North Dakota State University www.ag.ndsu.edu Crops Family-Youth-4-H Economics-Community-Leadership Home-Lawn-Garden-Trees Environment-Natural Resources Energy Livestock Nutrition-Food Safety-Health
 

NDSU Main Station * North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station
315 Morrill, NDSU Fargo, ND 58105, Voice: (701) 231-7655 fax: (701) 231-8520


North Dakota Oat Quality Survey

1997

Douglas C. Doehlert, USDA, ARS Wheat Quality Laboratory, Harris Hall, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105, USA, E-mail: doehlert@plains.nodak.edu

 

Michael S. McMullen, Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105 USA, E-mail: mmcmulle@plains.nodak.edu

 

Introduction

This report was originally constructed to provide quality information for the North Dakota oat breeding project and is being distributed because of a general interest among oat workers in the composition and quality characteristics of current oat cultivars being grown and sold for milling purposes. We have produced this North Dakota Oat Quality Survey to provide detailed groat composition and quality information on a wide selection of modern oat cultivars, albeit from a limited sampling. Composition and quality data presented for 1997 are means of two samplings, one from Fullerton and one from Fargo, North Dakota. We acknowledge that characteristics such as yield, test weight, and groat percentage are strongly affected by environment and exhibit strong genotype by environment interactions. Although groat composition is also affected by environment, we have found that the ranking of genotypes for any compositional component is usually very consistent among many environments. Thus, the relative groat composition of oat genotypes as presented here ought to be useful to individuals seeking an oat with a particular combination of compositional characteristics. This information is for reference only and should not be cited in any scientific work.

 

Materials and Methods

Thirty-three oat cultivars were grown in replicated plots at Fullerton and Fargo, North Dakota in 1997. Yield and test weight values were derived from the mean of three replicates at these locations. All other characteristics reported in this survey are means of a single replicate from each of the two locations.

Groat percentage was determined by dehulling a 50-g sample on a Codema (Eden Prairie, MN) Laboratory Oat Huller. Whole oat and groat weights were derived from the number of kernels in a 10-g sample (as determined by an automatic seed counter). Protein was determined by combustion analysis with a Leco nitrogen analyzer. Oil was determined by NMR, standardized with purified oat oil. Beta-glucan was determined by the method of McCleary and Glennie-Holmes (1985). Oat hull color was evaluated by visual examination. Digital image analysis was performed by the procedure described by Doehlert et al. (1999).

Table 1. Yield and quality characteristics of 33 oat cultivars grown in North Dakota in 1997. Values are means of two replicates, one grown at Fullerton, one grown at Fargo, North Dakota.

Genotype

Yield

Test weight

Whole oat mass

Groat

mass

Groat

percent

Groat protein

Groat oil

Groat

B-glucan

Bu/acre

Lbs/bu

mg

mg

%

% db

% db

% db

AC Belmont

92

38.3

22.8

19.9

80.3

16.0

7.38

5.08

Assiniboia

141

40.0

36.5

27.7

74.9

17.5

6.38

4.03

Bay

122

35.0

29.6

21.4

67.6

18.5

4.88

5.15

Belle

118

38.8

29.3

23.2

73.5

16.0

6.60

4.34

Blaze

115

39.2

27.2

21.0

69.0

18.1

6.74

5.18

Brawn

129

36.6

35.4

26.1

68.3

17.7

5.84

4.69

CDC Boyer

135

38.4

38.3

30.0

73.0

16.7

5.95

4.68

Chaps

120

37.0

28.2

22.3

71.0

17.5

5.65

4.69

Derby

135

37.8

31.8

23.7

71.2

15.1

5.31

4.16

Dumont

129

38.6

32.1

24.7

72.7

16.8

6.60

4.18

Gem

125

37.4

31.0

23.4

68.0

19.3

4.81

4.69

Horicon

111

37.0

28.6

21.7

68.9

18.2

6.23

4.99

Hytest

105

42.1

33.2

25.8

73.9

20.2

5.94

5.01

Jerry

109

40.6

29.7

23.7

69.8

18.1

5.47

3.93

Jim

95

34.2

32.4

24.4

71.7

16.8

6.11

3.85

Jud

141

38.5

28.8

22.3

70.9

18.7

6.60

4.84

Marion

118

37.2

33.7

26.3

69.6

16.9

7.02

5.69

AC Medalion

142

39.7

33.3

26.4

72.5

16.5

6.61

4.27

Milton

127

38.7

26.9

20.3

69.6

18.5

6.74

4.83

Monida

127

35.3

26.6

18.3

65.9

16.2

6.61

4.82

Newdak

121

37.7

27.8

18.3

68.4

17.3

6.17

4.26

Otana

115

35.7

27.0

19.1

64.8

17.2

5.65

4.73

Paul

100

47.3

23.3

22.9

94.6

18.5

8.50

4.51

Prairie

125

35.4

30.4

22.7

71.5

16.6

5.73

4.76

RD95031

134

35.5

28.0

20.0

68.1

18.9

6.65

4.65

Riel

125

41.1

29.4

23.0

72.1

17.1

6.37

4.12

Robert

127

39.1

33.4

26.4

72.3

16.9

6.27

4.18

Rodeo

118

36.5

29.3

21.4

68.2

16.5

5.58

4.33

Triple Crown

129

37.9

31.1

23.8

68.0

17.6

5.81

5.24

Troy

128

38.8

25.9

19.3

69.2

18.1

5.95

4.45

Valley

111

39.2

29.5

21.8

68.7

18.3

6.09

4.59

Whitestone

136

38.6

28.6

19.9

65.2

16.7

6.12

3.99

 

Table 2. Hull color and whole oat physical characteristics determined by digital image analysis. The mass/area ratio is an estimate of the oat density, and is related to test weight, except it is calculated for individual kernels and is free of a packing factor. Uniformity is an estimation of size uniformity based on the coefficient of variation of the image areas.

genotype

Hull

Color

Kernel

length

Kernel width

Kernel image area

Kernel

mass/area

Uniformity

mm

mm

mm2

mg/ mm2

Area CV

AC Belmont

Naked

8.3

2.04

14.3

1.58

37.2

AC Assiniboia

Red

10.7

2.68

22.7

1.63

26.4

Bay

Yellow

9.6

2.75

20.7

1.45

25.9

Belle

Yellow

9.9

2.56

20.5

1.45

23.9

Blaze

Ivory

9.3

2.45

18.5

1.45

24.2

Brawn

Yellow

11.6

2.67

24.3

1.50

26.6

CDC Boyer

White

10.8

2.66

23.1

1.67

22.9

Chaps

Yellow

10.4

2.40

19.8

1.45

25.5

Derby

White

10.6

2.58

21.9

1.46

25.3

Dumont

White

10.1

2.59

20.9

1.61

24.4

Gem

Yellow

10.5

2.75

23.0

1.40

24.6

Horicon

Ivory

9.8

2.49

20.1

1.43

27.7

Hytest

White

9.1

2.73

20.3

1.65

24.4

Jerry

White

8.9

2.57

18.5

1.65

26.3

Jim

White

10.4

2.61

21.6

1.56

26.0

Jud

Ivory

10.7

2.33

19.9

1.47

23.8

Marion

White

10.9

2.37

20.7

1.66

23.7

AC Medallion

White

9.8

2.56

19.8

1.67

26.3

Milton

Yellow

9.8

2.43

19.3

1.40

25.6

Monida

White

9.6

2.49

19.4

1.36

26.9

Newdak

White

9.5

2.52

19.2

1.45

25.9

Otana

White

9.5

2.55

19.7

1.41

23.3

Paul

Naked

7.5

1.90

12.4

1.92

25.4

Prairie

Ivory

11.5

2.63

24.0

1.33

25.4

RD95031

Ivory

10.7

2.36

20.1

1.41

25.1

Riel

Red

10.0

2.38

19.0

1.57

22.4

Robert

Red

10.5

2.58

21.8

1.59

24.0

Rodeo

Yellow

10.4

2.43

20.1

1.48

26.1

Triple Crown

White

10.6

2.54

21.6

1.46

23.2

Troy

White

9.2

2.50

18.6

1.41

26.3

Valley

White

9.5

2.46

19.1

1.54

23.7

Whitestone

White

9.3

2.48

18.6

1.55

24.0

 

Results

Oat grain yields and quality characteristics for 1997 are shown in Table 1 and 2. In Tables 2 the whole oat mass/area ratio is an estimate of the oat density, and is related to test weight, except it is calculated for individual kernels and is free of a packing factor. Uniformity is an estimation of size uniformity based on the coefficient of variation of the image areas.

 

Discussion

The naked oat cultivars Paul and AC Belmont had higher test weights and groat percentages than the hulled genotypes. These differences are attributed to their lack of a hull. In previous editions of this report, NMR determinations of oil had been calibrated according to oil extracted from groats. In this report, the NMR has been calibrated to isolated oat oil. Oil values reported in this edition are much higher than in previous editions because of this change in standards. Digital image analysis has allowed for statistical analysis of oat size distributions. Uniformity has been estimated from the amount of variation in the whole oat image area. Lower uniformity values indicate lesser levels of variation in whole oat size. Improved uniformity in oat size (lower uniformity values as presented here) has been suggested to improve oat milling yield.

 

References

McCleary, B.V., Glennie-Holmes, M. (1985) Enzymatic quantification of (1 3), (1 4)-b -D-glucan in barley and malt. J. Inst. Brew., 99:285-295.

Doehlert, D.C., McMullen, M.S., Baumann, R.R. (1999) Factors affecting groat percentage in oat. Crop Science 39:1858-1865.


Back to 1999 Variety Trial Index (http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/fargo/99data/index.htm)
Back to NDSU Main Station (http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/fargo/)
Back to NDSU Agriculture (http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/)
Email: mpeel@ndsuext.nodak.edu