Table 8. Frequency of selected plant species in 25 x 25 cm frames on overflow range sites in 1988 and 2004 and their response to long term grazing.

 

Treatment

 

 

Ungrazed

Light

Moderate

Heavy

Extreme

 

Scientific Name - Common name

1988

2004

1988

2004

1988

2004

1988

2004

1988

2004

Grazing Response

Poa pratensis L. - Kentucky bluegrass

63.33

95.33

62.00

96.67

73.33

99.33

58.67

98.67

72.67

98.67

increase-decrease

Symphoricarpos occidentalis Hook. - buckbrush

53.33

60.00

55.33

52.67

49.33

45.33

61.33

59.33

65.33

29.33

 

Bromus inermis Leyss. - smooth brome

33.33

92.67

25.33

59.33

31.33

49.33

19.33

49.33

32.00

40.00

decrease

Solidago rigida L. - stiff goldenrod

32.00

34.67

40.67

48.00

28.00

68.00

9.33

68.00

12.67

54.00

increase-decrease

Carex heliophila Mack. - sun sedge

46.67

10.67

30.67

18.67

34.00

29.33

30.67

38.00

63.33

77.33

increase

Helianthus rigidus (Cass.) Desf. - stiff sunflower

38.67

44.67

30.00

38.00

47.33

26.67

64.67

26.67

49.33

1.33

decrease

Aster ericoides L. - heath aster

35.33

40.00

23.33

39.33

32.00

34.67

34.67

23.33

40.00

26.00

increase

Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. - cudweed sagewort

34.00

10.00

22.67

30.67

22.00

29.33

23.33

29.33

39.33

35.33

increase

Carex obtusata Lilj. - obtuse sedge

21.33

12.00

16.00

21.33

23.33

31.33

26.00

26.67

11.33

36.00

increase

Andropogon gerardii Vitman - big bluestem

10.00

3.33

41.33

19.33

38.00

36.00

17.33

20.00

5.33

10.00

increase-decrease

Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. - quackgrass

20.67

26.00

18.67

31.33

10.00

20.00

10.67

16.67

14.00

26.67

 

Achillea millefolium L. - western yarrow

6.67

5.33

8.00

22.00

2.67

26.00

3.33

26.67

2.67

76.00

increase

Oxalis stricta L. - yellow wood sorrel

0.00

2.67

0.00

13.33

0.00

38.00

0.00

48.67

0.00

71.33

increase

Taraxacum officinale Weber - common dandelion

0.00

9.33

0.00

11.33

0.00

24.67

0.00

22.67

0.00

74.00

increase

Galium boreale L. - northern bedstraw

8.00

18.00

6.00

22.00

10.67

16.67

5.33

9.33

16.00

16.67

increase-decrease

Ambrosia psilostachya DC. - western ragweed

10.00

6.67

16.00

26.00

21.33

21.33

11.33

8.67

1.33

5.33

increase-decrease

Solidago canadensis L. - Canada goldenrod

6.00

10.00

18.67

30.67

3.33

18.67

12.00

25.33

2.67

0.67

 

Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) A. Love - western wheatgrass

14.67

2.00

4.67

10.00

4.67

14.00

1.33

26.67

11.33

30.00

increase

Rosa arkansana Porter - prairie rose

8.67

14.67

7.33

10.00

10.00

10.67

13.33

2.67

26.00

4.67

decrease

Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh - wild licorice

12.00

10.67

12.67

32.00

4.67

4.00

8.67

8.00

0.00

0.00

increase-decrease

Agropyron caninum (L.) Beauv. - slender wheatgrass

12.00

0.00

10.00

1.33

10.67

1.33

21.33

1.33

12.67

2.00

increase

Stipa viridula Trin. - green needlegrass

3.33

2.67

13.33

6.00

3.33

0.67

8.67

6.00

9.33

17.33

increase

Cirsium flodmanii (Rydb.) Arthur - Flodman’s thistle

4.67

2.00

1.33

8.67

8.67

17.33

8.67

8.67

3.33

3.33

increase

Viola pedatifida G. Don - larkspur violet

0.67

5.33

0.67

14.67

1.33

12.67

1.33

14.00

0.00

16.00

increase

Cerastium arvense L. - prairie chickweed

0.00

3.33

0.00

4.00

0.00

5.33

0.00

10.00

0.00

37.33

increase

Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dun. - curly-cup gumweed

0.00

1.33

0.00

2.00

0.00

3.33

0.67

22.67

4.67

22.67

increase

Lotus purshianus (Benth.) Clem. & Clem. - deer vetch

0.00

4.00

0.00

4.00

0.00

14.67

0.00

11.33

0.00

18.67

 

Artemisia absinthium L. - wormwood

0.00

2.67

0.00

8.00

0.00

15.33

0.00

23.33

0.00

3.33

 

Solidago missouriensis Nutt. - Missouri goldenrod

1.33

7.33

0.00

0.67

3.33

6.67

2.00

6.00

4.00

20.00

increase

Lactuca oblongifolia Nutt. - blue lettuce

6.67

13.33

0.00

4.00

11.33

5.33

6.00

0.67

1.33

0.00

 

Polygonum convolvulus L. - wild buckwheat

0.00

4.67

0.00

4.67

0.00

6.67

1.33

24.00

0.00

5.33

increase

Aster simplex Willd. - panicled aster

2.00

2.67

13.33

11.33

0.00

2.00

5.33

2.00

0.00

0.67

increase-decrease

Medicago lupulina L. - black medic

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.67

0.00

1.33

0.00

10.00

0.00

26.67

invade

Androsace occidentalis Pursh - western rock jasmine

0.00

0.00

0.00

3.33

0.00

5.33

0.00

6.67

0.00

15.33

increase

Astragalus agrestis Dougl. ex G. Don - field milk-vetch

0.67

0.00

0.67

0.67

0.00

2.00

2.00

1.33

2.00

15.33

increase

Solidago mollis Bartl. - soft goldenrod

2.67

1.33

2.00

7.33

6.00

0.67

0.67

2.67

0.67

0.67

decrease

Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. - comandra

0.00

2.00

0.67

1.33

1.33

3.33

0.67

5.33

0.67

4.67

increase

Carex lanuginosa Michx. - wooly sedge

0.00

2.00

0.67

8.67

1.33

1.33

0.00

0.00

0.00

4.00

increase-decrease

Euphorbia serpyllifolia Pers. - thyme-leaved spurge

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.67

0.00

13.33

increase

Amorpha canescens Pursh - lead plant

1.33

2.67

0.00

0.00

0.67

0.67

6.00

0.67

1.33

0.00

decrease

Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. - horse–weed

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.33

0.67

0.00

0.67

3.33

0.00

6.67

increase

Juncus balticus Willd. - Baltic rush

0.00

0.00

2.00

6.67

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

increase-decrease

Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl. - prairie coneflower

3.33

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.67

0.67

0.67

2.67

increase

Polygonum ramosissimum Michx. - bushy knotweed

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.67

0.00

4.67

invade

Draba nemorosa L. - yellow whitlowort

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.33

0.00

3.33

increase

Penstemon gracilis Nutt. - slender beardtongue

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

4.00

increase

Anemone cylindrica A. Gray - candle anemone

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.33

0.00

2.00

0.00

0.00

increase-decrease

Vicia americana Muhl. ex Wild. - American vetch

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.33

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.33

increase

Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.) B.S.P. - ticklegrass

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.67

0.00

2.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

increase

Silene antirrhina L. - sleepy catchfly

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.00

increase

Campanula rotundifolia L. - harebell

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.67

0.00

0.00

0.00

increase-decrease

Trifolium repens L. - white clover

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.00

invade

Erysimum inconspicuum (S. Wats.) MacM. - smallflowerwallflower

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.67

increase

Lithospermum incisum Lehm. - yellow puccoon

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.67

0.00

invade

Potentilla pensylvanica L. - Pennsylvania cinquefoil

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

invade

Senecio plattensis Nutt. - prairie ragwort

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

increase-decrease

Sisyrinchium montanum Greene. - blue-eyed grass

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

increase-decrease