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North Dakota Oat Quality Survey

1998

Douglas C. Doehlert, USDA, ARS Wheat Quality Laboratory, Harris Hall, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105, USA, E-mail: doehlert@plains.nodak.edu

 

Michael S. McMullen, Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105 USA, E-mail: mmcmulle@plains.nodak.edu

 

Introduction

This report was originally constructed to provide quality information for the North Dakota oat breeding project and is being distributed because of a general interest among oat workers in the composition and quality characteristics of current oat cultivars being grown and sold for milling purposes. We have produced this North Dakota Oat Quality Survey to provide detailed groat composition and quality information on a wide selection of modern oat cultivars, albeit from a limited sampling. Data presented here for 1998 are from a single sampling grown at Fargo, North Dakota in 1998. We acknowledge that characteristics such as yield, test weight, and groat percentage are strongly affected by environment and exhibit strong genotype by environment interactions. Although groat composition is also affected by environment, we have found that the ranking of genotypes for any compositional component is usually very consistent among many environments. Thus, the relative groat composition of oat genotypes, as presented here, ought to be useful to individuals seeking an oat with a particular combination of compositional characteristics. This information is for reference only and should not be cited in any scientific work.

 

Materials and Methods

Twenty-eight oat cultivars were grown in replicated plots in Fargo, North Dakota in 1998. Yield and test weight values were derived from the mean of 3 replicates at this location. Quality data is from a single replicate.

Groat percentage was determined by dehulling a 50-g sample on a Codema (Eden Prairie, MN) Laboratory Oat Huller. Whole oat and groat weights were derived from the number of kernels in a 10-g sample (as determined by an automatic seed counter). Protein was determined by combustion analysis with a Leco nitrogen analyzer. Oil was determined by NMR, standardized with purified oat oil. Beta-glucan was determined by the method of McCleary and Glennie-Holmes (1985). Oat hull color was evaluated by visual examination. Digital image analysis was performed by the procedure described by Doehlert et al. (1999).

Table 1. Grain yield and quality characteristics of oat cultivars grown at Fargo, North Dakota, USA in 1998.

Test

Whole oat

Groat

Groat

Groat

Groat

Groat

Genotype

Yield

Weight

mass

mass

percent

protein

oil

b-glucan

bu/acre

lbs/bu

mg/kernel

mg/groat

%

% db

% db

% db

AC Assiniboia

151

37.4

31.8

22.8

71.6

18.2

8.46

4.34

Belle

130

37.0

26.4

20.5

77.5

16.3

9.11

5.37

Blaze

142

38.3

27.8

22.6

74.9

18.5

9.10

4.65

Brawn

157

37.2

35.3

25.7

75.6

17.6

8.43

5.37

CDC Boyer

106

36.1

32.3

24.4

72.9

18.1

7.92

5.18

Chaps

163

36.9

27.4

21.5

64.5

18.1

7.22

5.58

Gem

132

37.7

34.2

24.8

75.3

20.4

6.17

5.25

Hytest

113

41.0

29.8

23.2

77.5

20.6

7.58

5.96

Jerry

136

39.9

29.5

21.9

74.7

18.5

7.45

5.00

Jud

167

36.5

27.6

23.1

72.9

19.4

8.51

5.66

Marion

125

34.9

30.5

22.4

67.7

19.0

9.35

6.52

AC Medallion

104

32.9

23.1

18.4

60.7

19.0

9.40

5.29

Milton

139

38.7

27.2

20.5

73.8

19.5

9.20

4.97

Monida

116

29.9

24.9

15.5

63.2

17.7

7.78

5.48

Newdak

120

33.3

23.7

15.1

71.0

18.0

8.50

4.74

Otana

95

32.3

22.5

19.3

66.6

18.4

7.97

5.23

Pacer

117

32.5

26.8

19.9

67.2

17.3

8.50

5.05

Paul

138

45.0

21.5

20.7

95.5

19.9

10.18

5.88

Prairie

152

34.8

27.6

18.4

74.0

17.5

7.86

5.51

Premier

122

37.2

25.3

20.0

72.7

19.7

8.04

6.08

RD95031

146

31.9

25.9

23.9

70.2

19.9

9.26

4.91

Riel

132

37.0

27.3

19.9

71.2

18.1

8.57

4.61

Riser

120

37.3

30.0

18.8

77.6

19.5

10.57

5.63

Rodeo

158

37.4

28.2

19.5

74.8

17.5

7.50

5.28

Triple Crown

132

35.5

29.6

18.3

71.7

18.4

8.17

5.23

Troy

139

38.6

25.0

20.7

75.4

19.7

8.10

5.56

Valley

144

38.4

28.1

19.6

72.4

19.1

8.44

6.12

Whitestone

158

37.3

26.8

23.1

68.6

17.2

8.89

5.35

 

Table 2. Whole oat kernel dimensions of oat cultivars grown at Fargo, North Dakota, USA, in 1998, as determined by digital image analysis. Uniformity is an estimation of size uniformity based on the coefficient of variation of the image areas.

GENOTYPE

Hull

Color

Kernel

Length

Kernel

width

Kernel

Image area

uniformity

Kernel

mass/area

mm

mm

mm2

Area CV

mg/mm2

AC Assiniboia

Red

9.70

2.34

18.2

26.5

1.27

Belle

Yellow

9.02

2.46

17.9

26.4

1.48

Blaze

Ivory

8.99

2.56

18.5

25.0

1.50

Brawn

Yellow

9.88

2.61

20.8

26.9

1.70

CDC Boyer

White

10.48

2.60

22.0

24.9

1.47

Chaps

Yellow

9.73

2.36

18.5

29.3

1.48

Gem

Yellow

9.68

2.73

21.1

27.5

1.62

Hytest

White

8.53

2.56

17.9

25.5

1.67

Jerry

White

8.28

2.68

18.1

23.3

1.63

Jud

Ivory

9.67

2.31

18.1

25.6

1.53

Marion

White

10.67

2.44

20.7

25.3

1.47

AC Medallion

White

9.72

2.34

18.2

26.4

1.27

Milton

Yellow

8.95

2.47

17.9

24.6

1.52

Monida

White

9.90

2.57

20.6

25.3

1.21

Newdak

White

9.16

2.35

17.3

26.2

1.37

Otana

White

8.79

2.29

16.0

26.1

1.40

CDC Pacer

White

10.01

2.41

19.5

25.1

1.37

Paul

Naked

7.18

1.81

11.3

30.3

1.91

Prairie

Ivory

9.85

2.38

18.9

27.8

1.46

Premier

Yellow

9.29

2.62

19.5

27.7

1.30

RD95031

Ivory

9.80

2.38

18.6

25.4

1.39

Riel

Red

9.48

2.39

18.2

25.7

1.50

Riser

Yellow

9.63

2.41

19.0

34.1

1.58

Rodeo

Yellow

9.31

2.44

18.4

29.3

1.54

Triple Crown

White

9.17

2.55

19.0

25.1

1.56

Troy

White

8.32

2.43

16.5

25.5

1.51

Valley

White

9.25

2.54

18.8

23.7

1.49

Whitestone

White

8.76

2.51

17.7

24.5

1.51

 

Results

Oat grain yields and quality characteristics for 1998 are shown in Table 1 and 2. In Tables 2 the whole oat mass/area ratio is an estimate of the oat density, and is related to test weight, except it is calculated for individual kernels and is free of a packing factor. Uniformity is an estimation of size uniformity based on the coefficient of variation of the image areas.

 

Discussion

The naked oat cultivar Paul had a higher test weight and groat percentage than the hulled genotypes. These differences are attributed to its lack of a hull. In previous editions of this report, NMR determinations of oil had been calibrated according to oil extracted from groats. In this report, the NMR has been calibrated to isolated oat oil. Oil values reported in this edition are much higher than in previous editions because of this change in standards. Digital image analysis has allowed for statistical analysis of oat size distributions. Uniformity has been estimated from the amount of variation in the whole oat image area. Lower uniformity values indicate lesser levels of variation in whole oat size. Improved uniformity in oat size (lower uniformity values as presented her) has been suggested to improve oat milling yield.

 

References

McCleary, B.V., Glennie-Holmes, M. (1985) Enzymatic quantification of (1 3), (1 4)-b -D-glucan in barley and malt. J. Inst. Brew., 99:285-295.

Doehlert, D.C., McMullen, M.S., Baumann, R.R. (1999) Factors affecting groat percentage in oat. Crop Science 39:1858-1865.


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