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Barley (Hordeum vulgare �Conlon, Drummond, Lacey, Legacy, Robust�)�������������������������� S. Halley

�� ��Fusarium head blight; Fusarium graminearum���������������������������������������������������������������� Langdon Research Extension Center

�� ��Septoria leaf blotch; Septoria passerinii����������������������������������������������������������� ��������������� North Dakota State University

���� �������������������������������������������������������������������������� ��������������� ����������������������������������������������� Langdon, ND 58249

 

Barley cultivar response to fungicide application for the control of Fusarium head blight and leaf disease, 2003.

 

The experiment was conducted at the Langdon Research Extension Center, Langdon. Conlon, Drummond, Lacey, Legacy, and Robust barley cultivars were planted with an Almaco double disk drill to a site previously cropped barley. Conlon was planted on 10 May 8 days after the other cultivars to synchronize head emergence for fungicide application. Soil type was a Svea loam. Plots were 7 rows wide 16 ft long in a randomized compete block design arranged as a 5 x 5 factorial. Wheat grains colonized by F. graminearum were hand broadcast on 19 Jun on individual plots at 3.5 oz per plot to increase chance of infection to Fusarium head blight. Spray solutions were applied by CO2 backpack sprayer at 18.4 GPA at 40 psi with XR8001 nozzles on a double swivel adapter angled 30� downward and oriented to spray forward and backward. Single applications of fungicides Folicur (tebuconazole) and Bayer experimental JAU 6476 (prothiaconazole) were applied to plots on 27 Jun at 9:00 a.m. at crop growth stage Feekes 10.5. All application rates were full rates, Folicur 4 fl oz/A and JAU 6476 5.7 fl oz/A. Both fungicides were mixed with Induce adjuvant at 0.125% v/v. Additional treatments included JAU 6476 and a subsequent application 10 days later on 7 Jul at 3:00 p.m. of either Folicur or JAU 6476. Fungicides treatments were compared to an untreated. Recommended production practices for Northeast North Dakota, NDSU Extension, were followed. The trial was harvested with a Hege plot combine on 12 Aug.Grain samples were cleaned and processed for yield, test weight, plump, and DON (deoxynivalenol) determination. Data was analyzed with the general linear model (GLM) in SAS. Least significant differences (LSD) were used to compare means at the 5% probability level.

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Stand reduction was evident early in the growing season, Table 1. Visual assessment of the roots indicated infection from Pythium sp. An assessment of the % ground coverage of each plot was made at Feekes growth stage 6 and recorded as percent reduction to reflect differences due to Pythium sp. Conlon had significantly greater ground coverage than other cultivars and Drummond had significantly less coverage. Leaf disease developed at a late growth stage and was visually assessed on 1 Aug by evaluating 5 leaves/plot. Conlon had the greatest leaf disease levels. Leaf disease on Drummond and Legacy was less than Lacey. Fusarium head blight levels were low and all fungicides reduced levels to less than 1%. Mean Fusarium head blight (FHB) incidence and severity (spikelet count per individual head multiplied times incidence of FHB infected spikes per plot) by untreated cultivar were 41 and 1.9, 55 and 2.6, 60 and 3.8, 58 and 2.2, and 53 and 2.4 for Conlon, Drummond, Lacey, Legacy, and Robust, respectively. Despite early season growth problems the growing season was one of the most productive in recent years due to little visible disease development. All yields were excellent. Lacey and Legacy had greater yields than the other cultivars. Test weight was not affected by fungicide application to Conlon and Legacy, increased by treatment that included subsequent application of JAU 6476 to Drummond, increased treatment that included a subsequent Folicur application to Lacey, and reduced by treatment with subsequent Folicur application to Legacy Figure 1. Test weight increases and decreases did not appear to be correlated with leaf disease. Plumps were excellent in all treatments. Treatments that included JAU 6476 had greater plumps. Conlon has been reported to have less deoxynivalenol concentration than many cultivars. Similar results were detected in this trial, Figure 2, with slight differences between some other cultivars. Subsequent applications with JAU 6476 reduced deoxynivalenol levels over Folicur applied alone on Legacy cultivar. Treatments than included either subsequent fungicide application reduced deoxynivalenol levels on Lacey. Deoxynivalenol reductions were measured by all fungicide applications to Drummond, Lacey, Legacy, and Robust.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1. Pythium, leaf disease, yield, test weight, plump, and DON by cultivar and fungicide, 2003.

Cultivar

Fungicide

Pythium

Leaf Disease

Yield

Test Weight

Plump

DON

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

%

%

bu/ac

lb/bu

%

ppm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conlon

Untreated

95

80

79.8

49.3

91

0.7

 

JAU 6476

90

57

94.2

50.8

94

0.5

 

Folicur

85

95

88.9

49.8

94

0.5

 

JAU+JAU

85

70

87.9

50.1

94

0.5

 

JAU+Fol

92

62

96.9

50.0

94

0.5

Drummond

Untreated

54

25

83.1

45.1

81

4.5

 

JAU 6476

66

45

88.0

45.5

86

1.4

 

Folicur

59

42

86.4

45.9

84

1.6

 

JAU+JAU

65

64

96.3

47.4

89

0.9

 

JAU+Fol

56

25

82.5

45.6

86

1.3

Lacey

Untreated

81

66

93.9

47.1

87

3.0

 

JAU 6476

64

49

97.1

47.6

92

1.2

 

Folicur

69

61

90.0

47.1

87

1.7

 

JAU+JAU

68

54

100.9

47.1

91

0.7

 

JAU+Fol

88

67

101.9

49.9

93

0.6

Legacy

Untreated

84

33

96.3

46.1

85

4.0

 

JAU 6476

68

33

95.2

45.5

88

1.0

 

Folicur

76

41

100.4

45.8

85

1.5

 

JAU+JAU

70

61

85.9

46.6

90

0.8

 

JAU+Fol

85

36

105.1

46.3

88

1.1

Robust

Untreated

93

83

89.2

49.0

88

1.8

 

JAU 6476

78

45

99.7

48.8

91

0.8

 

Folicur

59

41

87.5

47.3

87

0.9

 

JAU+JAU

78

22

89.7

48.4

92

0.5

 

JAU+Fol

61

31

82.6

46.8

88

0.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cultivars averaged across fungicides

 

 

 

 

Conlon

 

89

73

89.5

50.0

93

0.5

Drummond

 

60

40

87.3

45.9

85

1.9

Lacey

 

74

59

96.7

47.8

90

1.4

Legacy

 

77

41

96.6

46.0

87

1.7

Robust

 

74

45

89.7

48.0

89

1.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fungicides averaged across cultivars

 

 

 

 

 

Untreated

81

57

88.5

47.3

87

2.8

 

JAU 6476

73

46

94.8

47.6

90

1.0

 

Folicur

70

56

90.6

47.2

87

1.3

 

JAU+JAU

73

54

92.1

47.9

91

0.7

 

JAU+Fol

76

44

93.8

47.7

90

0.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cultivar

 

11

17

6.0

0.8

2

0.3

Fungicide

 

NS

NS

NS

NS

2

0.3

Cult.*Fung.

 

NS

NS

NS

1.8*

5

0.7

% C.V.

 

23

52

10

3

4

33

*P=.0314

Figure 1. Test weight by barley cultivar and treatment, Langdon 2003.

 

 

Figure 2. Deoxynivalenol levels by barley cultivar and treatment Langdon, 2003.