FROM AROUND THE STATE
ISSUE 4 May 23, 2002
Windy conditions from May 19 to May 23 are hampering Glyphosate burndown and/or preemergent herbicide applications. Weeds and volunteers are finally emerging this week. Crops seeded in late April/early May have now emerged with decent stands being established. Most early seeded small grain, canola, flax, and field pea fields have taken 15 to 20 days to emerge. Corn that was seeded in early May has still not emerged and there is concern that the seed could actually rot before it emerges.
Dry conditions the last two weeks have resulted in planting progress to move ahead of the five year average. Rain would be welcome at anytime for the continuous, very strong winds have depleted most of the regions top-soil moisture. There were reports of canola and flax injury to frost in Ward, Renville and Bottineau counties on May 17-18. Temperatures were reported as low as 17° F. The hard frosts actually did kill seedlings; however most fields were just starting to emerge at that time. There have been no reports of the hard frosts resulting in any canola or flax fields having to be re-seeded.
Area Extension Agronomist
Weather conditions the last week have allowed soils to dry and field work to be intense. Planting of small seeded oil crops is nearly complete. Barley seeding is 80 percent complete with wheat seedings about 3/4 th complete. Emphasis is turning this week to sunflower, soybean and drybean planting.
April-early May plantings of small grain and canola are emerging. Corn has not yet emerged. Weed emergence has been slow with wild oat just beginning to show up this week. Strong winds have been blowing soil around and increasing concerns that some unprotected plantings will have stand losses. Seedbed and subsoil moisture is adequate throughout the region. Many previously wet soil areas are dry this spring allowing more of the farm to be planting in a timely manner. Crop damage to very cold spring temperatures has minimal. No reports yet of wireworm damage or significant flea beetle activity in canola.
Area Extension Specialist
No precipitation was received at any of the NDAWN locations in southwestern counties this past week. Planting progressed rapidly for many crops. Small grain planting will be completed in many areas by the end of the week. In Oliver County small grain planting is thought to be 60% complete with little emerged. Hard red spring wheat that was seeded in early- and mid-April is in the two to three leaf stage. Winter wheat has five leaves to six leaves with three tillers present. Many areas reported that canola and mustard has been damaged by freezing weather. Though these plants were damaged by freezing temperatures, growing points have remained green and are beginning to show recovery. Flea beetle injury to canola and mustard has been reported. The combination of slow emergence, damaging freezing temperatures to canola earlier this month and flea beetles is placing stress on the crop. Some fields have been sprayed for flea beetle even though the seed was treated with insecticide prior to planting. The seed has been in the ground so long that it appears the effectiveness of the insecticide is much less than necessary to protect the crop. Producers should not be too quick about destroying their canola stand until they have fully evaluated it. Review "Minimum Stands for Crops," page 2 of the NDSU Crop and Pest Report (May 16, 2002 edition) for canola. High winds the last couple of days (Beach, ND 47 and 45 mph) have caused some soil erosion and plant damage in tilled fields.
Established alfalfa and sweet clover are about 6 to 8 inches in height (May 22). Some producers on May 1 were reporting grass production in cool season grass pastures as low as 600 pounds per acre. These pastures were either fall-grazed or hayed. Below normal precipitation during the fall when cool season grasses establish their growth and production pattern for the following spring occurred. Rather than producing 2 ½ leaves in the fall prior to freeze up as is normal for western North Dakota cool season grasses, those fall grazed pastures produced only 1 to 1 ½ leaves according to Lee Manske, Range Management Scientist at the Dickinson Research Extension Center. Pastures with cool season grasses that were not grazed or hayed last fall had produced 1,400 pounds of forage by May 1. Fall-grazed or hayed cool season grass pastures are only producing about 40% of the forage that cool season grass pastures are where plants had at least 2 ½ leaves going into the winter. Producers who graze cool season grass pastures in the fall should plan ahead and consider planting a fall seeded cereal crop in the spring such as winter barley or winter rye. These winter cereals will grow during the summer but not head out. In the fall these cereal crops would then provide an important part of the forage requirement. However, plant disease management strategies should be incorporated in the use of these winter cereals to prevent these pastures from providing a "green bridge" for disease and insect pests to the next crop year.
Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems