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ISSUE 4  May 25, 2000


North-Central ND


Crucifer Flea Beetle Activity in Canola Increasing.

    Flea beetle trap catches have increased with the warmer weather this past week. Sweeping the grassy
sites next to last year’s fields revealed that most of flea beetles have move out from their overwintering
sites. Later planted canola will need to be monitored for the next two weeks for flea beetle activity. Some
scattered reports of spraying later planted fields are being reported.

Diamondback Moths Are Being Captured in Pheromone Traps in Canola Fields near Minot!

    This moth migrates from the southern states each year. Trap catches are relatively high (50 moths per trap)
for this early in the year.

Orange Wheat Blossom Midge – Finally Nearing the End of the High Risk Planting Window
(200 -600 Degree Days) for the North Central and Northwest Regions.

    An average of >20"F heat units per day has occurred since May 18th. The following insect degree days
(DD), using 40"F Base, have been accumulated as of May 23, 2000: Rollette Co., Rolla = 468, Burke
Co., Columbus = 490, Bottineau Co., Bottineau = 506, McHenry Co., Towner = 528; Renville Co.,
Mohall = 590, McLean Co., Turtle Lake = 573, Ward Co., Minot = 590, and Williams Co.,
Williston = 608 (Source: NDAWN).

Sunflower Beetles Emerging!

    Sunflower beetles are starting to emerge from their overwintering sites and can be found feeding on volunteer

Soil Insects — Cutworms and Wireworms — Continues to Be a Problem.

    Scattered reports of canola and sunflower fields being damaged from either cutworms or wireworms are
still coming in. Two interesting reports of Army cutworm feeding on leaves of canola have been found in
the Southwest near Dickinson and Northwest near Williston.

Janet J. Knodel
Area Extension Specialist Crop Protection
North Central Research and Extension Center
Minot, ND


    So far, north central North Dakota has seen an uneventful spring. This spring has been one of the
best in the last ten years. May has been good to the area with just enough rain to allow for excellent
stands being established without any major delays in seeding. Most of the small grains are in and a large
part of the sunflower and dry bean crop has already been planted.

    Canola, crambe, flax, and field pea stands are good to excellent. There has been some minor crusting
issues with the late planted crop, however not widespread.

    Most dormant planted canola fields are in the four to six leaf stage. There are a few fields already starting
to bolt and should be flowering by Memorial Day. Most dormant planted canola fields are at least two
weeks ahead in development compared to the earliest planted spring canola (late April). I have surveyed
over 50 dormant planted canola fields in a ten county area. Of the 50 fields surveyed, 32 have had adequate
stands; with 60% having 2 to 3 plants/sq. ft. and 30% above 3 plants/sq. ft. The remaining 10% average
1.2 to 1.5 plants/sq. ft. which is well below the 2 plant/sq. ft. minimum, however these fields are being
left to see how they do.

Kent McKay
Area Extension Agronomist
North Central Research/Extension Center
Minot, North Dakota 58701


South-Central ND

    Total rainfall as recorded at NDAWN sites in south-central ND during May 17-23 ranged
from 0 to 0.36 inches. While subsoil moisture is adequate, topsoil moisture needs to be replenished.

    Nearly all small grain, corn, and cool-season legume and oilseed acres have been planted.
Soybean, dry bean, and sunflower planting is in progress and the majority of the acreage should be
planted by Memorial Day. Winter rye is heading and winter wheat will soon be at this stage. Buds can
be found on fall dormant-seeded canola. Alfalfa cutting has started in the southern-half of the region.
Emerged spring-seeded crops continue to generally be in optimum condition and at adequate plant densities.

    Post-emergence herbicide application in small grain continues to be a common farm activity. Wind
has hampered herbicide application. For example, maximum daily wind speeds at Carrington during
May 17-23 have ranged from 21 to 40 mph. Leaf spot disease in small grain continues to be at low levels.
Flea beetle feeding pressure in canola has increased due to recent warm temperatures and dry weather.

Gregory Endres
Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems
NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center


Southwestern ND

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) symptoms have been found in a number of winter wheat
fields in the area. ELISA test have confirmed that what we are seeing is WSMV. The most severe
infections have been found associated with fields that were wheat fields hailed in August and the
resulting volunteer wheat allowed growing through to winter wheat seeding and emergence
(Green Bridge!). Significant yield loss is expected in these winter wheat fields. Also these fields are expected
to be a source of WSMV and the mites that spread this viral disease to the spring wheat crop in the
immediate area. Also volunteer spring wheat that over-wintered contained high levels of WSMV.
Additional information about the disease can be found in the NDSU Extension Bulletin PP-646 (Revised)
Wheat Streak Mosaic available at your local county extension agent office.

    Aphids were found in wheat fields in the Regent area. With the recent high winds experienced in the
area the last few days and high aphid populations in states to the south there is a good possibility that
more fields will contain low levels of aphids. Warm weather and good growing conditions could see
these populations expand. I would encourage producers to begin scouting for aphids. Additional information
on aphids and their control can be found in the May 18, 2000, No. 3, North Dakota State University Crop
and Pest Report. Grasshoppers have begun to hatch. Large numbers of small nymphs have been found in
concentrated areas. Scouting and treating for these "hot spots" should begin.

    The time period between May 15 and May 22 has been dry for much of the area. Precipitation
reported by NDAWN has ranged from no rain at Beach to 0.65 inches of precipitation at Hettinger.
Some Hettinger area producers reported over an inch of precipitation. Most areas had less than a 0.10
of rain. Early season crops and corn planting are nearly complete. Sunflower planting should be
completed by the end of next week. Early seeded corn and sunflower has emerged. Winter wheat is
jointed while spring wheat development ranges from emergence to six leaves. Early seeded canola
is six leaves. Insecticide applications for flea beetle have been reported in the Bowman and Golden
Valley Counties.

    Wind the last few days have slowed down herbicide applications. If the forecast for precipitation is
correct for the end of this week and the beginning of next, this will be ideal weather for grain development.

Roger Ashley
Area Extension Specialist/Cropping
Dickinson Research and Extension Center
Dickinson, ND


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