Flexstar/Reflex, and Spartan.

High risk herbicides: Herbicides presenting a high risk of carryover to next year's crops include: atrazine (>0.75 lb ai/A), very long residual ALS herbicides (page 10 in the North Dakota Weed Guide), Authority/Spartan, FirstRate, IMI herbicides, and Tordon.

Avoiding Residue Problems

- Check the label of herbicides used during the drought season. It will tell you the normal interval between application and planting for a specific rotational crop. Footnotes frequently show if the risk of carryover is greater under certain conditions (such as soil pH or dry soils).

- Select this year's herbicides carefully. Do not choose herbicides or use rates that have significant injury potential by themselves. Do not use products that may interact with carryover levels of last year's products. For example, do not use metribuzin (Sencor, Lexone) in soybeans this year if atrazine was used in corn planted during the drought year.

- Use tillage. Tillage will dilute the herbicide, especially if it is concentrated near the surface or in bands over the row.

- Look for herbicide tolerance. Select crop varieties or hybrids with greater tolerance to the herbicide used during the drought year. This information is not available for all varieties. Ask your seed supplier for assistance.

- Use good management practices. Good seedbeds, proper seeding depth and rate, adequate soil fertility, and insect and disease protection will minimize the effect of herbicide carryover. Many crops can tolerate a single stress relatively well, but two or more stresses can result in significant loss of crop vigor and yield.

Testing for Carryover

If you choose to test for herbicide carryover, the best time to do so is between late October and mid-November. By this time, soil temperatures reach and remain below 50 degrees F., a point at which herbicide breakdown is minimal. Do not take soil samples for residues before this time; they may indicate levels greater than actually present when you plant next year.

A bioassay test may be helpful if doubts remain about planting because of possible herbicide residues. The test will alert you to residue problems by comparing the productivity of your intended crop variety in both affected and unaffected soils. (Follow the guidelines in the UW-Extension publication "A Simple Test for Atrazine Residues.") Begin the test at least three weeks prior to planting so that sufficient plant growth is available to assess carryover potential. The herbicide label may also contain suggestions on running a bioassay test, as well as information on crop rotations and carryover potential.

A chemical test for herbicide residues can also be done by private laboratories. These tests are expensive and the results may not be easy to interpret. However, they may be appropriate in cases where bioassays cannot be done or where high value crops are concerned. Page 106 in the North Dakota Weed Control Guide contains a list of laboratories that can test for chemical residues, susceptibility of crops to chemical residues, general guidelines for safe levels of chemical residues from laboratory analysis, and publications/resources showing herbicide injury symptoms.

Rich Zollinger

Extension Weed Specialist

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