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Weather/Crop Phenology Maps (08/18/16)

Maps detailing corn accumulated daily growing days, percent normal rainfall, departure from normal average air temperature, and accumulated wheat growing degree days.

Weather/Crop Phenology Maps

Corn

Temperature

Precipitation

Wheat

 

F. Adnan Akyuz, Ph.D.

Professor of Climatological Practices

North Dakota State Climatologist

http://www.ndsu.edu/ndsco/

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Weather Forecast: August 18 – August 24, 2016 (08/18/16)

Weather Forecast: August 18 – August 24, 2016

There will likely be scattered thunderstorms in the area today into tonight, plus some additional rainfall, particularly in southwestern North Dakota on Saturday. Yet, overall this next week is expected to be fairly dry. The exceptions will be the localized spots that get a direct hit from a thunderstorm today, but the odds are that most locations will not record all that much precipitation during this period. The one weather element that will impact all of us will be cooler temperatures for the next several days.

It will still be seasonally mild today, but the scattered thunderstorms that are expected are associated with, what should be, a very noticable cold front.  A ridge of high pressure aloft is developing over the Pacific Northwest and in turn a sharp trough will be developing over the northcentral portion of the United States this weekend. This will bring into the northern plains some of the coolest air since May. Some portion of North Dakota is expected to record maximums in the 60s and minimums in the 40s on Friday through Sunday and far eastern North Dakota and/or northwestern Minnesota may experience those types of temperatures even on Monday. Because this cooler air will be impacting different locations on differing days, not all areas will be this chilly on each day, but a true taste of autumn weather is expected in the short term. Some warmer temperatures will temporarily return next week.

Current indications are that this warmer air mass will only last a couple of days and by the end of next week, the cooler air will be returning.  In fact, it appears that there will be more below average days than above average days during the second half of August. On a negative note, this will limit the number of growing degree days for the next couuple of weeks, but on the positive side, this Canadian air mass is not only cool, but dry, which will limit the number of days with muggy conditions, meaning fewer hours with high relative humidity (RH).

The projected growing degree days (GDDs) for base temperatures of 32°, 44° and 50° are presented in Figure 1. The estimated hours with RH above 85% is presented in Figure 2.

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Daryl Ritchison

Extension Meteorologist

 (701-231-8209) Twitter: @darylritchison

 

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Southwest ND (08/18/16)

Information from the Southwest region of North Dakota.

Small grain harvest is wrapping up in the region. Wheat has been fairly clean in the region as it has been too dry in most fields for disease presence. There has been some yield loss across the region from drought and hail damage. Canola harvest has begun, with some fields still needing to mature. Corn and sunflower fields are looking good. Sunflower fields vary, if they received hail or had other issues effecting plant stand they may not look as well.

Many ranchers in the region are low on forage and continue to hay CRP ground. With the dry weather there are also issues with water quality.

On August 24th from 1:30 to 4pm (Mountain Time) there will be a Beef and Forage Field Day at the Dickinson Research Extension Center Ranch Headquarters. The field day will include information on integrating crops and livestock, building soil organic matter, cover crops, and new research. Any questions about the field day call the Dickinson Research Extension Center at 701-456-1100.

Ryan Buetow

Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems

NDSU Dickinson Research Extension Center

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Row Crop Tour-(08/18/16)

NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center Row Crop tour on Thursday, August 25

Row Crop tour

Farmers, crop advisers and ag industry representatives are invited to view field research trials and receive production recommendations on corn, soybean and dry edible bean during the annual NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center Row Crop tour on Thursday, August 25 (registration at 4 p.m. and tour at 4:30 p.m.)

Tour topics, presented by NDSU crop specialists and scientists, include:

* Best combination of corn hybrid relative maturity and plant populations

* Corn end-of-season plant development and management

* Soybean variety selection and planting dates

* NDSU dry bean breeding program and 2016 production updates

* Dry bean plant establishment and nutrient management

* Overview of soybean and dry bean disease management, with an emphasis on white mold and soybean cyst nematode

* Review of research on improving foliar fungicide coverage and dry bean seed treatment

 

A supper sponsored by associated North Dakota commodity organizations will follow the tour.

Additional information about the tour is available at 701-652-2951 or https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/CarringtonREC.

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Greg Endres

Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems

NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center


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South Central ND (08/18/16)

Information from the South Central region of North Dakota.

Based on NDAWN, the region’s rainfall during August 1-16 ranged from 0.7 inch (Harvey) to 4.3 inches (Oakes). Daily water use by corn during the past week (August 8-16) ranged from 0.1-0.2 inch per day.

Spring wheat harvest should be nearly complete by August 20. Most corn is in the dough (R4) stage. Based on NDAWN, corn planted April 29 has accumulated 1615 to 1995 growing degree day units (GDDU) through August 16 (-31 to 273 GDDU for this period compared to the long-term average). Soybean is in the seed development (R5-6) stages. Dry bean are in the R7-8 stages, with some early planted edibles nearing maturity (R9 stage). Corn, soybean and sunflower are about one month from seed maturity.

 

Greg Endres

Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems

NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center


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Northeast ND (08/18/16)

Information from the Northeast region of North Dakota.

Dry bean rust is reported in Ramsey and Walsh Counties. Beans may be treated with a fungicide until striping with FRAC 3 (Folicur, Proline) or FRAC 11 (Quadris, Headline). Places with heavy dews in the field like along shelterbelt may flare up first. However, anyplace in the field can have rust appear. For more information, see Sam Markell’s article on page 8.

Small grain harvest continues. After initial reports of lower protein wheat, mid-harvest has proteins between 13 -15%. Wet fields continue to drag harvest down. The wet weather may have place hay as a premium this fall as many ranchers have struggled to put up good quality hay this year.

I’ve started the canola survey in the northeast. As predicted, sclerotinia stem rot in canola is easily found in the fields; ranging 2 to 42% of inspected stems in the fields surveyed so far. Blackleg is present, also. Aster yellows have been low.

Lesley Lubenow

Area Extension Specialist/Agronomy

NDSU Langdon Research Extension Center

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Northwest ND (08/18/16)

Information from the Northwest region of North Dakota.

It was hot in the Northwest counties last week and has been this week so far, but that is likely to change as thunderstorms and cooler weather are predicted for the latter half of this week and through the weekend.

Harvest of durum and spring wheat in the area began in earnest over the weekend of August 6th and is in full swing. Harvest of small grains is estimated to be half way or more complete in McKenzie and Williams Counties but is a little farther behind in Divide and Burke. Pea harvest is nearly complete and lentils are well under way. In areas that experienced a wet summer, progress is a little slower. The earliest-planted canola fields are just starting to be harvested but most of the crop is still a week or two away from being cut. Flax is drying down and the fields farthest along may get harvested later this week or over the weekend.

Clair Keene

Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems

NDSU Williston Research Extension Center

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Control Weeds Following Small Grains Harvest (08/18/16)

Thrashed small grains fields have a clean and tidy look, especially from the highway. However, closer examination reveals a great number of weeds, especially waterhemp, emerging through the stubble.

Control Weeds Following Small Grains Harvest

                Thrashed small grains fields have a clean and tidy look, especially from the highway. However, closer examination reveals a great number of weeds, especially waterhemp, emerging through the stubble.

                Controlling weeds post-harvest is an essential component of the weed management strategy, since the goal is zero tolerance for weed escapes and new weed seeds entering the seed bank. Like always, begin by scouting fields and observing weed spectrum and size. Some weeds may have been cut by harvest equipment and are stems with insufficient leaf surface to intercept herbicide application. Allowing time for regrowth to occur will ensure their control. Several strategies you may consider include the following:

                Tillage control. Tillage is an effective means for controlling small weeds. However, first answer the question, “Were there weeds that may have gone to seed in harvested fields?” Some weeds, such as pigweed species, can produce viable seed in as few as 10 to 14 days after flowering. Consider delaying tillage to allow field mice, insects, and birds to eat seeds If weeds have produced seed. Seeds are a source of energy for insects, birds, and rodents. An internet search indicates predators of weed seeds can reduce total number of seeds on the soil surface by 5% per day and over-time, consume 20 to 90% of seed on the soil surface. In contrast, tillage after harvest will greatly reduce predation if seeds are buried.

                Chemical control. There are non-selective and residual herbicide options for controlling weeds post-harvest. Depending on the percentage of glyphosate resistant weeds already present in a field, timely foliar applications (6 inches or less in height) of glyphosate at 0.75 to 1.5 pounds acid equivalent or Liberty at 0.4 to 0.53 pounds per acre plus 2,4-D ester at 0.75 to 2 pounds per acre (higher rate for perennial weeds) can reduce the level of broadleaf infestation in the stubble field. Gramoxone (Paraquat) at 0.38 to 1 pounds in 15 to 20 gallons of water per acre also provided good control in a Kansas experiment, but only for control of small weeds, since it is a contact action herbicide. Be mindful of rotational restrictions to 2017 crops or restrictions for planting a 2016 late summer/fall cover crop.

                Mechanical control. While mowing can be effective for broadleaf weeds that are tall enough to be cut off below the height of the weed seed head, keep in mind that more broadleaf weeds may emerge in late summer due to changing soil moisture conditions, timing of small grain harvest, and delayed germination. Thus, the initial mowing may need to be followed with additional mowing, in case of late weed emergence or continued growth of the broadleaf weeds from axillary buds located lower on the weeds which are below the initial mowing height.

Tom Peters

Extension Sugarbeet Agronomist, NDSU & U of MN

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Waterhemp Tolerance to PPO Inhibitor Herbicides (SOA 14) in Minnesota (08/18/16)

A population of waterhemp was confirmed tolerant to PPO inhibitor herbicides in a field in Jackson County, MN in July, 2015. Jackson County borders Iowa and is east of Worthington, MN.

Waterhemp Tolerance to PPO Inhibitor Herbicides (SOA 14) in Minnesota

A population of waterhemp was confirmed tolerant to PPO inhibitor herbicides in a field in Jackson County, MN in July, 2015. Jackson County borders Iowa and is east of Worthington, MN.

Dr. Jeff Gunsolus, professor and weed control specialist, University of Minnesota, recently reported waterhemp populations tolerant to PPO inhibitors in seven counties in Minnesota including Douglas, Faribault, Jackson (a second location), Mower, Stearns, Watonwan and Yellow Medicine counties. Waterhemp populations not effectively controlled by early summer postemergence applications of PPO-inhibiting herbicides may be resistant to PPO-inhibiting soybean herbicides such as Cobra (lactofen), Flexstar (fomesafen), Marvel (fluthiacet-methyl & fomesafen) and Ultra Blazer (aciflurofen).

Assessing herbicide resistance in the field can be challenging because other factors such as weather, weed height, antagonism with another herbicide in the tank, or using the wrong adjuvant could all contribute to poor control. Now, one must also consider the likelihood that the waterhemp population is resistant to the PPO class of herbicides (Site of Action Group 14).

 Purdue University and the University of Illinois offer molecular herbicide resistance testing to determine if waterhemp populations have a specific genetic sequence that confers resistance to PPO-inhibiting herbicides. Details are available at the links that follow:

Purdue: https://ag.purdue.edu/btny/weedscience/Documents/2016HerbicideResistancescreeningform.pdf

Illinois: http://web.extension.illinois.edu/plantclinic/downloads/WaterhempFlyer.pdf

Tom Peters

Extension Sugarbeet Agronomist, NDSU & U of MN

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National Weed Survey (08/18/16)

The following information was provided by Lee Van Wychen, Director of Science Policy for Weed Science Society of America.

National Weed Survey

The following information was provided by Lee Van Wychen, Director of Science Policy for Weed Science Society of America. Last year, the National and Regional Weed Science Societies conducted a survey of the most common and troublesome weeds in 26 different cropping systems and natural areas across the U.S. and Canada. Common weeds refer to are those weeds that are found to be most frequent, while troublesome weeds were those that were classified as most difficult to control (but may not be widespread). There were nearly 700 responses from weed science society members from 49 states, Puerto Rico, and eight Canadian provinces. The entire data set for 2015 is available for download at: http://wssa.net/wp-content/uploads/2015-Weed-Survey_final.xlsx

The lists below are based on an aggregation of their responses. Seven weeds appeared on both the “most troublesome” and “most common” lists in the United States, including common lambsquarters, waterhemp spp., foxtail spp., horseweed, kochia, morningglory spp, and Palmer amaranth. More than 650 weeds were mentioned at least once by survey respondents.

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For Canada, the weed species in the Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba prairies tended to dominate the survey. The most troublesome weed species were from the genus Galium which includes cleavers (a.k.a. catchweed bedstraw) and false cleavers. The most common weed in Canada was wild buckwheat, which appeared on both the “common” and “troublesome” lists along with wild oat.

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Amaranthus or pigweed species ranked high on the United States list. These were grouped into three

main categories: Palmer amaranth, waterhemp, and redroot pigweed. However for Canada, there was no survey response that listed amaranth or waterhemp. Only redroot & smooth pigweed were listed by Canadian survey respondents.

Not surprisingly, almost every weed species listed above has confirmed resistance to at least one herbicide mechanism of action. Twelve representative crop/ecosystem categories (chart

shown below) and listed the most troublesome weed and the most common weed for each, based on the number of times that species was listed by survey respondents for that crop/ecosystem category across both the U.S. and Canada.

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Rich Zollinger

Extension Weed Specialist

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