Table 9. Frequency of selected plant species in 25 x 25 cm frames on silty range sites in 1988 and 2004 and their response to long term grazing.

 

Treatment

 

 

Ungrazed

Light

Moderate

Heavy

Extreme

 

Scientific Name - Common name

1988

2004

1988

2004

1988

2004

1988

2004

1988

2004

Grazing Response

Poa pratensis L. - Kentucky bluegrass

86.00

99.33

84.67

100.00

92.67

99.33

75.33

98.67

82.00

99.33

decrease

Carex heliophila Mack. - sun sedge

50.67

48.67

72.00

56.00

76.67

69.33

77.33

86.67

75.67

89.33

increase

Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) A. Love - western wheatgrass

58.67

64.67

30.00

52.67

64.67

63.33

42.67

60.00

57.67

86.67

increase

Aster ericoides L. - heath aster

29.33

46.00

45.33

68.00

38.67

54.00

39.33

42.67

35.00

37.33

increase-decrease

Stipa viridula Trin. - green needlegrass

36.67

16.00

34.67

17.33

48.67

27.33

30.00

32.00

41.00

38.67

increase-decrease

Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. - cudweed sagewort

5.33

16.00

31.33

54.67

24.00

46.67

29.33

30.00

12.33

22.67

increase-decrease

Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Griffiths - blue grama

49.33

1.33

24.67

3.33

42.00

10.00

45.33

42.00

30.33

16.67

increase

Carex obtusata Lilj. - obtuse sedge

16.00

25.33

16.67

46.00

15.33

28.67

8.67

38.00

6.67

24.00

 

Achillea millefolium L. - western yarrow

4.00

27.33

1.33

12.67

7.33

48.00

3.33

38.00

3.67

74.67

increase

Solidago rigida L. - stiff goldenrod

0.67

19.33

0.00

7.33

0.67

74.00

0.00

52.00

1.00

32.00

increase-decrease

Taraxacum officinale Weber - common dandelion

0.67

24.67

0.00

5.33

0.00

18.00

0.00

39.33

0.00

81.33

increase

Artemisia frigida Wild. - fringed sagewort

8.67

10.00

2.67

4.67

4.67

22.67

6.67

48.67

3.33

26.67

increase

Stipa comata Trin. & Rupr. - needle-and-thread

14.67

0.67

17.33

0.67

14.67

3.33

29.33

6.67

28.67

1.33

 

Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dun. - curly-cup gumweed

0.67

5.33

0.67

0.67

0.00

30.00

0.00

40.67

1.00

26.00

increase

Vicia americana Muhl. ex Wild. - American vetch

0.00

8.67

0.67

9.33

2.67

6.00

1.33

16.67

1.67

46.67

increase

Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. - quackgrass

0.67

7.33

2.00

16.67

1.33

17.33

0.00

23.33

2.00

20.00

increase-decrease

Oxalis stricta L. - yellow wood sorrel

0.00

26.67

0.00

0.00

0.00

16.67

0.00

8.00

0.00

38.67

increase

Lotus purshianus (Benth.) Clem. & Clem. - deer vetch

0.00

24.00

0.00

8.67

2.00

16.67

0.00

4.00

0.00

20.00

 

Solidago missouriensis Nutt. - Missouri goldenrod

2.00

7.33

0.00

14.67

0.67

13.33

2.67

15.33

1.00

14.00

increase-decrease

Cerastium arvense L. - prairie chickweed

0.00

3.33

0.00

5.33

0.00

13.33

0.00

19.33

0.00

29.33

increase

Cirsium flodmanii (Rydb.) Arthur - Flodman’s thistle

0.00

7.33

6.67

24.00

6.67

10.00

4.00

4.00

1.33

5.33

increase-decrease

Androsace occidentalis Pursh - western rock jasmine

0.00

4.67

0.00

2.67

0.00

15.33

0.00

30.00

0.00

16.00

increase

Symphoricarpos occidentalis Hook. - buckbrush

3.33

12.67

2.00

7.33

2.00

10.67

0.00

6.00

8.00

14.67

increase

Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. - comandra

0.00

1.33

8.00

8.00

7.33

18.67

0.67

15.33

0.00

6.00

increase-decrease

Dichanthelium wilcoxianum (Vassey) Freckmann - Wilcox dichanthelium

0.00

1.33

2.00

1.33

3.33

23.33

2.67

16.00

2.00

12.00

increase-decrease

Koeleria pyramidata (Lam.) Beauv. - Junegrass

8.67

0.00

0.00

1.33

4.00

8.00

0.00

22.67

3.33

16.00

increase

Helianthus rigidus (Cass.) Desf. - stiff sunflower

0.00

18.00

10.67

13.33

0.00

5.33

6.67

2.00

4.67

2.00

decrease

Psoralea argophylla Pursh - silver-leaf scurf-pea

3.33

1.33

14.00

9.33

1.33

6.00

10.00

12.00

2.67

1.33

increase-decrease

Astragalus agrestis Dougl. ex G. Don - field milk-vetch

2.67

6.00

1.33

5.33

2.00

5.33

3.33

6.00

7.33

21.33

 

Ambrosia psilostachya DC. - western ragweed

3.33

11.33

2.00

9.33

3.33

21.33

0.67

6.00

0.00

2.67

increase-decrease

Stipa curtiseta (A. S. Hitchc.) Barkworth - western porcupine grass

8.67

1.33

16.00

3.33

4.00

1.33

8.00

2.67

8.33

6.00

 

Solidago mollis Bartl. - soft goldenrod

0.67

5.33

0.00

16.00

2.67

8.00

4.00

8.00

6.00

5.33

increase-decrease

Lactuca oblongifolia Nutt. - blue lettuce

1.33

4.67

3.33

6.00

2.67

1.33

6.00

6.67

3.67

14.00

increase

Rosa arkansana Porter - prairie rose

0.00

2.00

12.67

15.33

0.67

2.00

6.67

7.33

2.00

0.00

increase-decrease

Artemisia absinthium L. - wormwood

0.00

27.33

0.00

2.67

0.00

8.00

0.00

3.33

0.00

6.67

decrease

Sphaeralcea coccinea (Pursh) Rydb. - scarlet globe mallow

14.67

2.00

3.33

0.00

7.33

1.33

4.00

0.00

10.33

2.67

increase

Carex eleocharis Bailey. - needle-leaved sedge

0.00

2.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

5.33

0.00

14.00

0.00

14.00

increase

Chenopodium desiccatum A. Nels. - narrow-leaved goosefoot

0.00

5.33

0.00

4.67

0.00

6.00

0.00

12.67

0.00

5.33

increase

Bromus inermis Leyss. - smooth brome

0.00

1.33

1.33

22.00

1.33

6.00

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.67

increase-decrease

Euphorbia serpyllifolia Pers. - thyme-leaved spurge

0.00

1.33

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

18.00

0.00

12.00

increase

Plantago patagonica Jacq. - wooly plantain

0.00

2.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.67

0.00

14.67

0.00

8.67

increase

Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl. - prairie coneflower

3.33

0.67

1.33

0.00

2.00

4.00

2.00

5.33

2.00

2.67

increase-decrease

Carex filifolia Nutt. - thread-leaved sage

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.33

2.00

14.67

1.33

2.67

increase-decrease

Penstemon gracilis Nutt. - slender beardtongue

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

7.33

0.00

4.00

0.00

6.67

increase

Potentilla pensylvanica L. - Pennsylvania cinquefoil

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.33

0.00

13.33

increase

Geum triflorum Pursh - prairie smoke

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

4.67

0.00

7.33

0.00

0.67

increase-decrease

Draba nemorosa L. - yellow whitlowort

0.00

2.00

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.67

0.00

4.00

0.00

4.67

increase

Hedeoma hispidum Pursh - rough false pennyroyal

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.33

0.00

3.33

0.00

6.00

increase

Medicago lupulina L. - black medic

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

11.33

invade

Artemisia dracunculus L. - green sagewort

0.00

0.67

0.67

0.00

0.00

5.33

0.67

2.67

0.00

0.67

increase-decrease

Calamagrostis montanesis (Scribn.) Scribn. Plains reedgrass

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.67

0.00

1.33

0.00

4.67

0.00

0.00

increase-decrease

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall. - yellow sweetclover

0.00

4.00

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

decrease

Lithospermum incisum Lehm, - yellow puccoon

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.00

0.00

0.00

2.67

0.00

0.00

increase-decrease

Juncus interior Wieg. - inland rush

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.67

invade

Tragopogon dubius Scop. - goat's beard

0.67

0.67

0.00

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.00

0.00

decrease

Lepidium densiflorum Schrad. - peppergrass

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.67

increase

Polygonum ramosissimum Michx. - bushy knotweed

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.33

increase

Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.) B.S.P. - ticklegrass

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.00

invade

Psoralea esculenta Pursh - breadroot scurf-pea

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

decrease

Erysimum asperum (Nutt.) DC. - western wallflower

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

increase

Erysimum inconspicuum (S. Wats.) MacM. - smallflower wallflower

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

increase-decrease

Orthocarpus luteus Nutt. - owl clover

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

increase-decrease

Potentilla norvegica L. - Norwegian cinquefoil

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

increase

Sisyrinchium montanum Greene. - blue-eyed grass

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

increase-decrease