Central Grasslands REC, Streeter

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Long-Term Grazing Intensity Research in the Missouri Coteau of North Dakota

Table 9

Table 9. Frequency of plant species in 25 x 25 cm frames on silty range sites in 1988 and 2009 and their response to long term grazing.

 

 

 

 

 

Treatment

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ungrazed

Light

Moderate

Heavy

Extreme

 

Scientific Name - Common name

1988

2009

1988

2009

1988

2009

1988

2009

1988

2009

Grazing Response

Poa pratensis L. - Kentucky bluegrass

86.00

100.00

84.67

100.00

92.67

100.00

75.33

95.33

82.00

98.00

decrease

Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) A. Love - western wheatgrass

58.67

64.67

30.00

54.00

64.67

78.00

42.67

76.00

57.67

78.67

increase

Carex inops Bailey ssp. heliophila (Mackenzie) Crins - sun sedge

50.67

16.67

72.00

39.33

76.67

63.33

77.33

85.33

75.67

74.00

increase

Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) Nesom var. ericoides - heath aster

29.33

63.33

45.33

75.33

38.67

65.33

39.33

48.00

35.00

42.00

increase-decrease

Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. - cudweed sagewort

5.33

26.00

31.33

64.00

24.00

40.67

29.33

39.33

12.33

16.00

increase-decrease

Nassella viridula (Trin.) Barkworth - green needlegrass

36.67

12.67

34.67

16.00

48.67

54.67

30.00

60.67

41.00

57.33

increase

Carex obtusata Lilj. - obtuse sedge

16.00

44.00

16.67

79.33

15.33

42.67

8.67

44.00

6.67

18.00

 

Achillea millefolium L. - western yarrow

4.00

41.33

1.33

18.00

7.33

44.67

3.33

46.00

3.67

82.67

increase

Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Griffiths - blue grama

49.33

3.33

24.67

11.33

42.00

39.33

45.33

56.67

30.33

50.67

increase

Taraxacum officinale Weber - common dandelion

0.67

42.67

0.00

12.67

0.00

37.33

0.00

60.00

0.00

97.33

increase

Artemisia frigida Wild. - fringed sagewort

8.67

4.67

2.67

4.00

4.67

21.33

6.67

66.67

3.33

38.00

increase

Vicia americana Muhl. ex Wild. - American vetch

0.00

9.33

0.67

9.33

2.67

8.00

1.33

28.67

1.67

52.67

increase

Oligoneuron rigidum (L.) Small var. humile (Porter) Nesom - stiff goldenrod

0.67

35.33

0.00

21.33

0.67

84.00

0.00

60.00

1.00

36.00

increase-decrease

Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dun. - curly-cup gumweed

0.67

10.00

0.67

3.33

0.00

26.00

0.00

59.33

1.00

63.33

increase

Stipa curtiseta (A. S. Hitchc.) Barkworth - western porcupine grass

8.67

4.67

16.00

18.67

4.00

11.33

8.00

19.33

8.33

14.67

increase-decrease

Cerastium arvense L. - prairie chickweed

0.00

19.33

0.00

13.33

0.00

45.33

0.00

48.00

0.00

85.33

increase

Ambrosia psilostachya DC. - western ragweed

3.33

60.67

2.00

50.67

3.33

59.33

0.67

13.33

0.00

0.00

increase-decrease

Dichanthelium wilcoxianum (Vassey) Freckmann - Wilcox dichanthelium

0.00

2.67

2.00

14.67

3.33

48.00

2.67

50.67

2.00

24.67

increase-decrease

Astragalus agrestis Dougl. ex G. Don - field milk-vetch

2.67

8.00

1.33

6.00

2.00

18.00

3.33

16.67

7.33

26.00

increase

Cirsium flodmanii (Rydb.) Arthur - Flodman’s thistle

0.00

18.00

6.67

50.67

6.67

26.00

4.00

19.33

1.33

6.67

increase-decrease

Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) J.A. Schultes - Junegrass

8.67

2.00

0.00

2.67

4.00

20.67

0.00

25.33

3.33

27.33

increase

Stipa comata Trin. & Rupr. - needle-and-thread

14.67

0.00

17.33

2.67

14.67

10.67

29.33

26.67

28.67

5.33

 

Androsace occidentalis Pursh - western rock jasmine

0.00

0.67

0.00

6.67

0.00

12.67

0.00

37.33

0.00

23.33

increase

Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl. - prairie coneflower

3.33

2.00

1.33

7.33

2.00

18.00

2.00

28.00

2.00

14.67

increase-decrease

Carex eleocharis Bailey. - needle-leaved sedge

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.33

0.00

4.00

0.00

32.00

0.00

25.33

increase

Elymus repens (L.) Gould - quackgrass

0.67

12.00

2.00

45.33

1.33

48.00

0.00

11.33

2.00

19.33

increase-decrease

Lotus purshianus (Benth.) Clem. & Clem. - deer vetch

0.00

31.33

0.00

4.67

2.00

22.00

0.00

1.33

0.00

14.67

decrease

Solidago mollis Bartl. - soft goldenrod

0.67

8.00

0.00

22.00

2.67

11.33

4.00

9.33

6.00

3.33

increase-decrease

Helianthus pauciflorus Nutt. ssp. pauciflorus - stiff sunflower

0.00

24.00

10.67

9.33

0.00

10.67

6.67

2.00

4.67

0.00

decrease

Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. - comandra

0.00

0.00

8.00

8.67

7.33

12.67

0.67

10.00

0.00

2.67

increase-decrease

Oxalis stricta L. - yellow wood sorrel

0.00

14.67

0.00

0.00

0.00

10.00

0.00

7.33

0.00

18.00

increase

Rosa arkansana Porter - prairie rose

0.00

3.33

12.67

17.33

0.67

3.33

6.67

4.00

2.00

0.67

increase-decrease

Hedeoma hispidum Pursh - rough false pennyroyal

0.00

3.33

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.33

0.00

7.33

0.00

6.00

increase

Plantago patagonica Jacq. - wooly plantain

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.33

0.00

20.67

0.00

11.33

increase

Euphorbia serpyllifolia Pers. - thyme-leaved spurge

0.00

2.67

0.00

0.00

0.00

14.67

0.00

29.33

0.00

16.00

increase

Potentilla pensylvanica L. - Pennsylvania cinquefoil

0.00

1.33

0.00

0.00

0.00

5.33

0.00

16.67

0.00

25.33

increase

Bromus inermis Leyss. - smooth brome

0.00

2.00

1.33

25.33

1.33

8.67

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.00

increase-decrease

Artemisia absinthium L. - wormwood

0.00

26.00

0.00

2.67

0.00

3.33

0.00

7.33

0.00

3.33

decrease

Sphaeralcea coccinea (Pursh) Rydb. - scarlet globe mallow

14.67

0.00

3.33

0.00

7.33

2.67

4.00

0.67

10.33

5.33

increase

Penstemon gracilis Nutt. - slender beardtongue

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.67

0.00

8.67

0.00

6.67

0.00

17.33

increase

Tragopogon dubius Scop. - goat's beard

0.67

5.33

0.00

2.67

0.67

3.33

0.67

2.00

0.00

0.00

decrease

Geum triflorum Pursh - prairie smoke

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.67

0.00

6.67

0.00

10.00

0.00

3.33

increase

Artemisia dracunculus L. - green sagewort

0.00

0.00

0.67

0.67

0.00

5.33

0.67

12.67

0.00

0.00

increase-decrease

Carex filifolia Nutt. - thread-leaved sage

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.00

10.67

1.33

0.00

increase-decrease

Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.) B.S.P. - ticklegrass

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.67

0.00

3.33

0.00

1.33

0.00

14.00

invader

Draba nemorosa L. - yellow whitlowort

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.67

0.00

1.33

0.00

3.33

0.00

8.67

increase

Medicago lupulina L. - black medic

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.33

0.00

1.33

0.00

30.67

Invader

Lithospermum incisum Lehm. - yellow puccoon

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.00

1.33

0.00

6.00

0.00

2.00

Increase-decrease

Antennaria neglecta Greene - field pussy-toes

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.33

0.00

2.67

0.00

2.00

0.00

10.00

increase

Erysimum asperum (Nutt.) DC. - western wallflower

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

increase-decrease

Sisyrinchium montanum Greene. - blue-eyed grass

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.33

0.00

2.67

0.00

3.33

0.00

1.33

increase-decrease

Calamagrostis montanensis (Scribn.) Scribn. - plains reedgrass

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

4.00

0.00

7.33

0.00

4.67

increase-decrease

Lepidium densiflorum Schrad. - peppergrass

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.67

increase

Asclepias ovalifolia Dcne. - ovalleaf milkweed

0.00

0.67

0.67

4.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

increase-decrease

Arabis hirsuta (L.) Scop. var. pycnocarpa (Hopkins) Rollins - rock cress

0.00

2.00

0.00

1.33

0.00

6.67

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.67

increase-decrease

Juncus interior Wieg. - inland rush

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.67

0.00

3.33

invader

Potentilla norvegica L. - Norwegian cinquefoil

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.33

increase

Chrysopsis villosa (Pursh) Nutt. - golden aster

0.00

0.00

1.33

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.00

2.00

0.00

0.67

increase-decrease

Erysimum inconspicuum (S. Wats.) MacM. - smallflower wallflower

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.00

increase-decrease

Polygonum ramosissimum Michx. - bushy knotweed

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.67

invader

Orthocarpus luteus Nutt. - owl clover

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.00

increase-decrease

Psoralea esculenta Pursh - breadroot scurf-pea

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

decrease

Trifolium repens L. - white clover

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

3.33

Invader

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