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ISSUE 16   August 24, 2000



    The EPA has granted a Section 18 specific emergency exemption for Gramoxone Extra allowing North Dakota seed pea producers additional time to use the herbicide to control broadleaf weeds including lambsquarter, nightshade, mustard, pigweed and mayweed. This exemption allows growers to apply Gramoxone Extra up to Nov. 30. This extends the exemption allowed earlier which expired Aug. 4.

    The exemption applies only to peas grown for seed and allows a single ground or aerial application of up to 1.5 pints of product per acre. A 7-day pre-harvest interval must be observed, and grazing of treated green peas or dry peas grown for seed fields after treatment with Gramoxone Extra is prohibited. Applicators must follow all directions, precautions and warnings on the supplemental and full product labels.



    The ND Department of Agriculture (NDDA) encourages producers who believe their crops have been damaged by pesticide drift to contact the department immediately to obtain a "report of loss" form. North Dakota law (NDCC 4-35-21) requires that a formal report of damage must be filed with NDDA before any civil action may be taken. The report must be filed within 60 days from the time the claimant is aware of the damage.

    The law also requires any applicator who receives a complaint of damage from a producer to tell the producer about the report requirement. Failure to do so can result in revocation of the applicator's certification and a waiver of the 60-day limit. Producers who believe their crops have been damaged by pesticide drift may call NDDA, toll-free, at (800) 242-7535 for information.



    The weed science group, under a grant coordinated by Dr. Cal Messersmith, is studying herbicide-resistant weeds in North Dakota, including the Red River Valley region of Minnesota. New broadleaf species resistant to ALS-inhibiting herbicides (e.g., Accent, Express, Broadstrike/Python. Harmony GT, Pursuit, Raptor, Upbeet) were detected in 1999, such as wild mustard, waterhemp, and nightshades. We are seeking additional seed samples of broadleaf weeds suspected to be resistant to ALS-inhibiting herbicides.

    DO NOT send ALS resistant kochia sample - we have enough already.

    If you know of suspect sites with ALS-resistant broadleaf weeds, please contact the postdoctoral scientist: Dr. Vijay Nandula, Dept. of Plant Sciences, NDSU, Fargo, ND 58105-5051, 701/231-1054,


    You may either send seed, preferably with documentation of the location of seed and herbicide use history, or provide a location so we can make an on-site inspection and arrange for seed to be collected. Your assistance is greatly appreciated.



    Rhone-Poulenc and AgrEvo forming Aventis, Novartis and Zeneca forming Syngenta, BASF buyout of American Cyanamid is a pattern of reduction in total number of chemical companies. More acquisitions, buyouts, and mergers are yet to come. A decade or two ago more than 30 chemical companies existed. How many will be left is a good guess.

    Over the last three years Dr. Arnold Appleby, professor emeritus of Weed Science at Oregon State University has compiled the genealogy of chemical companies spanning the last 50 years. If interested in this piece of history refer to the web site:




    Telemarketers are out in full force selling high priced herbicides that contain very little active ingredient, and claiming these herbicides can do unbelievable things. DON’T fall for their pitch no matter how good it seems. We need your help to shut these people down. The ND Dept of Ag has indicated that with proper documentation of phone call conversation they can take action against companies that use this approach to rip-off growers of their hard earned money.

    For example, a product called Triple Threat is again being marketed heavily in ND. The product contains 2,4-D and bromacil (Hyvar) at a total concentration of ONLY 2% ai for $90/gal + $21 freight. By my calculations, the grower is spending the equivalent of: $3,961.76 for a gallon of 2,4-D LV4 and $2,610.33 for a gallon of Hyvar X-L.

    In North Dakota, an average price for 2,4-D LV4 is $12 to 14 per gallon and $65 per gallon for Hyvar X-L (2 lb/gal). They are selling this herbicide for 47 times and 283 times the cost than if the grower were to buy the 2,4-D LV4 and Hyvar X-L from his dealer.

    Absurd claims are made with these products. For instance, one application of a product called Triple Threat (three phenoxy herbicides at a total of 1 lb/gal) was report by the telemarketer to control all weeds including leafy spurge for 5 years. Do you think the telemarketer would sign his name to the guaranty - NOT!

    Get the following information during the phone call - if you can:

1. Name of product and telemarketer.
2. EPA registration number of product.
3. Formulation and concentration of active ingredients.
4. Name, address, and phone number of company.
5. All claims made by telemarketer.
6. Any other information that would be useful to fry these vermin ("the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the face of this earth (Swift)).

    We need your help to rid our state of this pillage. Please document the call and report to the ND Dept of Ag at
701- 328-1501. When calling the Dept of Ag ask if the product is registered in the state. If it is not registered, it is a good indication its ‘scam brew’.



    Later this fall the 2000 North Dakota Weed Control Guide will be revised. If you have any ideas or suggestions to make it better, please contact myself or any one from the NDSU Weed Science Group.

    We hope the articles in this year’s North Dakota Crop and Pest Report have been beneficial to you in your weed control efforts. With this last issue, the Weed Science group at NDSU wish you a good year, a prosperous harvest, and severe pain, misery, and death to anything deemed a "weed".

Richard Zollinger
NDSU Extension Weed Specialist



    A recent research report has showed that preharvest desiccants cannot be used in soybeans prior to physiological maturity in the crop without an effect to the subsequent seed. Tests were run on several group IV soybeans where desiccant tank mixtures were applied during the R5 to R8 (R5=beginning pod fill; R6=full green pod; R7=beginning maturity; and, R8=full maturity) stages in soybeans to see if soybeans could be harvested earlier with the potential for less green weed trash at harvest.

    The two desiccants tested were: glyphosate (Roundup) + sodium chlorate and paraquat (Gramoxone Extra) + sodium chlorate + a surfactant. Yield, seed weight, subsequent germination, emergence and seedling growth were all reduced when either desiccant was applied at the R5 or R6 stages of soybean. Even at the R7 stage, the glyphosate + sodium chlorate reduced germination of the seed from the treated plants. This same desiccant when applied either at the R6 or R7 stages also reduced the next plant generation s seedling lengths compared to when paraquat + sodium chlorate + a surfactant were used.
With conventional cultivars as compared to the Roundup-Ready variety used in the study, the glyphosate + sodium chlorate desiccant also increased the number of abnormal seedlings produced from the harvested seed.

    Indeed, simply growing a soybean variety adapted to the maturity needs for your region so that the soybean can easily reach physiological maturity prior to harvest is the best option along with consistent weed control during the season so that weed problems are minimized at harvest and the weed seed bank is not increased greatly across the field. Read more on this preharvest desiccant study in Weed Science 48:426-430.

Denise McWilliams
Extension Crop Production Specialist

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