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Interesting Red Mite (06/22/17)

Are you are seeing bright red spots moving around on top of the soil?

Interesting Red Mite

Are you are seeing bright red spots moving around on top of the soil? No, you are not going crazy. They are soil mites called the red velvet mites (Family Trombidiidae). Red velvet mites are good mites that prey on other insects or are parasites of insects. They also help improve soil health. They are usually in the soil where you don’t see them along with earthworms. When it rains, red velvet mites will emerge, often in large numbers, to find food and mates; hence the name “rain mite.” They are harmless to humans and crops.

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Janet J. Knodel

Extension Entomologist

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South Central ND (6/22/17)

Information from the South Central region of North Dakota.

The region’s NDAWN stations indicate rainfall during the past week ranging from 0.9 inches (Oakes) to 2.8 inches (Brampton and Dazey). The rain was critically needed throughout the region and more would be desirable generally west of Hwy 281. During this recent ‘rainy period’, hail has also been reported in localized areas. Since April 1, the Carrington REC has received 5 inches of rain; Wishek has received the smallest amount during this period at 2.3 inches.

The first harvest of alfalfa is completed. Pastures are ‘greening-up’ with recent rain. Winter cereals are in seed-fill stages. April- to early May-seeded barley and spring wheat are heading. Corn planted mid-April through the first week in May is in the 5- to 7-leaf stages (V5-7). Soybean planted the first-half of May are in the second to third trifoliate stages (V2-3) and should begin flowering by the end of the month. Dry beans are in the 1st to 2nd trifoliate stages (V1-2). Flax is beginning to flower.

Major crop pest threat continues to be weeds.

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Greg Endres

Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems

NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center

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Northeast ND (06/22/17)

Information from the Northeast region of North Dakota.

Cloudy days with small rain showers and cool temperatures aided cool season crop development for most of the region. Cool, wet soils have caused iron chlorosis in the soybeans. Could disease start to develop as weather is expected to stay in this cool, light rain pattern? It’s possible. White mold needs 1 to 2” of rainfall about 2 weeks prior to flowering in dry beans. Using the canola risk map as a tool, currently the environment is creating high risk across northern ND. Bloom time is the critical crop stage for infection and the crop isn’t quite there yet in the northeast.

In Benson County, drought has pushed HRSW to flowering in early seeded fields on sandy ground. The moisture came too late. Currently, scouted fields have been very clean for disease. English grain aphids were found in Grand Forks county wheat fields. Herbicide spraying has mostly wrapped up. Sugarbeet crop is looking very good. Canola is nearing bolting stages.

Twisted whorl syndrome in corn occurs when oscillating cold and hot temperatures cause uneven crop development. Goose-necking or buggy whipping can occur. This sweet corn photo is showing twisted whorl syndrome and also was damaged by very high winds from the June 9th severe storm system.

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Lesley Lubenow

Area Extension Specialist/Agronomy

NDSU Langdon Research Extension Center

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You Can Take the Birch out of the Forest But… (06/22/17)

Birch trees are found in cool northern forests where the soil is slightly acidic.

You Can Take the Birch out of the Forest But…

Birch trees are found in cool northern forests whereJohnson.1 the soil is slightly acidic. We find paper birches naturally in the Turtle Mountains and the Pembina Gorge, for example. In the forest, a layer of leaf litter protects birch roots from grass competition and keeps the soil cool and moist. A birch in the city, however, may live under much different conditions. Beautifully landscaped yards with well-manicured lawns are a harsh climate for a birch tree. When stressed by these conditions, birches will be attractive to the bronze birch borer, birch leafminer, a yellowing called chlorosis due to basic (high pH) soils, and to dying back because of moisture stress. Such stressed birch trees often die from the top down, leaving a homeowner wondering whether to prune or remove the tree.

Although many birch trees succumb to bronze birch borer every year, even more are reported with moisture stress. If a birch tree still has more than half of its leaves, you can improve its growing conditions by providing a more forest-like environment for its roots. If you are planting a new birch tree or even replacing an old one with another birch tree, follow these recommendations.

  • Deaden the sod in a wide circle around the tree and replace it with 3-4” of organic mulch (wood chips). The mulch will decay and return organic material to the soil, and will need to be refreshed periodically. To deal with weeds and grass that will become established in the mulch, spray the weeds with glyphosate. Mulch will cool the soil and help keep moisture in the rooting zone. It will also reduce heat build-up. After applying the wood chip mulch, pull it back from the trunk a few inches to keep voles away from the trunk.
  • Avoid using weed and feed type fertilizers within about 25 feet or so of the tree. These contain broadleaf herbicides that trees can take up through their roots, causing additional stress.
  • During dry periods in the summer, water deeply. This is best done with a lawn sprinkler since tree roots will extend out farther than you think. There is a concentration of feeder roots at the tree’s drip line, but roots will extend at least as far as the tree is tall, and usually farther. You will not only be adding moisture, you will be cooling the root zone.
  • Bronze birch borers leave little D-shaped holes. Inspect the main trunk and larger branches for these indicators of bronze birch borer. If a birch still has more than half of its foliage, both systemic and spray treatment options are available. Treatments are only effective when the tree is in the early stages of infestation.
  • Birches with yellow leaves are usually suffering from a lack of iron or manganese or both. These elements are not in short supply in the soil, but are simply not available to the tree when the soil is very basic. Replace these trees with non-birch and non-maple species that can tolerate more basic soils.

Lezlee Johnson

North Dakota Forest Service

Forest Health Manager

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Why No AMS is Allowed with Dicamba in Dt Soybean (06/22/17)

Question: The chemical companies have told us that AMS is not allowed with dicamba on DT soybean. They say AMS will increase the volatility and may result in dicamba drift to susceptible plants and crops. They tell us what not to do but they don’t tell us why AMS increases volatility. What does AMS do?

Why No AMS is Allowed with Dicamba in Dt Soybean

 

Question:

The chemical companies have told us that AMS is not allowed with dicamba on DT soybean. They say AMS will increase the volatility and may result in dicamba drift to susceptible plants and crops. They tell us what not to do but they don’t tell us why AMS increases volatility. What does AMS do?

 

Answer:

BASF and Monsanto have taken two different approaches to restrict dicamba volatility. BASF has formulated dicamba as a heavy (high molecular weight) BAPMA (Bis(3-aminopropyl)methylamine)) salt that is much heavier than the dma or dga salt of Banvel and Clarity. The heavy salt greatly reduces the capacity for the dicamba active ingredient to move after application. Monsanto used the VaporGrip technology which the active ingredient(s) has not been released at least to academia. We surmise the VaporGrip acts as a buffer to keep the spray solution pH above 5.5 or above that range. That is why acidifiers are not allowed.

When dicamba reacts with spray water above 5.5 pH it forms the anionic form of dicamba which has a low vapor potential. At water pH below 5.5 the dicamba will convert to the acid form, which has very high vapor potential. That is most important and why industry recommendations are used to keep dicamba from converting into the acid form. AMS can influence water pH causing the pH to acidify which can cause the dicamba to convert to the acid form. Also, (excuse a personal example) when my wife gives me a bottle of ammonia and tells me to go clean the shower it does not take long before the volatile ammonia begins to burn my lungs. Ammonia is volatile which could increase the volatility of dicamba. AMS contains ammonium but ammonium can lose a proton in water to convert into ammonia, which will yield the same high volatility results.

ND growers are the most advanced and loyal in AMS use of all growers in the U.S. Most have responded positively to NDSU research and recommendations to use AMS not only with glyphosate but with all weak acid (most POST) herbicides. The sulfate precipitates the hard water minerals and the ammonium binds with the weak acid herbicide increasing absorption and drives the proton pump inside plants resulting in greater herbicide translocation and efficacy. AMS should NOT be used in ANY form in DT soybean. Even though the cost of AMS replacement adjuvants is significantly higher than AMS only those adjuvants on the respective chemical company web sites are allowed to be added with dicamba. To help growers with adjuvant selection the weed guide has been revised to show adjuvants that contain AMS are on page 127 and those adjuvants that do not contain AMS are on page 128.

 

Rich Zollinger

Extension Weed Specialist

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How Clethodim to Injure Corn? (06/22/17)

Question: A grower sprayed glyphosate plus clethodim (select) on his soybean to kill weeds and volunteer corn. The grower did not clean the tank after the last load and filled the next tank with just glyphosate to spray his RR corn. The results looked like the photo to the right. Can there be enough clethodim in the spray system from the previous load to cause this injury?

How Clethodim to Injure Corn?

Question: A grower sprayed glyphosate plus clethodim (select) on his soybean to kill weeds and volunteer corn. The grower did not clean the tank after the last load and filled the next tank with just glyphosate to spray his RR corn. The results looked like the photo to the right. Can there be enough clethodim in the spray system from the previous load to cause this injury?

Answer: Yes, the clethodim residue in the tank can cause corn injury. The symptoms in the photo are classic Group 1/ACCase inhibitor herbicide symptoms. Chlorotic leaves and even white spots appear on new growth. A very low dose, the concentration from lack of sprayer cleanout, can cause these symptoms. Full phytotoxicity will take 10 to 14 days. I cannot determine if the plants will recover or remain stunted and result in possible stand loss from death. It may take up to 14 to 21 days to determine the end result.

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Rich Zollinger

Extension Weed Specialist

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Glufosinate Not Control Lambsqurters (06/22/17)

Question: I sprayed generic Liberty “Interline” at 1pm in the afternoon on a field of soybeans. It controlled all weeds except lambsquarters. There is no control of this weed and my neighbors also had no control. I used 32 fl oz/A of Interline, 20 GPA water, 3 lbs AMS/A, and droplet size at 286 microns. The conditions were perfect for good control last week. Why didn’t the generic Liberty kill the lambsquarters? I will need to respray all my fields again. How do we achieve control? Has anyone looked at different additives with Liberty?

Glufosinate Not Control Lambsqurters

Question: I sprayed generic Liberty “Interline” at 1pm in the afternoon on a field of soybeans. It controlled all weeds except lambsquarters. There is no control of this weed and my neighbors also had no control. I used 32 fl oz/A of Interline, 20 GPA water, 3 lbs AMS/A, and droplet size at 286 microns. The conditions were perfect for good control last week. Why didn’t the generic Liberty kill the lambsquarters? I will need to respray all my fields again. How do we achieve control? Has anyone looked at different additives with Liberty?

Answer:

The following are a few comments from my research and observations about glufosinate:

1. Pre soybean herbicides are much more effective and consistent than POST soybean herbicides for lambsquarters          control.         

2. Liberty/glufosinate requires two sequential applications for adequate broad-spectrum weed control.

3. Field research has shown that most generic formulations are similar in efficacy to Liberty.

4. You did everything right with the rate at 32 fl oz/A, 20 gpa, droplet size, and 3 lbs AMS/A.

5. You ask of some adjuvants can improve control of glufosinate. Glufosinate chemically is similar to glyphosate but very different in certain aspects including adjuvant enhancement. Unfortunately, I have found no adjuvant class that increases efficacy other than AMS. See pages 1-3 (especially page 3) in file:

https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/weeds/ndwcr-files/13-tan

In fact, you will see that most adjuvants antagonize control. The best and only adjuvant we have found to enhance glufosinate is AMS. Do not reduce the AMS rate!

6. It is not surprising that some lambsquarters escaped the glufosinate. On page 97 in the ND weed guide, we state that lambsquarters is less susceptible to glufosinate (Liberty) than other weeds. On page 114, we give Liberty a rating of F-G on lambsquarters which is better than your results/observations.

7. One piece of information you did not disclose was the size of lambsquarters at application. Any lambsquarters over 2 to 3 inches would be less likely to be controlled.

8. One last comment: Lambsquarters is the HARDEST plant to wet. It retains fewer spray droplets than other weeds. This is where adjuvants facilitate the wetting process. This may be why Liberty and glyphosate do not control this weed in some situations. NIS increases droplet retention with glyphosate but unfortunately, NIS does almost nothing to increase efficacy from glufosinate (page 3 in file). Continue to use high spray volume and keep the droplet size at the same 250 to 350 micron size range.

9. All POST soybean herbicides are weak on lambsquarters so you may try spraying again with the same recipe with full sunlight, high temps, and high humidity.

10. I strongly suggest you read paragraph B9 on page 77 in the weed guide for additional information on environmental conditions that affect Liberty. Humidity is one of the most important factors that affect efficacy. The humidity was probably very low on your June 12 application which was several days prior to the wet weather which brought higher humidity that moved across the region. Low humidity can significantly reduce glufosinate activity.

Rich Zollinger

Extension Weed Specialist

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Revised Liberty Label (06/22/17)

The new Liberty label has been approved with revised application information.

Revised Liberty Label

The new Liberty label has been approved with revised application information:

My apologizes for not sending you the updated Liberty label earlier. Attached is the new approved Liberty label. Below I have outlined some of the changes:

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Rich Zollinger

Extension Weed Specialist

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Hay CRP Sprayed With Milestone (06/22/17)

Question: I have a producer that wants to spray CRP with Milestone.

Hay CRP Sprayed With Milestone

Question: I have a producer that wants to spray CRP with Milestone. This field may be hayed this year or next depending on the contract specifications. The weed control guide states no haying or grazing restrictions. On the label it talks about 18 month restrictions for haying. In another place it talks about 3 days. In another spot it talks about no restrictions. Would there be a problem with haying this field down the road and having a problem with residues in the manure from the hay. I know that Milestone has a pretty good residual and that we need to be aware if a CRP field will be farmed in the next few years. Would that residual be an issue for hay down the road that may be fed at the farm and manure spread out onto cropland.

Answer: There are no grazing or haying restrictions with Milestone, animals can eat the grass or hay. However, the problem comes with the residue. There is a 3 day waiting period before you can move livestock that have fed on treated forage (green grass or hay) to areas with sensitive plants.              

You can cut the hay any time after treatment. However, Milestone (aminopyralid) like Transline (clopyralid) does not break down very much when tied up in grass residue. That is why the label says that the hay must be used on the farm/ranch where it originated for up to 18 months after harvest. So, if you feed animals with this hay up to 18 months after treatment, the manure could contain aminopyralid and you would need to wait 3 days before moving them to areas with sensitive plants.

It gets a little confusing, so I would say if someone applies Milestone and then hays, you need to assume the hay has residual herbicide in it. No problem to the animals, but do not move them or the manure to a sensitive crop area, like feeding on alfalfa in the fall or spreading manure on a field that will be seeded to soybeans. This drawing from the label helps explain in an easier to understand way.

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Rod Lym

NDSU Weed Science, Noxious and Invasive Weeds

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Protein Enhancement Recipe (06/22/17)

Flag leaves are emerged in many early seeded spring wheat fields, so one of the upcoming questions many of you will receive will concern strategies for protein enhancement.

Protein Enhancement Recipe

Flag leaves are emerged in many early seeded spring wheat fields, so one of the upcoming questions many of you will receive will concern strategies for protein enhancement. It is unknown what protein premiums might be offered at harvest for the 2017 crop. The premium usually is based on what the protein level of the crop might be. If the protein is anticipated to be lower, a higher dockage for lower than 14% protein will be imposed and a greater premium for higher protein will be offered.

IF the decision is made to try to increase protein, the most efficient way to accomplish this is to apply 30 pounds N per acre (10 gallon of UAN + 10 gallon water) immediately post anthesis before the wheat berry starts to become milky. Apply with flat fan nozzles broadcast over the plants during the cool of the day, usually from just before daybreak until it becomes hot. If the day is cloudy, and temperatures are in the 50’s to 60’s degrees F, the sprayer could likely run all day. Expect some leaf burning, but at this growth stage the burning does not contribute to yield loss, but don’t push it. Spraying all day in heat/drought stressed wheat when temps are 90 degrees is not a wise practice.

Reduced burning (again not an issue, but some growers don’t like the attention burning receives from neighbors I suppose) can be accomplished if the local supplier ‘melts’ urea to make a urea solution. In most cases, low burning or no burning results from using straight urea compared to UAN. However, in rare occasions fields have been severely burned from urea solution application. This was probably the result of biuret contamination of the urea used to make the solution. Biuret is a byproduct of the urea manufacturing process when it is poorly controlled. Urea is a worldwide commodity. Although US and Canadian manufacturers do a good job of keeping biuret content of urea low (less than 0.2%), the same might not be true from offshore sources. There are few laboratories in the region that test fertilizer for biuret. One laboratory I have found can test for biuret at about $45 per sample. The contact information is below. This is not an endorsement for the lab, but it is the only lab I am aware of in the area that tests for biuret. If anyone has a lead on other regional labs that test for biuret, I would be interested to know and I can distribute the information through the Ag-Dakota list-serve. The turn-around time for a urea sample is 3-5 business days.

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It is also important to explain that there are a number of products that are slow-release urea liquid fertilizers that claim great efficiency over UAN or urea solution. Instead of 30 pounds N per acre, which is required for ½ to 1% protein gain, they claim that 1-3 gallons per acre (2.5 to 7.5 pounds N per acre) of their product will accomplish the same task. This is untrue. For data on several of these products in NDSU trials, see https://www.ndsu.edu/fileadmin/soils/pdfs/foliarNreport.pdf . These slow release products have no more foliar N efficiency than UAN.

Dave Franzen

NDSU Extension Soil Specialist

701-799-2565

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