NDSU Main Station * North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station
North Dakota Oat Quality Survey
Douglas C. Doehlert, USDA, ARS Wheat Quality Laboratory, Harris Hall, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105, USA, E-mail: email@example.com
Michael S. McMullen, Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105 USA, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This report was originally constructed to provide quality information for the North Dakota oat breeding project and is being distributed because of a general interest among oat workers in the composition and quality characteristics of current oat cultivars being grown and sold for milling purposes. We have produced this North Dakota Oat Quality Survey to provide detailed groat composition and quality information on a wide selection of modern oat cultivars, albeit from a limited sampling. Composition and quality data presented for 1997 are means of two samplings, one from Fullerton and one from Fargo, North Dakota. We acknowledge that characteristics such as yield, test weight, and groat percentage are strongly affected by environment and exhibit strong genotype by environment interactions. Although groat composition is also affected by environment, we have found that the ranking of genotypes for any compositional component is usually very consistent among many environments. Thus, the relative groat composition of oat genotypes as presented here ought to be useful to individuals seeking an oat with a particular combination of compositional characteristics. This information is for reference only and should not be cited in any scientific work.
Materials and Methods
Thirty-three oat cultivars were grown in replicated plots at Fullerton and Fargo, North Dakota in 1997. Yield and test weight values were derived from the mean of three replicates at these locations. All other characteristics reported in this survey are means of a single replicate from each of the two locations.
Groat percentage was determined by dehulling a 50-g sample on a Codema (Eden Prairie, MN) Laboratory Oat Huller. Whole oat and groat weights were derived from the number of kernels in a 10-g sample (as determined by an automatic seed counter). Protein was determined by combustion analysis with a Leco nitrogen analyzer. Oil was determined by NMR, standardized with purified oat oil. Beta-glucan was determined by the method of McCleary and Glennie-Holmes (1985). Oat hull color was evaluated by visual examination. Digital image analysis was performed by the procedure described by Doehlert et al. (1999).
Table 1. Yield and quality characteristics of 33 oat cultivars grown in North Dakota in 1997. Values are means of two replicates, one grown at Fullerton, one grown at Fargo, North Dakota.
Table 2. Hull color and whole oat physical characteristics determined by digital image analysis. The mass/area ratio is an estimate of the oat density, and is related to test weight, except it is calculated for individual kernels and is free of a packing factor. Uniformity is an estimation of size uniformity based on the coefficient of variation of the image areas.
Oat grain yields and quality characteristics for 1997 are shown in Table 1 and 2. In Tables 2 the whole oat mass/area ratio is an estimate of the oat density, and is related to test weight, except it is calculated for individual kernels and is free of a packing factor. Uniformity is an estimation of size uniformity based on the coefficient of variation of the image areas.
The naked oat cultivars Paul and AC Belmont had higher test weights and groat percentages than the hulled genotypes. These differences are attributed to their lack of a hull. In previous editions of this report, NMR determinations of oil had been calibrated according to oil extracted from groats. In this report, the NMR has been calibrated to isolated oat oil. Oil values reported in this edition are much higher than in previous editions because of this change in standards. Digital image analysis has allowed for statistical analysis of oat size distributions. Uniformity has been estimated from the amount of variation in the whole oat image area. Lower uniformity values indicate lesser levels of variation in whole oat size. Improved uniformity in oat size (lower uniformity values as presented here) has been suggested to improve oat milling yield.
McCleary, B.V., Glennie-Holmes, M. (1985) Enzymatic quantification of (1� 3), (1� 4)-b -D-glucan in barley and malt. J. Inst. Brew., 99:285-295.
Doehlert, D.C., McMullen, M.S., Baumann, R.R. (1999) Factors affecting groat percentage in oat. Crop Science 39:1858-1865.
1999 Variety Trial Index (http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/fargo/99data/index.htm)