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Figure, Table, and Photo Sources

 

Figure 1.  Energy consumption by source in U.S., 1635 – 2000 (quadrillion Btu).  

“History of Energy in the United States: 1635 - 2000.” Energy Information Administration (EIA). Sept. 2008. U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed April 19, 2009.  http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/eh/frame.html

Figure 2.  Energy flow: Production and consumption in U.S. 

“State and Historical Data.” Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2007. U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed April 19, 2009.   http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/pages/sec1_3.pdf

Figure 3.  Electric power plants in U.S., 2009.    

"State Energy Profiles.”  Energy Information Administration (EIA). April 17, 2009. U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed April 19, 2009.  http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=US      

Figure 4.  U.S. electrical power generation by source, 2007. 

“Electric Power Annual 2007” Energy Information Administration (EIA). April 2007. U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed April 19, 2009. http://www.eia.doe.gov/bookshelf/brochures/epa/epa.html

Figure 5.  Coal mines in U.S.   

"State Energy Profiles.”  Energy Information Administration (EIA). April 17, 2009. U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed April 19, 2009.  http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=US 

Figure 6.  Oil refineries in U.S.   

"State Energy Profiles.”  Energy Information Administration (EIA). April 17, 2009. U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed April 19, 2009. http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=US 

Figure 7.  Distribution in U.S.: Pipelines and transmission lines.  

"State Energy Profiles.”  Energy Information Administration (EIA). April 17, 2009. U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed April 19, 2009. http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=US 

Figure 8.  Renewables in U.S.: Potentials and power plants.   

"State Energy Profiles.”  Energy Information Administration (EIA). April 17, 2009. U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed April 19, 2009.   http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=US 

Figure 9.   Energy sources and pipelines in North Dakota.    

"State Energy Profiles: North Dakota.”  Energy Information Administration (EIA). April 17, 2009. U.S. Department   of Energy. Accessed April 19, 2009.  http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=ND 

Figure 10.  Biomass resources in North Dakota.

“State Assessment for Biomass Resources: North Dakota Potential Biofuel Production.” Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center.  Feb. 4, 2009.  U.S. Department of Energy.  Accessed April 19, 2009.                   http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/sabre/sabre.php

Figure 11.  Renewable plants in North Dakota.  

Hauck, Duane. “Renewable Energy Production in North Dakota.” State Energy Advisory Board. 2008. State Energy Advisory Board (ASTEAB). Accessed April 19, 2009.  http://www.steab.org/Docs/DuaneHauck1.pdf

Figure 12.  Biomass resources in U.S. 

“Biomass Resources Available in the United States.” National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Sept., 2005. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Accessed April 19, 2009.                     http://www.nrel.gov/gis/images/map_biomass_sqkm.jpg 

Figure 13.  Energy return on investment (EROI) estimates for electrical generation.

Kubiszewski, Ida and Cutler J. Cleveland. “Energy return on investment (EROI) for wind energy.” The Encyclopedia of the Earth. June 18, 2008. The Encyclopedia of the Earth. Accessed April 19, 2009.  http://www.eoearth.org/article/Energy_return_on_investment_(EROI)_for_wind_energy

Figure 14.  Oil prices, 1861 – 2006. 

Ströck, Michael. “File: Oil Prices 1861 2006.” Wikimedia Commons. March 30, 2006. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Accessed April 19, 2009. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oil_Prices_1861_2006.jpg

Figure 15.  Energy sources in U.S. to 2030 (quadrillion Btu).  

“Forecasts and Analyses of Energy Data.” Energy Information Administration (EIA). March, 2009. U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed April 19, 2009. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/forecasting.html

Figure 16.  Worldwide energy use by country, 1990-2030.  

“International Energy Annual 2004” (May-July 2006), and “Annual Energy Outlook 2007” (Feb. 2007). Energy Information Administration (EIA). U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed 2008.  http://www.eia.doe.gov/iea.                    

Figure 17.  World marketed energy use by fuel type, 1980-2030.  

“International Energy Outlook 2008.” Energy Information Administration (EIA). June, 2008. U.S. Department of Energy.  Accessed April 19, 2009. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/world.html                                                      

 

Tables

Table 1.   Energy terms and units.   

Table 2.   Energy return on investment (EROI) estimates for source production. 

Cleveland, Cutler J., Robert Costanza, Charles A.S. Hall, Robert Kaufmann. “Energy and the U.S. economy: A biophysical perspective.” (1984) Science, 225:890-897.  Accessed April 19, 2009.
http://www.eroei.com/pdf/Energy%20and%20the%20U.S.%20Economy-%20A%20Biophysical%20Perspective.pdf         

Table 3.   Energy prices by source per Btu.   

“EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2009” (Table 3). Energy Information Administration – EIA. March 2009. U.S. Department of Energy.  Accessed April 19, 2009.  http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/aeoref_tab.html                       

Table 4.   Cost of electricity by source per kWh. Various sources, including: Gross, Bill. “Beat Coal.” Bill Gross. Feb. 25, 2008.

Accessed April 19, 2009. http://www.billgross.com/?gclid=CLuyofGuqpkCFYuT7Qodpk6ypg

“Biomass Energy: Cost of Production.” Oregon Department of Energy. Aug. 1, 2007. State of Oregon, Oregon Department of Energy. April 19, 2009. http://www.oregon.gov/ENERGY/RENEW/Biomass/Cost.shtml

 

Photos

Photo 1.  Lignite coal mine in Poland.

Uciechowska, Anna. Wheel excavator in polish lignite mine, KWB Turów, photograph. Accessed April 19, 2009. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Turów5.jpg

Photo 2.  Oil drilling rig in Spitsbergen, Norway.

“Tannkrem.” Aker Spitsbergen, photograph, March 14, 2007. Accessed April 19, 2009.
  http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Aker_Spitsbergen.JPG

Photo 3.  Natural gas power plant in Illinois.

“Duel Freq.” Goose Creek Energy Center, a natural gas power plant, constructed by Aquila Inc… Illinois, photograph, 2007. Accessed April 19, 2009. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Goose_Creek_Energy_Center.jpg

Photo 4.  Nuclear power plant in California.

“Marya.” Diablo Canyon Power Plant in San Luis Obispo County, California, USA, photograph, April 26, 2005. Accessed April 19, 2009. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Diablo_canyon_nuclear_power_plant.jpg

Photo 5.  Hoover Dam on the Colorado River between Arizona and Nevada.

“Snakefisch.” Hoover Dam from plane, photograph, March 2005. Accessed April 19, 2009.      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hoover_dam_from_air.jpg

Photo 6.  Tidal turbines in British Columbia. 

Fletcher, Garry. Tidal current energy generator at Race Rocks [B.C.], photograph, Sept. 2006. Accessed April 19, 2009.   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Tidalenergyturbine.jpg

Photo 7.  Ethanol plant in Iowa.  

Vaughn, Steven. A typical ethanol plant in West Burlington, Iowa (Big River Resources, LLC, photograph, May 2007. Accessed April 19, 2009.  http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Ethanol_plant.jpg

Photo 8.  Peat-fueled power plant in Finland.

“Estormiz.” Toppila Peat-Fired Power Plant in Oulu, Finland, photograph, Feb. 5, 2006. Accessed April 19, 2009. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Toppila_power_plant.JPG

Photo 9.  Wind turbines in Germany.

Franke, Dirk Ingo. Oesterwurth cows with wind turbines [Germany] , photograph, May 2, 2007. Accessed April 19, 2009. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Oesterwurth_kuhs_m_winrads.jpg

Photo 10.  Geothermal plant in Iceland.

Ěvarsson, Gretar. The Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Plant in Iceland, photograph, Oct. 6, 2006. Accessed April 19, 2009.   http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:NesjavellirPowerPlant_edit.jpg

Photo 11.  Solar power plant in California.

Radecki, Alan. Solar power plants III-VII at Kramer Junction, California, April 6, 2005. Accessed April 19, 2009.         http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Solarplant-050406-04.jpg 

Photo 12.  Heliostats for solar energy tower in Colorado.

Sandia National Laboratory, SAIC's 170-m˛ faceted heliostat on test in Golden, Colorado, photograph, [no date], Accessed April 19, 2009.
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:SAIC%27s_170-m%C2%B2_Faceted_Heliostat.jpg


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