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ISSUE 16  August 24, 2000

 

ANNUAL SOYBEAN PLOT TOURS

    An open invitation is extended to soybean producers, their family and friends to the annual soybean plot tours and suppers scheduled August 29, 30, & 31, and September 7. The events are free of charge and sponsored by the North Dakota Soybean Council, the North Dakota Soybean Growers Association, and Agri Business leaders in the area.

    The evenings will commence with field tours followed by research updates on the latest developments for the future of the soybean industry. The Council has invested checkoff dollars in a series of promising research endeavors from production issues to industrial uses. All researchers conducting projects funded by soybean checkoff dollars will be providing producers with insight into their objectives and the potential impact on the industry.

    The plot tours are scheduled to begin at 5:30 pm at the following locations:

    Tuesday, August 29, 2000 - Jeff and Maxine Leinen Farm ( mile west of Great Bend just off 1-29)

    Wednesday, August 30, 2000 - Agronomy Seed Farm (1 mile west of Casselton)

    Thursday, August 31, 2000 - Martinson Bros. Farm (8 miles west of Wyndmere and mile south)

        The last plot tour is scheduled to begin at 5:00 pm at the following location:

    Thursday, September 7, 2000 - Carrington Research/Extension Center (Carrington, ND)

    Following the research portion of the program, all participants are invited to enjoy cold beverages and
    an evening meal.

Source: North Dakota Soybean Council

 

HARVESTING LOSS GUIDELINES

    What’s a good guide to determine the amount of any given crop loss in a field following harvest? There can be pre-harvest losses due to shattering, gathering losses at the combine header and also separation losses due to the threshing operation itself. In the chart below is an approximate loss guide to determine how much if any is being left in any given field. Usually crop harvest losses in the 2 to 3 percent loss range are tolerated.

    Kernels or seeds per pound and number per square foot to equal one unit loss per acre at harvest.

Species

Seeds/pound*

Seeds/ft. To equal 1 bu /Acre

Spring Wheat

14,300

20

Durum wheat

11,500

16

Barley

13,500

15

Oats

15,500

11

Flax

88,000

113

Rye

18,000

42

Soybeans (small)

3,300

4.5

Soybeans (large)

2,400

3.5

Corn (Med. grade)

1,500

2

Sunflower (oil)

9,000

5

Sunflower (conf.)

5,000

2.5

Navy beans

3,000

4

Pinto beans

1,400

2

Sorghum

15,000

18

Sudangrass

44,000

40

Proso millet

80,000

84

Foxtail millet

220,000

242

Buckwheat

15,000

16

*These are average numbers from past seasons, and individual varieties or hybrids will vary among themselves as well as be influenced by environmental factors.

 

ESTIMATING DRY EDIBLE BEAN YIELD

    You can estimate dry bean yields by knowing the number of seeds per pod, pods per plant and plants per 1/1000th of an acre. At the time of counting seeds and pods, the maturity status of each should be determined.

    If a seed or pod will not mature, it shouldn’t be counted. Then count the total plants per 1/1000th acre to complete the data collection.

    Table 1. Length of row equal to 1/1000th acre. An accurate estimate of plant population per acre can be obtained by counting the number of plants in a length of row equal to 1/1000 of an acre. Make at least three counts in separate sections of the field, calculate the average of these samples, then multiply this number by one thousand (1,000).

    Yield estimation. Within a representative and uniform plant stand, randomly selected five plants each from at least five randomly locations in the field. Keeping all plant data separate, pull and count the pods from each plant and then count the seeds to determine average seeds per pod for all five replications. These data are combined with the average number of plants per 1/1000th acre.

 

Row Width (inches)

Length of Single Row to Equal 1/1000 of an acre

feet

inches

6

87

1

7

74

8

8

65

4

10

52

3

15

34

10

20

26

2

28

18

8

30

17

5

32

16

4

36

14

6

 

Average number of seeds per pound                     

Kidneys 900-1000
Pintos 1400
Great Northerns 1600-1800
Navies/Blacks   3000
Pink/Small Reds

1600-2000

Seeds per pound can vary 10-20% for different varieties within a bean class. If available, use reported estimates for seed number per pound for your variety.

The accuracy of yield estimate can be improved by counting seeds and pods from at least 10 plants per replication.

Calculations

1. (Average seeds per pod) x (average pods per plant) equals average seeds per plant.

2. (Average seeds per plant) x (plants per 1/1000th of an acre) x (1,000) divided by seeds per
pound of the variety equals yield in pounds per acre.

Duane R. Berglund
NDSU Extension Agronomist
dberglun@ndsuext.nodak.edu

 

WINTER WHEAT PRODUCTION TIPS

    Winter wheat has the potential to be a highly productive crop in North Dakota. Advantages of winter wheat include; more efficient labor and machinery use, reduced weed problems particularly wild oat, and often a higher yield potential.

    Well-developed winter wheat is less likely to suffer from early season moisture stress than spring-planted small grains, since a well-developed root system enables the winter wheat crop to use sub-soil moisture.

    Earlier crop development helps in avoiding some disease and insect pressure. With a three week developmental advantage winter wheat may avoid late infection periods of scab that will affect spring wheat. Orange wheat blossom midge lay eggs in developing heads between head emergence and flowering, flowering in winter wheat is complete before the midge emerge.

    Well-established winter wheat is more competitive with summer annual weeds than spring cereal grains, resulting in less dependence on chemical weed control. Crop growth and development of winter wheat begins in the fall, giving it a competitive advantage over spring germinating weeds. Wild oat, foxtail, and other annual grasses are not likely to be major problems in vigorous winter wheat fields.

    Planting and fertilizing a crop in the fall lightens spring planting work loads. Since winter wheat will be ready for harvest two to three weeks before spring wheat the harvest work load is also spread out.

    Winter survival is the most critical factor in successfully producing a winter wheat crop in the Northern Plains. Cultural practices that help ensure winter survival are those that provide snow cover to maintain warmer soil temperatures in the crown area.

    NDSU research indicates that a minimum of 3 inches of snow cover is necessary to prevent winterkill due to low temperatures. While three inches of snow is sufficient protection during most winters, 4 to 6 inches will further reduce the extent of crown injury and increase stand survival.

    Several methods can be used to enhance snow cover. Winter wheat can be no-till seeded directly into flax, barley, mustard, sunflower, or other standing crop residues left to catch the snow. Seeding into wheat or durum stubble will increase the risk of some diseases, but even this practice is often preferred to seeding into clean-tilled fields, particularly in more arid areas where disease is less of a problem, since the stubble will enhance moisture conservation and protection from cold weather.

    To avoid a "green bridge" for movement of wheat streak mosaic virus, volunteer wheat and grass weeds should be controlled two weeks prior to planting. Grain stubble should be left at least 6 inches tall to obtain the minimum snow cover required. Hoe drills, which permit deeper seed placement and trap snow in furrows over the seed row, are highly recommended for bare fallow.

    Stands of winter wheat are often reduced due to winter injury. Don’t be hasty to destroy these stands. It may be mid April, or later, before recovery is evident. Remember winter wheat will readily tiller, stands of 8-10 plants per square foot will produce very good yields. Even when a stand of winter wheat is lost the cropping season is not lost, and generally another early season crop can be planted.

    Planting - The recommended seeding dates for winter wheat are September 10 to September 30 in the southern half of North Dakota and September 1 to September 15 in northern regions. Planting after the recommended dates may reduce winter survival and grain yields and also delay maturity of the succeeding crop. Planting prior to the recommended date unnecessarily depletes soil moisture reserves, increases risk of disease and may reduce winter survival.

    Winter wheat should be seeded at a rate of 1,000,000 viable seeds per acre or about 80 pounds per acre. Higher seeding rates are suggested for late seeding or for poor seedbed conditions.  Only the most winterhardy varieties available should be considered when growing winter wheat in North Dakota. Of current varieties, Roughrider, Agassiz, Seward, Elkhorn, Ransom, Crimson, and Harding possess an acceptable combination of winter hardiness and yield. When wheat streak mosaic virus is a concern Crimson or Harding should be grown, of the varieties adapted to North Dakota they have the best tolerance.

    Variety selection is one of the simplest ways to ensure maximum production. Selecting the variety that performs the best at several locations over multiple years is the best choice. A comprehensive summary of 2000 winter wheat yield data from North Dakota can be found on the North Dakota Small Grains web page http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/aginfo/smgrains/smgrains.htm

Average test weight, protein, and yield of winter wheat varieties grown at five locations in North Dakota.

Variety

T. Wt.

Protein

Yield

2000

3 Yr. Avg

 

lbs/bu

%

bu/A

bu/A

Agassiz

60.5

14.0 62.3

56.5

Alliance

60.2

12.0

77.0

65.0

Arapahoe

60.2

13.9

79.9

70.2

CDC Kestrel

59.3

12.2

75.3

67.9

Crimson

61.9

13.9

70.0

64.7

Elkhorn

60.6

13.7

62.3

62.1

Erhardt

59.2

14.6

63.3

57.4

Harding

60.5

14.1

73.3

--

NeKota

60.6

13.0

77.2

65.5

Norstar

59.3

12.7

59.5

59.9

Ransom

60.2

12.9

78.5

68.5

Roughrider

60.9

14.2

59.4

58.3

Seward

60.2

12.7

57.6

62.3

Tandem

61.9

13.4

77.4

65.1

Windstar

61.2

14.1

68.7

64.8

Mean

42.3

13.3

67.0

63.4

 

    Fertilizer applications for winter wheat should be based on soil tests and yield expectations. Winter wheat's nitrogen need in the fall is low and does not exceed the rate that can safely be applied in the drill row at seeding time. Spring applications of nitrogen should be based on a soil test. The best combination of yield and protein are achieved with spring applications just prior to jointing.

    Phosphorus aids overwinter survival by stimulating root growth and fall tillering. The secondary root system that develops with tillering is essential for a healthy deep-rooted plant capable of withstanding stress. If winter wheat is planted on bare soil an application of phosphorus is essential. While important, the contribution of phosphorus to overwinter survival is secondary to varietal hardiness and soil temperatures at the growing point in the plant crown.

    Additional information is available in NDSU Extension publication, Winter Wheat Production in North Dakota, EB-33. A list of North Dakota certified seed producers can be found on the Web

http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/aginfo/seedstock/fss/fsshome.htm

Michael Peel
Small Grains Extension Agronomist
mpeel@ndsuext.nodak.edu

 

INNOVATIONS IN PRECISION

    How do you rank in the pursuit of precision? Much of the adoption in farming is in small steps as the expense of implementation and even getting familiar with new technology can take time. New technology also usually takes some time to shuffle out into standard protocols and systems, although much of the GIS software has taken many different routes that are still very specific to each vendor. Although standardization is still evolving, we are less than a decade into using any site-specific practices in agronomy and have made tremendous progress. Grid sampling can reveal differences in fields and modify future sampling and management zones, layered maps can present a profile on each field for the season or over time that may reveal an almost fingerprint classification of the field’s strengths and limitations with different crops, and long-term economics on the field can point out the crop you are best at producing, both economically and agronomically.

    The April "Farm Chemicals" magazine tried to create a table detailing the adoption levels in site-specific agriculture for farmers. Looking at the different components now classified as site-specific, where do you fall in the adoption level stages?

Site-Specific Adoption Levels

Component

Beginning

Intermediate

Advanced

GPS Field Maps

Basic boundaries/soil maps

Digital soil survey and elevation models

3-D maps, water flow models and environ-mental impact assessment

Grid/Zone Soil Sampling

2.5 to 5 acre grids

Grid modification with smart samples

Supplemented with remote sensing, infield sensors and models

Swath Guidance

Light bar, manual control

Controlled application paths, night applications possible

*Future: unmanned application

Variable Rate Applications

For P, K, lime

Seeding rates, N rate, variety selection

Pesticide, selection of CRP areas, buffers

Yield Monitor

Data collection, initial GPS use

Use of GPS to track observations, Yield map analysis

Population monitor, on-the-go quality monitor, yield factor analysis

GIS Databases

Store data

Post-event analysis, Planning applications

Modeling, GPS scouting, Economic analysis

Remote Sensing

Film based or aerial photography

Digital imagery, change maps

Aerial and satellite, link to imterpretation models

GIS Analysis

Data organization

Multi-layer calculations

Whole-farm analysis, links to regional databases, on-line data interpretation services

On-Farm Research

Split-planter comparisons

Replicated strip trials, rate studies to build on-farm response curves

Replicated locations, shared data with other farmers

Economic Analysis

Farm-level and field-level cost/return analysis

Detailed cost/return accounting, enterprise analysis

Site-specific economic modeling, profitability analysis, mapping

    Also, link up for the technology tip of the day each day or see how a recently developed software package will allow precision agriculture to work with identity preservation at:

http://www.agriculture.com/technology/index.html

http://www.agriculture.com/technology/thisweek/index.html

http://www.agriculture.com/technology/thisweek/2000/tnt_IP.html

 

BETTER BEANS EVEN WITH NORTHERN GENES

    If the summer required or left a little time for you to travel, a quick inventory of the soybeans across the country will reveal a few surprises. Early dry weather down in the Midwest definitely took its toll on some of the soybean fields. This weekend, a comparison of soybeans in the southern Red River Valley against fields in central Iowa really revealed differences. Dry weather during much of the season has limited soybean height and vigor in Iowa, even with recent rains. The midseason dry spell, just recently broken, here in North Dakota and Minnesota has helped soybeans. Lack of rain during flowering but soil holding plentiful moisture from early spring rains has allow both states to bypass some of the problems other states are facing. Indiana and Illinois have both reported problems with pockets of white mold in fields where the rains finally came before and during the initial full flower phase in soybeans. While some pest problems have been noted here, the Midwest has reported an increase of insect problems and soybean cyst nematode in many of the drier soybean fields. Indeed, if your fields in the Red River Valley made it successfully through the early spring rains, early iron chlorosis problems and the erratic weed germination (from the temperature and moisture jumps this season), you may be sitting on some fairly good looking soybean fields. While some sandy pockets in fields could use more moisture, the height and potential flower load as well as the resulting pod load may be good. Many locations here in the Red River Valley have soybeans fully covering the rows while Iowa has many fields not completely covering the rows.

    Now, timely, gentle rains every week or two during pod fill would boost yields and tip the scale for soybeans in the Red River Valley. Rendezvous around the region and check on the variety types in the fields that are doing well. Catch all of the variety trial informational meetings you can to determine the soybean varieties that excelled under this years conditions--including those that can withstand early, wet, cool soil conditions and later drying cycles. This might be a year to remember in soybean yields in some of the fields, even with the shorter season varieties grown here.

    As recently reported through the Oil Crops Outlook from the Economic Research Service, a bumper crop of beans may be seen. Good precipitation and an absence of extreme heat in July have resulted in generally favorable conditions for U.S. soybeans. As of August 6, 65 percent of soybeans were rated in good to excellent condition. This ratio is the best since the U.S. record yields of 1994. Like that year, current pod development is quite advanced, with 69 percent now in that stage compared with the 5-year average of 47 percent. Moisture availability at this time is a key factor for filling out soybean pods. Provided no extended hot spell soon emerges, most regions should need little additional precipitation, as there are
adequate soil moisture reserves to complete crop maturation.

    Record soybean crops are anticipated in Iowa, Illinois, Kansas, Nebraska, Wisconsin, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Indiana, Missouri, and Michigan, with record average yields in the latter four States. On the other hand, much of the Southeast still suffers from a moisture deficit, and the dryness has extended into the Delta region. In spite of crop stress in these locations, a national average soybean yield of 40.7 bushels per acre is expected this year, exceeded only by the 1994 yield of 41.4 bushels. These southern regions collectively comprise just 9 percent of the total soybean acreage planted this year. Therefore, U.S. soybean production in 2000 is forecast to rise to 2,989 million bushels, surpassing the 1998 record of
2,741million.

    Smaller expected beginning stocks, totaling 280 million bushels, will offset some of the yield gains. Stocks have declined because of seasonally strong import demand from China that has raised the 1999/2000 U.S. soybean export forecast to 975 million bushels. For similar reasons, projected South American carryover stocks are also tightening. Adverse weather will maintain brisk imports by China and push U.S. soybean shipments toward a record 1,010 million bushels in 2000/01.Slightly higher margins are projected to raise 2000/01 domestic soybean crush to 1,625 million bushels. U.S. soybean meal exports are forecast to rise to 7.4 million short tons. European Union (EU) soybean meal imports are likely to modestly strengthen because of a sharp decline in rapeseed production. U.S. soybean oil exports should also expand to 1,800 million pounds from 1,200million in 1999/2000.

    The fine condition of the U.S. soybean crop has caused the average cash price in central Illinois to fall from $4.92 per bushel in June to $4.56 in July. Prices may continue declining if favorable weather this month allows an optimal completion of pod filling. Based on the current soybean supply and use forecasts, USDA foresees a 2000/01 average U.S. farm price of $3.90-$4.80 per bushel.

 

OPTIMIZING YIELD WITH LATE-SEASON DROUGHT

    Late-season drought is the primary limiting factor for corn and soybeans in the High Plains. Drought during flowering decreases flower and then seed number per unit area. Corn reacts by a delay in silk emergence relative to pollen shed and an increase in seed abortion. Soybeans will increase pod abortion.

    Drought sensitivity decreases as seeds mature; however, drought during seed filling in both crops can shorten the duration of seed filling resulting in the potential for less yield and smaller seed. In corn, the shorter filling period is caused by premature water loss from the seed. At the twelfth-leaf to dough stage in corn, the management allowable soil water depletion (MAD) in the root zone should not exceed 50% and from dough to maturity the MAD should not exceed 60-70% or yield can be reduced by up to 11.5 bushel per acre-inch in water deficit. In soybeans, growth stages from first flower to first pod
should maintain a MAD below 60-65% and during first pod through to maturity the MAD should be below 60-70% or a yield reduction can occur. Drought stresses in later pod-filling stages in soybean result in a decrease in maximum seed volume.

    Ideally, soybeans flourish at temperatures of 86F (and corn up to this temperature or to a little lower at 84F). Temperatures at 95F with low humidity and the onset of droughty soil conditions can limit yields in fields. Drought symptoms in either crop show leaf wilting and darkening (or leaf rolling before mid-morning in corn) and reduced plant growth. Soybeans grown in dry soils can reduce nodule formation, development and later nitrogen-fixation early in plant growth and these symptoms can also appear later when soil temperatures reach greater than 90F for several days. Yield loss in either corn or soybeans will ultimately depend on original planting date (good, early growth can push crops through drought spells better), the
maturity group fit for the region and how long the drought persists. In corn, selecting hybrids with rapid ear growth, tolerance to high population densities and prolific hybrids can improve performance under drought conditions. In soybeans, varieties that show tolerance to very high (or very low) soil pH, tolerance to nematodes in areas where cyst nematodes exist, and tolerance to any commonly occurring pests allow the crop to withstand drought effects.

    Also, less environmental stress from restricted root growth due to poor drainage, nutrient imbalances and soil compaction (hardpan) will help the plants combat drought.

    During the soybean stages R6 to R8 (full size beans up to maturity), the plants are accumulating dry matter in the seeds. The dry matter is accumulated at a rate of about 1 to 1.5 bushels per day during R6 to R8. Thus, stress during seed filling in soybeans can affect yields up to that 1.5 bushel per day, depending on how the temperature and drought ultimately affect the rate and the length of time dry matter accumulation can occur.

    Check fields now for your most productive hybrids and varieties and keep in mind that the best fields should be those that: have the most productive soils; are fields where crop rotation is practiced; utilize deep tillage if compaction was a concern; use disease-resistant varieties; are planted with water-conservation practices in mind; may have been drilled, in the case of soybeans; were planted for optimum population for the field; have varieties selected within the range of maturities for the region; use integrated pest management systems; and, practice sound insect and weed management.

 

ESTIMATING SOYBEAN YIELDS PRIOR TO HARVEST

    Remember that soybean yields are best estimated only three weeks prior to harvest.

1. Determine the number of feet of row needed to make 1/1000 of an acre. (See table under article for estimating dry bean yields)

2. Count the number of plants in ten different, randomly selected sample areas (for example if you had 20 rows, count the number of plants down a row for 26 2 at ten different locations in the field). Calculate the average of these counts. Average=_____=A

3. Next, count the number of pods per plant on ten, randomly selected plants from each sample area. Calculate the average. Average=_____=B

4. Now, calculate the pods per acre by multiplying plant population by pods per plant. Ax B=_____=C

5. Calculate the seeds per acre by multiplying the pods per acre by an estimate of 2.5 seeds per pod
    (or determine the common pod load within your field). 2.5xC=_____=D

6. Calculate the pounds per acre by dividing the seeds per acre by an estimate of 2500 seeds per pound (or figure the average number of seeds per pound based on the average for the variety you are growing).   D2500=_____=E   

7. Estimate yield by dividing the pounds per acre by 60 pounds per bushel (the common average seed weight
    for soybeans).     E60=_______=Yield

Denise McWilliams
Extension Crop Production Specialist
dmcwilli@ndsuext.nodak.edu


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