NDSU Crop and Pest Report

Plant Science


ISSUE 8  June 19, 2003

DAPPS - A NEW HRSW VARIETY FOR ND

I know that it is early to start thinking about what varieties to plant next year. Field days and crop tours, however, are just around the corner and are an excellent way for you to see the newest varieties side-by-side with your currently grown varieties. I would like to suggest you take a look at Dapps, NDSUís newest HRSW variety. Dapps, has been included in all NDSU research and extension sponsored demonstration plots at the area Research and Extension Centers and in various on-farm locations in the counties.

Dapps was released by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station this spring. Registered seed of Dapps is now being produced throughout the state. Dapps has excellent milling and baking characteristics and typically produces grain with 1% or more protein than most commonly grown varieties in ND. This characteristic make Dapps an ideal variety for producing for niche or identity preserved markets. Even with this high quality trait, Dapps has average yield and test weight (Tables 1).

Table 1. Yield (Bu/A) of Dapps compared to several other commonly grown HRSW varieties at five locations in North Dakota, 1999-2001.

Variety

Carrington

Dickinson

Minot

Hettinger

Williston

Dapps

47.0

52.4

46.7

59.1

59.0

Alsen

48.2

49.4

50.1

60.7

63.0

Parshall

51.2

47.2

44.3

56.8

63.2

Reeder

52.7

54.2

52.8

69.2

70.8

Dapps is a conventional height (similar to Parshall), awned variety with a heading date comparable to Reeder (Table 2). It is susceptible to Fusarium Head Blight (scab) and therefore is best adapted to the western regions of North Dakota. Dapps is moderately susceptible to Septoria (improved compared to Alsen), moderately resistant to wheat leaf rust and tan spot, and has good resistance to stem rust.

Dapps was named in honor of Dr. Bert D'Appolonia, retired Professor Emeritus of Cereal Science at NDSU. Dr. D'Appolonia was a strong proponent of high quality spring wheat cultivars while he was at NDSU.

Dapps should be an excellent choice for farmers producing grain for the high protein market. It also has potential for maintaining a good level of protein even when grown with reduced levels of soil fertility, such as in some organic or low-input sustainable cropping systems.

Table 2. Agronomic Characteristics of Dapps compared to other commonly grown varieties in ND.

Variety

Test Wt. (lbs/bu)

Maturity

Height (in)

Leaf* Diseases

Dapps

59.8

Med. early

37

M

Alsen

61.2

Med. early

32

S

Parshall

61.5

Med. early

36

M

Reeder

60.2

Med. early

33

M

 

 

     

Variety

Scab* Resistance

Protein (%)

Percent Lodging

Dapps

S

16.6

18

Alsen

MR

15.5

18

Parshall

M

15.5

19

Reeder

S

15.3

10

* Disease ratings: R = resistant; MR = moderately resistant; M = intermediate; MS = moderately susceptible; S = susceptible

Joel Ransom
Extension Specialist - Cereal Crops
joel.ransom@ndsu.nodak.edu

 

DRY BEANS: GROWTH AND MATURITY

Two basic plant types are found in dry edible bean, determinate (bush) or indeterminate (vining or trailing). Cultivars may be classified according to plant types. For example, navy beans may be either of the bush or vining types. In the determinate type, stem elongation ceases when the terminal flower racemes of the main stem or lateral branches have developed. On indeterminate types, flowering and pod filling will continue simultaneously or alternately as long as temperature and moisture permits growth to occur.

The question of dry edible bean maturity has been debated for many years. Compared to many other plants, the dry edible bean is orderly in its growth and development. There are two basic stages of growth: The vegetative and the reproductive. Growth at any point in the vegetative stage can be determined and defined by counting the number of nodes on the main stem. The reproductive stage begins when the first flower opens and is described and characterized by observing pod development and seed fill within the developed pod. Both vegetative and reproductive stages can further be separated into two periods for a total of four major growth periods in the life of a bean plant. They are:

  1. Germination and stand establishment
  2. Rapid vegetative growth
  3. Flowering and pod development
  4. Pod fill and maturation

The time required for the two growth periods of germination and stand establishment and flowering and pod development under the same growing conditions is the same for all varieties. Differences in maturity of varieties are experienced during the two periods of rapid vegetative growth and pod fill and maturation. The way it works is that late maturing varieties will require a longer period of time to pass through the rapid vegetative growth period than will early maturing varieties. This increase in time results in increased vegetative growth, capable of producing and filling pods over an extended period of time.

This sounds simple and straight forward and leads one to wonder why two people can come up with a different maturity value for the same bean variety. The reason seems to be that maturity for a given variety may be extended during one or more of the growth periods.

The developing bean will respond to many factors including planting in cool and/or wet soils, planting

in dry soils, insufficient soil moisture, high temperatures during flowering which delays pod set, or low temperatures during maturation. Maturity of a variety may also be extended by preplant herbicide injury, excess of or lack of certain plant nutrients, low plant stands, beans following alfalfa in a rotation, or damage from hail. Some of these factors can be controlled, others cannot. It's important to consider these factors, however, when comparing differing maturity dates for a bean variety. One of the above factors will usually be responsible for the difference.

 

BUCKWHEAT- HOW LATE CAN ONE PLANT?

A buckwheat planting date trial was conducted at the NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center in the mid-90's. The varieties 'Mancan' and 'Manor' were planted at four dates: May 25 or 26, June 6, June 21 or 23, and July 6 (one year).. Across years and varieties, seed yield averaged 1410, 960, and 810 lb/acre with late May, early June, and late June plantings, respectively. Seed yield across varieties in second year averaged 1435, 970, 865, and 705 lb/acre with late May, early June, late June, and early July planting, respectively. The data indicates that seed yield may be satisfactory with late-planted buckwheat, but yield is substantially reduced (30 to 50 percent) compared to late May planting and the crop is at risk if an early killing frost occurs.

An established stand of buckwheat should have a density of about 800,000 plants per acre or 16 to 20 plants/sq ft. Buckwheat has the ability to compensate if stand density is less than desired. In a planting rate study at NDSU Langdon Research Extension Center no significant differences in yield were reported between low and high plant populations of six and 24 plants per square foot ( 261,000 vs 1,045,000 plants per acre). Therefore, stands as low as 6 plants/sq ft have produced adequate yields. An average of 9.2 plants/sq ft yielded 1280 lb/acre or only about 10 percent less than a stand of 14.4 plants/sq ft that yielded 1430 lb/acre.

Buckwheat begins to flower four to five weeks after seeding and continues to flower and produce seed until freeze up. The crop should be swathed prior to a killing frost at a stage when in appears the crop will produce the largest seed yield. A killing frost on a standing crop results in considerable harvest difficulty plus yield loss due to shattering and lodging. Swathing is sometimes made difficult by the succulent nature of the stalks. Research conducted in Canada indicates the optimum time for swathing to obtain maximum yields is when flowering is near completion and about 25 percent of the seeds are still green. If shattering becomes severe, the crop should be swathed immediately. The crop should be swathed in the morning when the crop is wet with dew or in damp periods to avoid seed shattering. Stalks are succulent and require considerable time to dry. A frost while the crop is in the swath speeds drying.

 

GROWING DEGREE DAYS: SUNFLOWER GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

Sunflower Stage

Plant Description

GDD* units

Days*

VE
V4
V8
V12
V16
V20
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5.1
R5.5
R6
R7
R8
R9

Emergence
4 True Leaves
8 True Leaves
12 True Leaves
16 True Leaves
20 True Leaves
Miniature Terminal Bud
Bud <1.0" from leaf
Bud >1.0" from leaf
Bud open Ray flowers visible
Early flower (Start pollination)
50% flowered (50% pollinated)
Flowering Complete
Back of head - pale yellow
Bracts green - head back yellow
Bracts yellow - head back brown

167
349
545
690
772
871
919
1252
1394
1492
1546
1623
1780
2052
2211
2470

10
20
28
34
38
44
46
61
67
71
73
77
84
86
104
119

*Ave. number of Days and GDD units accumulated from planting

Source: NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center: 2 yrs. data average over five sunflower hybrids.

Note: Check the NDSU NDAWN web site for 2003 Growing Degree Units in various locations in North Dakota. Just enter in the planting date and the current date for your location.

Web site for Growing degree days:

http://ndawn.ndsu.nodak.edu/application/degree_days.html

Dr. Duane R. Berglund
NDSU Extension Agronomist
dberglun@ndsuext.nodak.edu


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