FROM AROUND THE STATE
ISSUE 8 June 24, 2004
Early Hatch of Grasshoppers Continues to be Slow with Cool Weather, but gradually increasing!
Grasshoppers will continue to emerge as it warms up. There had been a few reports of damaging numbers of grasshoppers in north central region this past week – Bottineau and McLean Counties. The northern tier of north central and western regions is still less than 30% hatched! Grasshoppers are being found emerging in the center of fields as well as field edges. Eggs are laid directly into fields of no-till and minimum till. So, continue monitoring the field edges and entire fields of agricultural crops for grasshopper nymphs.
Canola Insect Pest: Bertha Armyworms are emerging and trap monitoring is underway!
Low numbers (<10) of bertha armyworm have been captured in pheromone traps located in the north central, northwest, southwest regions of North Dakota. Bertha armyworm is an occasional pest of canola. Cumulative trap captures will help determine the potential risk factor to canola this year. Stay tuned for more updates.
Sunflower Insect Pest: Cutworms still causing some problems!
There have been a few reports of late season cutworm activity in sunflowers in north central region. So, continue to look to cut sunflower seedlings through early July.
Alfalfa Weevil activity is being reported in north central region. Alfalfa injury is often caused by a combination of factors – frost, leaf spot diseases, and alfalfa weevil. If >30% of the plants show feeding damaged and larvae are present, then a registered insecticide is recommended. If plants are under drought stress, this threshold should be lowered. Otherwise, early cutting is one of the best treatments. Remember to monitor regrowth, especially under swath for weevil damage.
First Detection of Small Grain Aphids south of Minot!
Very low levels (2% incidence) of small grains aphids (mainly English grain aphid) were detected on wheat south of Minot in McLean County this week. Late-planted small grains fields will be more susceptible to aphid infestation and the barley yellow dwarf virus, which is vectored by the aphids.
Small Grain Disease Update:
IPM Scouts have been finding low severity levels of tan spot and bacterial blight in wheat, and spot blotch and net blotch in barley. Very low levels of rust was detected on the lower leaves (not flag leaves) of winter wheat in Ward, McHenry, and Bottineau Counties this past week.
Janet J. Knodel
Area Extension Specialist Crop Protection
North Central Research and Extension Center
During the past week (June 16 to 22), the south-central region’s rainfall ranged from 0 inches at Harvey, McHenry, Oakes, and Tappen to 0.5 inches at Jamestown as recorded at NDAWN (North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network) sites. Soil moisture levels are generally adequate except in Burleigh and Emmons counties. The region escaped last week’s freezing temperatures experienced by the western portion of the state.
Winter wheat is heading and early-planted spring grain is in the boot to heading stages. Yield potential of small grain, canola, field pea, and flax continues to be generally excellent (except in southwest counties) due to cool weather conditions and ample soil moisture. Sunshine and warmer weather are needed for corn, beans and sunflower. Corn growth stages range from 3-5 leaf. At Carrington, we currently are behind about 250 corn growing degree units (equivalent of 3 leaves) compared to the long-term average for the May through June period.
POST herbicide spraying continues in corn and beans. Farmers with headed wheat are considering fungicide application for leaf disease and scab. While wheat yield potential is generally excellent, minimal leaf disease severity and uncertainty of upcoming weather for scab complicates making the fungicide application decision. Check the following website for disease forecasting assistance:
Common leaf diseases include tan spot in wheat and net blotch in barley. Leaf rust has been detected at very low levels in wheat in many south_central counties. Other small grain diseases recently found by our crop scout, Clara Presser, include Septoria, loose smut, and powdery mildew. Canola is starting to flower and a decision on use of a sclerotinia fungicide will be needed soon. Also, barley thrips and small grain aphids are present in the area.
Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems
Carrington Research and Extension Center
Areas in Rolette, and Towner counties received 1 to two inches of rain last week while the rest of the region received from a quarter of an inch to one inch of rain. Planting will conclude this week as some growers are finishing planting Sunflower, some flax and small grain. Small grains are recovering from saturated soil conditions and are starting to reach leached Nitrogen which is improving crop growth. Corn growth continues to fall behind normal expectations. Above average temperatures will be necessary for the rest of the growing season for the corn crop to mature. Weed control activities continue under difficult conditions. Earliest planted small grains will begin to head the first part of July. April plantings of canola are starting to bloom, however most of the crop will start blooming in early July. Soybeans are mostly in the first trifoliate leaf growth stage or younger. No major bug or disease problems to date. Some brown spot of soybean is occurring. Tan spot and septoria is being found in wheat while net blotch is starting to appear in barley.
Area Extension Specialist
Devils Lake Area Office
Subfreezing conditions greeted producers last Friday, June 18, and/or Saturday, June 19 morning in the southwestern part of the State. The extent of damage caused by this freeze will be variable since crops were at different growth stages, varying degrees of drought stress, and the intensity and duration of these cold temperatures varied across the area. Producers will need to assess fields individually to determine if any significant damage occurred.
Rainfall this past week was very limited with the Hazen NDAWN location reporting the greatest amount, 0.17 inches of precipitation for the week. All remaining NDAWN locations in southwest North Dakota were reporting less than 0.03 inches.
Haying is progressing well but yields are low. Peas are beginning to flower. Early seeded spring wheat has headed.
The Dickinson Research Extension Field Day is scheduled for July 7. Included in the program is an Agronomy Tour at 8:30 AM, a Direct Seeding Management Tour and Drill Demonstration at 1:00 PM and a Grounds Tour at 3:00 PM. More information about the program can be found on the Dickinson Research Extension Center web page, http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/dickinso or by calling us at (701) 483-2348.
Area Extension Specialist
Dickinson Research Ext. Center