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ISSUE 5  June 1, 2000



    The National Sunflower Association announces three NuSun Show Fields in the Dakotas. North Dakota will have two locations, one site two miles north of Hazelton, ND and another adjacent to the Carrington Research Extension Center. The South Dakota site is one mile south of the junction of Hwy. 83 and 212 near Gettysburg, SD. NuSun show fields will allow growers to compare the relatively new NuSun hybrids against elite traditional favorites in a field-sized, season-long trial. Each field will also feature an area showcasing confection sunflower hybrids and different sunflower herbicide and fungicide applications. Of special interest will be experimental sunflower hybrid varieties that are resistant to IMI herbicides. Fields will be open to the public during the entire growing season. Self-guided tour maps will be available on-site.

    The National Sunflower Association will host an "Expo Day" at each location in late August to showcase each area of the field with seed and chemical company representatives and research staff discussing their product or research. The project represents a partnership between the National Sunflower Association, ten commercial NuSun seed companies, four chemical companies, four confection sunflower companies, USDA/ARS, North Dakota State University, South Dakota State University, three local sunflower growers and many sponsors. NuSun Show Field Highlights –Yield trials and oleic levels of NuSun hybrids compared to traditional elite hybrids - Demonstrations of different sunflower herbicides-Confection sunflower hybrid demonstrations-University and USDA research on herbicide resistant sunflowers, new seed treatments, insect scouting traps and blackbird trapping cages. - Refractometer demonstration as a tool for determining NuSun identity -Industry-wide expo day
with the public invited Expo Day Dates — Gettysburg, SD August 17; Hazelton, ND August 24; Carrington, ND
August 29. For more information, please contact the National Sunflower Association at 1-888-718-7033.



    Established stands of canola are important to growers for both yield potential and weed competition. Minimum stands (plant populations) of 3-4 plants per sq. ft. are needed to obtain good yield potential. As ideal stand should be 8-12 plants per sq. ft. An easy method to determine canola plant stands is the "hoop or circle" method. Use of a "hula hoop" or making one with a stiff wire or rod would also work. The area of a circle can be calculated:

3.14 x (radius in inches)2 = sq. feet/circle

Below are some calculated examples:

Hoop or circle diameter

Sq. feet/hoop

30 inches


32 inches


34 inches


36 inches


38 inches


    When checking fields, toss the hoop at 10-12 sampling sites while scouting a field. Sample representive areas and stands throughout the field. Count the number of plants within the hoop at each throw and record. Average the number of plants found over the samples counted. To determine canola plant stands:

Ave. Number plants/hoop count = number of plants
           sq.ft./hoop                               per sq. foot

example: 34 inch hoop with 44 plants ave./hoop count

44 = 7 plants/ft.sq.

Number of plants per Acre:

7 plants x 43,560 sq. ft./A = 304,920 plants/A

    If plant populations are 2 or less per sq. ft. then one should carefully scrutinize the stand. Is the sparse stand fairly uniform throughout the field. If this is true it perhaps can be left to grow, branch and compensate for the low populations. Other factors to consider would be weed control and competition with weeds, reseeding risks of planting late and hitting hot weather during bloom stage, seed and replanting costs, chemicals and possible herbicide residues for other crop choices.

Duane R. Berglund
Extension Agronomist



    The American Malting Barley Association board of directors has added Conlon to its list of recommended malting barley varieties. Conlon is the first Midwest two-rowed barley to receive AMBA’s recommendation as a malting variety. Conlon, developed at North Dakota State University by Jerry Franckowiak, has completed two years of satisfactory plant scale malting and brewing evaluations with the 1998 and 1999 crops.

    In related news, Robust, Foster, and Excel are the preferred varieties and AMBA is encouraging growers to plant these varieties this year. The top two U.S. brewers are dissatisfied with the quality profile of Stander. Growers, elevators, and other grain handlers are strongly encouraged to maintain variety integrity and not mix Stander and Robust barley or other varieties. Each barley variety malts differently and mixtures will not malt properly.



    Last week ended with a flurry of calls about leaf burn and yellowing on small grains. Injury included emergence problems/low stands, crop yellowing and burned leaf tips. Most have reported yellowing and tip burn on older leaves. Some calls were relative to specific varieties, many inquired if these varieties were more susceptible to herbicide injury than others.

    I included an article on some cause of leaf yellowing in the May 18 issue of the Crop and Pest Report covering nitrogen and sulfur which I will not repeat.

    Most of the wheat showing this type of injury was planted the last week in April. On May 4 and 5 we had some unusually hot temperatures, high eighties and nineties. At this time most of this grain was just emerging from the soil and sustained substantial heat canker. We typically think of heat canker on small grains as banding. Since the first leaves were just emerging from the soil only the tips were burnt.

    In the second and third week of May night time temperatures fell below freezing. While none of the small grain was in danger of injury to the growing point, damage to leaf tips did occur.

    Overall temperatures have not been favorable for rapid plant growth the past three to four weeks. In cases where a starter fertilizer was not used a crop may be deficient for nitrogen. Symptoms will include yellowing of older leaves, but once roots reach nitrogen yellowing due to lack of nitrogen should disappear.

    Cool temperatures are associated with slow growth and darkening of older plant tissue. In corn it is not atypical to see a purpling color of older tissue on young plants during cool conditions. The same type of symptoms are possible on small grains. Sometimes these conditions have been associated with phosphate deficiency exasperated by cool conditions. Regardless of the cause the crop should grow out of it.

    When new leaves are showing inter-veinal yellowing it may be an indicator of iron deficiency. Jay Goos, Professor of Soil Science at NDSU, reported iron deficiency this spring on wheat in soils with a long history of producing deficiency symptoms in soybeans.

    It is possible that some of the injury described was caused by herbicides. If this is the case skips and misses should tell the story.

    It is unlikely that any of this type of injury is variety related. My general request for variety and planting date feedback when this type of injury was observed produced multiple responses. There was no consistency in variety.

    Dry Conditions: In a response from northeast North Dakota I have prepared a writeup on impact of drought stress on small grain development. This will be linked to the Small Grains web page at

Michael D. Peel
Extension Small Grains Agronomist

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