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Harvesting and Storing Soybeans (09/13/18)

Harvest timing can have a huge impact on soybean shatter losses and storability. Field losses, splits and cracked seed coats increase as moisture content decreases.

Harvesting and Storing Soybeans

Harvest timing can have a huge impact on soybean shatter losses and storability. Field losses, splits and cracked seed coats increase as moisture content decreases. Shatter losses have been shown to increase significantly when seed moisture falls below 11 percent or when mature beans undergo multiple wetting and drying cycles. Also, molds develop more rapidly in soybeans with seed coat cracks, so the amount of mechanical damage occurring during harvest affects the beans’ deterioration rate. A moisture content of about 13 percent at harvest is optimal for mitigating mechanical damage.

Harvesting during high humidity, such as early morning, late evening or in damp conditions, may reduce shatter loss and mechanical damage if the soybeans are below 11 percent moisture content.

Moisture content can increase by several points with an overnight dew or decrease by several points during a day with low humidity and windy conditions. Avoid harvesting when beans are driest, such as during afternoons, to maintain moisture and reduce shattering losses.

The market moisture for soybeans is 13 percent, which is fine for storing soybeans during cool conditions. If your soybeans will be stored through winter and into the warmer weather of spring and summer, store at 11 percent moisture to limit mold growth and deterioration. The storage life is roughly doubled for each percentage point of reduction in moisture content.

Storage Temperature:  Controlling soybean temperature during storage is critical. Free fatty acid percentages, a negative characteristic, tend to increase with storage moisture, temperature and time. At 12 percent moisture, free fatty acid percentages increase slowly with storage time if the beans are kept cool. In one study, the average free fatty acid content of 12 percent moisture beans stored at 50 F stayed below 0.75 percent but exceeded this level after only four months when stored at 70 F.

Soybeans should be cooled as they go through the fall and winter to maintain quality. Aerate to keep the soybeans within 10 to 15 degrees of the average outdoor temperature during the fall. Soybeans should be stored during the winter near 30 F in northern states and 40 F or lower in southern states.

During the spring and summer, aerate stored soybeans to keep the temperature as cool as possible - preferably 40 to 60 F. These temperatures enhance soybeans’ storage life, and reduce mold and insect activity.

Soybeans at 11 percent moisture have similar storage characteristics as wheat or corn at 13.5 to 14 percent moisture. Use an allowable storage time (AST) chart for cereal grains to estimate allowable storage times for soybeans. Airflow through the soybeans maintains the grain temperature but does not extend the allowable storage time.

According to the chart, the AST for 13 percent moisture soybeans at 80 degrees is only about 40 days. The AST approximately doubles for each 10 degrees the soybeans are cooled. Allowable storage time is cumulative, so the soybean temperature and moisture during the fall have a huge impact on storability next spring. For example, if 16 percent moisture soybeans are stored for 35 days at 50 F, half of the storage life has been used. If the soybeans then are cooled to 40 degrees, the allowable storage time at 40 degrees is only 70 days, rather than the 140 days shown in a chart.

Storage Recommendations:

  • Keep fans covered. Once soybeans are cooled, cover fan and duct openings to prevent snow or moisture from blowing into the bins during winter storage. Keep fans covered during the spring and summer to limit air from warming the soybeans. Ventilate the top of the bin to reduce solar heating affecting the beans at the top of the bin.
  • Monitor stored grain regularly. Outside temperature changes can result in temperature and moisture changes inside the bin. Monitor soybeans at least once every two weeks during winter storage and weekly during the fall until the grain has been cooled to winter storage temperatures. Monitor the soybeans weekly during the spring and summer. Measure the grain temperature and watch for indications of problems such as condensation, insect activity and increasing grain temperatures. Record temperature values and grain condition to help track any changes.
  • Use available tools, but don't turn everything over to automation. Improved technology can help producers better manage stored grain, but they still need to manage the grain and inspect it visually. Temperature cables allow producers to monitor the stored grain temperature at several locations, and fan controllers can operate fans according to desired air conditions. Monitor and verify that fans are operating as desired.


Equalize soybean moisture content. Soybean moisture variation may lead to storage and marketing losses. Operating an aeration fan will help move moisture from wet beans to drier beans. Moisture movement will be minimal without aeration airflow. Initially, fans will have to run longer to equalize the moisture content than to cool the grain. The moisture will not be all the same, but it should become more uniform.

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Kenneth Hellevang

NDSU Extension Agricultural Engineer & Professor

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Corn Development and Dry-down in 2018 (09/13/18)

For most of the state, corn growing degree days (GDDs) are running well ahead of normal.

Corn Development and Dry-down in 2018

For most of the state, corn growing degree days (GDDs) are running well ahead of normal. At some of our testing locations, hybrids with relative maturities recommended for that zone have already reach physiological maturity (black layer). In fact, some of the earlier maturing hybrids reach black layer around the first week of September. In terms of calendar days, this means that early-planted corn is maturing about two weeks ahead of normal (at least in many locations in North Dakota). When considering field drying, this is good new as the likelihood of having effective drying days is much greater for corn that matures earlier in the season. Though reaching black layer early increases the chances that the corn crop will dry quickly and require little if any on-farm drying, the rate of dry down will still be regulated by the weather in the weeks ahead.

A rough rule of thumb is that it will take at least a month to field dry corn, after reaching black layer, to the point that harvest can begin; probably less if the crop reached black layer in early September. However, the actual rate of drying is impacted by the moisture of the corn (wet corn dries faster than dry corn), and weather factors such as relative humidity, temperature, sunshine, rainfall and wind speed. It is possible for corn to lose up to 1% of grain moisture in a day when conditions are favorable, but typically, the highest rate of moisture loss one can expect is about 0.75% per day. Though temperature is not the only driver of moisture lost (one could not expect corn to dry at the same rate during a warm September day when it is raining as it would on a warm September day with low relative humidity), there are published reports that 30 GDDs are required for each percent of moisture lost. This relationship can be useful in roughly estimating the rate of dry down. For example, we might expect 6% moisture loss in the first two weeks of September when average GDD accumulations are 12.7 per day but less than 1% moisture loss the last two weeks of October when we on average accumulate only 1.3 GDD per day. The weather outlook for the next several days looks favorable for drying as temperatures will be above average. This will be followed by a period of more normal drying weather. Overall, it looks favorable for corn to dry reasonably fast this season. When planning your harvest, consider harvesting fields that have poorer stalk strength first to reduce the risk of losses due to lodging. Drought stressed fields are more likely to have poor stalk strength and late season drought stress was common in many parts of the state this year. For information on corn drying and storage, refer to the excellent NDSU Extension resources at https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/graindrying/corn-and-soybean-page.

 

Joel Ransom

Extension Agronomist for Cereal Crops

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New Chickpea Publication (09/13/18)

NDSU authors have recently updated the Growing Chickpea in North Dakota (A1236) publication.

New Chickpea Publication

NDSU authors have recently updated the Growing Chickpea in North Dakota (A1236) publication. The publication is intended for growers considering kabuli or desi chickpea as a crop. The text covers basic plant growth habit, crop production, field selection, seedbed preparation, fertilization, inoculation, seeding, weed control, diseases, insects, rotational benefits and harvesting.

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) originated in what is now southeastern Turkey and Syria and was domesticated about 9,000 B.C. It is an annual grain legume or “pulse” crop sold in human-food markets.

Chickpea is classified as kabuli or desi type, based primarily on seed color. Kabuli chickpea, sometimes called garbanzo bean, has a white to cream-colored seed coat and ranges in size from small to large (greater than 100 to less than 50 seeds per ounce). Desi chickpea has a pigmented (tan to black) seed coat and small seeds.

Before selecting a variety, contact potential buyers to ensure it is accepted in the market you are targeting. Variety information is available on the NDSU variety trial website at https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/varietytrials/chickpea

Chickpea is a high-value crop that is adapted to deep soils in the semiarid northern Great Plains. However, disease risks are high, and Ascochyta blight can cause devastating financial losses for growers. Thus, this crop is recommended only for producers who are willing to scout diligently and actively manage disease pressure throughout the entire growing season.

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Hans Kandel

Extension Agronomist Broadleaf Crops

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Mystery Caterpillar (09/13/18)

Introduction to the Achemon sphinx moth larvae, Eumorpha acehmon (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

This is the Achemon sphinx moth larvae, Eumorpha acehmon (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). It feeds on grapes and Virginia creeper. The adult moth is a beautiful, large hawkmoth with a 3½ inch wingspan and pink hindwings. It is distributed from southern Canada and throughout the U.S. (except Pacific Northwest) into Mexico. See the following website: 

 https://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/species/Eumorpha-achemon

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Janet J. Knodel

Extension Entomologist

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Pulse Crop Survey – Insect Pest Report (09/13/18)

NDSU pulse crop scouts (WREC: Shawn Postovit, NCREC: Graysyn Kitts) surveyed field pea, lentil and chickpea fields in northwest and north central North Dakota for insect pests from late May until early August.

Pulse Crop Survey – Insect Pest Report

NDSU pulse crop scouts (WREC: Shawn Postovit, NCREC: Graysyn Kitts) surveyed field pea, lentil and chickpea fields in northwest and north central North Dakota for insect pests from late May until early August. A total of 218 chickpea fields, 51 lentil fields, and 29 field pea fields were scouted. A summary of selected insect pests are discussed below.

 

Cutworms were observed in all three pulse crops surveyed but only present early in the crop growing season from late May to mid-June. The overall percentage of fields infested with cutworms was low – 8% of lentils fields, 3% of field pea fields and <1% of chickpea fields. The northwest area of ND had the highest densities of cutworms.

 

Pea aphids - Scouts collected aphids using 20 180-degree sweeps in each field at 5 spots. Pea aphids were most common later in the field season, usually late July into early August, and were only economic in 10% of the lentils scouted and <1% of the chickpea field scouted. Pea aphids were absent from the 29 field pea fields scouted. The hot spot for pea aphids was in Williams and Burke Counties. Otherwise, pea aphids were not a major problem in most of the pulse crop areas in 2018.

Pea leaf weevil (Sitona lineatus) is a new insect pest of field pea that was first discovered in the fall of 2016 near Beech, ND. In 2017, additional survey work found pea leaf weevils in field pea or faba beans fields the following areas: southwest (Dunn, Golden Valley and Stark counties), north-central (Mountrail and Ward counties) and northwest (Divide County). In 2018, pulse crop scouts and the IPM scout (Marc Michaelson from Dickinson REC) looked for feeding injury (leaf notching) of pea leaf weevil by examining 100 plants per field. Leaf notching was found over a wider range than previous years. Five new county records were documented in 2018 including Billings, Bowman, Hettinger and Slope Counties in southwest and Mercer County in west central. This survey focuses on number of leaf notches caused by adult feeding, and not the yield depriving larval feeding on the nitrogen-fixing root nodules. When the number of leaf notches are greater than 9 notches per plant (yellow square or red triangle on map), economic damage (yield loss) can be significant if conditions are favorable for pea leaf weevil in the spring of 2019 (warm springs >68F). Only Billings and Slope Counties had leaf notching greater than 9 notches per plant. Pulse producers should use this information along with field history of pea leaf weevil abundance to make decisions for the 2019 crop year. Research has demonstrated that insecticide seed treatments are more effective in reducing losses due to pea leaf weevil than foliar insecticides. Please see the new extension publication Integrated Pest Management of Pea Leaf Weevil in North Dakota E1879, April 2018, for more information.

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Thanks to the Northern Pulse Growers Association for funding this survey.

 

Janet J. Knodel

Extension Entomologist

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2018 IPM Survey Results – Soybean and Sunflower Insect Pests (09/13/18)

The purpose of the IPM (Integrated Pest Management) Survey is to detect the presence and population levels of diseases and insect pests that are common in soybeans and sunflowers grown in North Dakota.

2018 IPM Survey Results – Soybean and Sunflower Insect Pests

The purpose of the IPM (Integrated Pest Management) Survey is to detect the presence and population levels of diseases and insect pests that are common in soybeans and sunflowers grown in North Dakota. Ten survey scouts or insect trappers operated out of the Dickinson Research Extension Center, the North Central Research Extension Center (Minot), the Carrington Research Extension Center, the Langdon Research Extension Center, the Williston Research Extension Center and the Fargo Agricultural Experiment Station. The NDSU IPM scouts were:

  • Brittney Aasand, central and south central counties, worked out of Carrington REC with Greg Endres
  • Marc Michaelson, southwest and west central counties, worked out of Dickinson REC with Ryan Buetow
  • Caleb Cross and Bree Obergfell, north central counties, worked out of NCREC in Minot with Travis Prochaska
  • Scott Roseth and Jace Paryzek, northwest counties, worked out of Williston REC with Audrey Kalil
  • Dan Kraemer and Stafford Thompson, southeast and east central counties, worked out of NDSU campus, Fargo with Jan Knodel, Andrew Friskop and Sam Markell.
  • Kaylee Anderson and Traci Murphy, northeast counties, worked out of Langdon REC with Leslie Lubenow and Benson County Extension Office with Scott Knoke

NDSU IPM field scouts surveyed a total of 544 soybean fields and 101 sunflower fields in North Dakota during 2018. The survey was initiated in early June and continued through August 10. Crops were surveyed from the 2-leaf stage through R5 growth stage in soybeans and R6 growth stage in sunflowers. IPM survey data/maps provide near real-time pest information to North Dakota producers and others in agriculture to assist with scouting and pest management decision making. Pest maps from the 2018 IPM Survey in North Dakota were uploaded weekly onto the NDSU IPM website. Some of the insect pest highlights for soybean and sunflower are summarized below.

Soybean Insect Pests:

Soybean aphids - No soybean aphids were observed in 82% of the soybean fields surveyed. The percent of plants infested with soybean aphids in fields was low with an average of 17% of plants infested and ranged from 1 to 100% of plants infested. The higher percentage of plants infested with soybean aphids in fields were found late in the season (August) and mainly in Cass and Richland Counties. The average number of aphids per plant was only 3 aphids per plants and ranged from 1 to 59 aphids per plant. Soybean aphids never reach the economic threshold (E.T.) level (average of 250 aphids per plant, 80% of plants infested with one or more aphids and increasing population levels) in any of the fields scouted in 2018. This just goes to show why it is good to scout and use E.T. for soybean aphids!

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Spider mites were observed in only 4% of the field scouted. Hot spots for spider mites were common on the field edges and in the droughty areas of ND, especially in the northwest including Divide, Williams, Mountrail and Burke Counties.

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Bean leaf beetle is an uncommon insect pest of soybeans in ND. It usually does not overwinter successfully in ND due our cold winters. However, the IPM scouts collected low numbers of bean leaf beetles in sweep net samples in three counties:  Stutsman, Sargent and Richland.

During the last two weeks of the soybean survey, scouts looked for dicamba herbicide injury on soybeans. Dicamba injury was observed in about 14% of the 118 soybean fields surveyed in late summer.

 

Sunflower Insect Pests:

Red sunflower seed weevils were found in 72% of the sunflower fields that were scouted during flowering. The average number of weevils per head was 3.7 and ranged from 1 to 18 weevils per head depending on field site. Counts that were taken on field edges were higher and averaged 6 weevils per heads compared to 2.8 weevils per heads in field (at least 25 feet into field). In 2018, the E.T. for red sunflower seed weevils was 4-6 weevils per head for oilseed sunflowers. Approximately 36% of the fields with weevils present were above the E.T. and these fields needed to be treated with insecticides. The hot spots included Stark, Mercer and Emmons Counties.

 

Banded sunflower moth was collected at all 10 trap sites throughout ND. The first moth was trapped on June 21st and peak moth catch was the last week of July. Moth capture varied depending on field site but overall an average of 344 total moths were captured per field site. Counties with more than 100 moths per trap per week included:  Cass, Foster, Divide, Mountrail, Renville, Ward and Towner.

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Sunflower moth was collected at 7 of the 10 trap sites. The sunflower moth migrates annually into ND and was first detected on June 28th. The peak catch occurred during late July into early August. None of the trap sites reached the trap economic threshold for sunflower moths (> 25 moths per trap per week). The average trap catch among sites was only about 5 moths per trap per week.

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Acknowledgments:  Sincere thanks to the hard working field scouts of 2018! We also appreciate the help of Darla Bakko, NDSU Dept. of Plant Pathology, for data compilation, and Honggang Bu, NDSU Dept. of Soil Science, for ArcMap programming. This survey is supported by the Crop Protection and Pest Management Program [grant no. 2017-70006-27144/accession 1013592] from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

Janet J. Knodel

Extension Entomologist

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Armyworm and Army Cutworm Publication (09/13/18)

If you grow wheat, barley, corn, or forage (alfalfa), you will be interested in this revised extension publication on The Armyworms and the Army cutworm E830 (Revised).

Armyworm and Army Cutworm Publication

If you grow wheat, barley, corn, or forage (alfalfa), you will be interested in this revised extension publication on The Armyworms and the Army cutworm E830 (Revised). Although the names of these two insects are similar, they look different both as adult moths and larvae. They also have different life cycles, feeding habits, scouting techniques and economic thresholds in various crops. This publication provides an overview of Integrated Pest Management of armyworm and army cutworms. It is sponsored by the Great Plains Diagnostic Network. The pdf is free from the NDSU Extension Distribution Center website.

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Janet J. Knodel

Extension Entomologist

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Reader Survey 2018 (09/13/18)

You are invited to participate in this short survey about the NDSU Extension Crop & Pest Report.

Dear Crop & Pest Report Reader:

You are invited to participate in this short survey about theKnodel.1 NDSU Extension Crop & Pest Report. Results from this survey will provide us with important information about the value of the Crop & Pest Report, and help us serve your needs better. Completing the survey should take less than 10 minutes.

Your participation in this survey is voluntary and your responses will be completely anonymous.

If you have any questions related to the research subjects’ rights or wish to file a complaint, please contact the NDSU Institutional Review Board at 701-231-8995, toll-free at 855-800-6717 or ndsu.irb@ndsu.edu). Completion of the survey implies consent to participate.

Part of the support for the NDSU Extension Crop & Pest Report is from the Crop Protection and Pest Management Program [grant no. 2017-70006-27144/accession 1013592] from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

 

Thank you for your participation and support!

 

Please click on this link or scan the QR code to take the survey:

https://ndstate.co1.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_3Kx4zpBJtMT2XHv

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Weather Forecast (08/30/18)

The August 30 through September 5, 2018 Weather Summary and Outlook

Temperatures this month have been running mostly at or below average across much of the North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network (NDAWN). Many of you likely recall the brief heat wave from August 10-12 when temperatures exceeded 100° in western North Dakota. As an example, Williston recorded three straight triple digit high temperatures with the NDAWN station recording highs of 105° and 108° on two of those days. Yet, the month as a whole will finish below average at that location (Figure 1).  In fact, after a warm start much of North Dakota and northwestern Minnesota the summer of 2018 (June 1 though August 31) will finish very close to average as the second half of the summer has been nearly as cool as the first half of summer was warm.

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August, like most of the summer, has been dry across much of northern North Dakota with the northeastern part of the state into northwestern Minnesota being the driest. Most of the rain that has fallen in that area this month occurred this past Sunday night with little or no moisture falling during the first three weeks of August (Figure 2).

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There will be several time frames when at least some portion of the region will record rain during the next week. Friday, Sunday and Monday Night into Tuesday look to be the periods with the most widespread rain occurring. The locations that would need the rain the most once again look to be the areas that may record the least and the locations that currently have adequate or surplus moisture may end up with the most during this forecast period. In other words, the same pattern that has been with us through the summer is still in place. These next seven days should be much warmer than the past several days with temperatures mostly in the 70s and on a few occasions in the 80s for maximums. This should bring some additional late season growing degree days (GDDs) to the region. My projected GDDs for the period of August 30 through September 5 is presented in Figure 3.

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Using May 5 as a planting date, the accumulated wheat growing degree days (Based 32°) through August 28, 2018 is presented in Figure 4. You can find your exact GDDs for your planting date(s) at: https://ndawn.ndsu.nodak.edu/wheat-growing-degree-days.html

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Using May 10 as a planting date, the corn accumulated growing degree days (Base 50°) through August 28, 2018 is presented in Figure 5. You can find your exact GDDs for your planting date(s) at: https://ndawn.ndsu.nodak.edu/corn-growing-degree-days.html

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Daryl Ritchison

Meteorologist

Interim Director of the North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network

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Southwest ND (08/30/18)

August has been dry for many. NDAWN recorded 0.36 inch of rain from August 1st to August and 0.22 of rain falling on August 27th and 28th in Dickinson.

August has been dry for many. NDAWN recorded 0.36 inch of rain from August 1st to August and 0.22 of rain falling on August 27th and 28th in Dickinson. Over the same period, Hettinger received 0.89 inch and Mott received 0.50 inch. Small grain harvest is wrapping up in the region. Yields in the area overall have been good for both small grains and canola. With dry conditions throughout August, corn and soybean in the region do not look very good. Some pockets caught timely rains, and the difference in row crops yield potential is evident. While some caught rains this past month, some also caught hail. Sunflowers continue to mature with the crop looking good, sunflowers are in the R6 to R7 stage. Awareness of areas with Aluminum toxicity and low soil pH continues to grow in the region. If you are concerned about low pH be sure to zone sample with depths from 0-2” and 2-6”. If the soil pH is less than 5.5, it will have a negative impact on crop growth. For more information about soil acidity read Dr. Franzen’s Crop and Pest article from 5/24/18, “Growing Problem of Surface Soil Acidity in Long-term No-till. https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/cpr/soils/growing-problem-of-surface-soil-acidity-in-long-term-no-till-05-24-18

 

Ryan Buetow

Extension Cropping Systems Specialist

NDSU Dickinson Research Extension Center

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This site is supported in part by the Crop Protection and Pest Management Program [grant no. 2017-70006-27144/accession 1013592] from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed are those of the website author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

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