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ISSUE 8  JUNE 24, 1999



    The Man-Dak Zero Till Association summer field tour scheduled for June 29 at Boissevain, Manitoba has been cancelled. The extreme wet field conditions, flooding and late planting are the primary reasons for the cancellation. The tour was to include crops such as fiber hemp, dwarf grain corn, plus other alternative and conventional crops. A later tour date may be set in late July. Will keep you posted.



    Foxtail millets are grown primarily for short-season, emergency hay crops. Several landraces have been developed over time and are grown in North Dakota. These hay millets could be utilized on some of the prevented planting acres in 1999.

    Planting of foxtail millets can be delayed until mid-June into July. When used for emergency hay production, late planting is usually encountered.

    Plant into moist soil about 1 inch deep. Shallower seeding may be desirable on heavy textured soils with good moisture. Germination is fairly rapid but early seedling vigor is lacking.

    Foxtail millets have low seedling vigor and in general are poor competitors with weeds. A seeding rate of 15 to 30 pounds per acre is recommended. The higher rates are recommended in eastern North Dakota with the higher rainfall potential. In western North Dakota, 15 pounds is adequate on good weed free fields.

    Harvest millets for hay in the late boot to early bloom growth stage. Any delay after full head emergence will reduce quality. Bristles become hard as maturity approaches and may cause sore mouth, lump jaw and eye infections when fed to livestock. Hay protein content is highest when the ratio of leaves to stems is high. Curing foxtail millet requires attention as light stands tend to sun dry rapidly after cutting, while heavy stands, especially of the German type, cure at a slower rate. If expected yield levels are greater than 1 tons per acre, crimping will help the curing process. Potential yield of foxtail millet hay is influenced by moisture availability. Research trial yields from North Dakota Experiment Stations ranged from 2.2 to 2.6 tons per acre the past several years, at NDSU Research Centers.

Hay Millets Include The Following:

Common Foxtail Millet is fine-stemmed and leafy. Seedhead is cylindrical and compact and tapers toward the tip. The lower portion is less compact than the mid- and tip portions. Seedhead varies from 5/8 to 3/4 inch in diameter and 4 to 6 inches in length with pale yellow bristles. It is one of the earliest foxtail millets, maturing in about 70 days and producing a hay crop in about 50 days.

Warm Season Forage Trials - 1997-98


*Yield, Tons/A
(Dry Matter Basis)


Sorghum x Sudan


German Millet


Siberian Millet


Red Proso Millet


*2 Yr. Ave. Carrington, Dickinson, Hettinger, Langdon


    Siberian millet has medium-sized stems and possesses some drought tolerance. The seedhead is cylindrical, e to inch in diameter, 4 to 6 inches long, and has purple bristles. It matures in about 75 to 80 days and produces a hay crop in 55 to 60 days. Manta, a South Dakota release, is an early Siberian millet.

    Hungarian millet is characterized by a small, compact, slightly lobed seedhead, which is to e inch in diameter and 4 to 6 inches long. Bristles vary in color from clear to pale yellow through purple and black. Stems are medium in size. It is reported to do better under more favorable moisture conditions. Maturity is about 70 days and a hay crop can be ready in about 55 days.

    German millet has thicker stems and broader leaves. The seedhead is distinctly lobed, measuring 1 to 1 inches in diameter and 6 to 9 inches long. Bristles are greenish to purple. It is a longer season foxtail, which takes about 90 or more days to mature and 65 to 70 days to produce a hay crop.

    Because of its increased stem size, it takes better management than the other foxtail millets to produce good quality hay.



    The 1999 Canola crop has been challenged recently by wet conditions, flea beetles and weeds. Uneven canola stands and plant development have been reported with the late planted canola, seeded into muddy conditions. A minimum of four plants per sq. ft. is required to obtain a fair to good economic yield.

    Determining the growth stage of canola is relatively simple using a scale developed in Canada. This scale uses five principal stage designations and subdivides these into secondary stages. These stages are described below:

Stage       Description of main Raceme

            0           Pre-emergence

            1           Seedling

            2           Rosette
                         2.1 First true leaf expanded
                         2.2 Second true leaf expanded
                         2.3 Etc. for each additional leaf

            3           Bud
                         3.1 Flower cluster visible at center of rosette
                         3.2 Flower cluster raised above level of rosette
                         3.3 Lower buds yellowing

            4           Flower
                        4.1 First flower open
                        4.2 Many flowers opened, lower pods elongating
                        4.3 Lower pods starting to fill
                        4.4 Flowering complete, seed enlarging in lower pods

            5          Ripening
                        5.1 Seeds in lower pods full size, translucent
                        5.2 Seeds in lower pods green
                        5.3 Seeds in lower pods green-brown or green-yellow, mottled
                        5.4 Seeds in lower pods yellow or brown
                        5.5 Seeds in all pods brown, plant dead

    With the new herbicide tolerant canola’s one has to pay special attention to plant stage for last application. For the Roundup Ready canola, application can be made from seedling emergence to start of bolting (3.1 to 3.2). For Liberty Resistant canola, the application can be made from seedling stage up until early bolting stage (3.2).

    Canola in the 5.3 to early 5.4 stage should be near or at swathing stage. These stages change very rapidly during the ripening period if temperatures are warm and under dry conditions.

Duane R. Berglund
Extension Agronomist



    The North Dakota Agriculture Experiment Station has released two oat cultivars, Ebeltoft and Youngs. Seed sales of both will be subject to the Plant Variety Protection Act without the Title V option.

    Both were released because of their high yield potential. In three years of testing at nine locations Youngs out yielded Jud and Whitestone by 7 bushels per acre (Table 1). In the same comparisons Ebeltoft out yielded Jud and Whitestone by 13 bushels per acre. Test weight of both these new varieties averaged about one pound per bushel higher than both Otana and Whitestone and less than one pound per bushel less than Jud.

Table 1. Yield and test weight comparison of Youngs and Ebletoft oat cultivars with Jud, Otana and Whitestone.



Test Wt.

                          bu/A                    lb/bu



















    Ebeltoft is slightly shorter and has stronger straw than Jerry but heads about six days later. Ebeltoft has slightly lower protein than Jerry with about equal groat yields. Ebeltoft is resistant to prevalent races of stem rust and has moderate crown rust resistance.

    Youngs is slightly taller than Jerry but has good straw strength. Protein of Youngs is similar to Jerry and slightly better groat yields.

Michael D. Peel
Small Grains Extension Agronomist



    Good trouble-shooting diagnostics will help you manage your soybeans this year and will help in determining future needs and rotations. First, identify the growth stage of the crop. This will narrow down the types of problems that can occur in the crop. Next, determine if the problem you are seeing in the field occurred only one time or if it is continuous. Third, note the symptoms you are seeing on the soybeans. And fourth, if you cannot satisfactorily diagnose the problems in your soybeans take needed samples to the diagnostic lab, soil testing lab or germination lab here on campus at NDSU. Be sure to include information about the crop problem with the sample including weather history, field identification, cropping history, soil test results (if available), fertilizer and liming practices, pesticide applications, tillage and planting methods used on the field and any other pertinent management information.

    Read the general symptoms and then select the affected soybean plant part to compare possible diagnostics:

    Soybean plants emerged but are dead, dying or stunted in isolated or widespread areas of the field or the plants show the listed damage.


dry lesions on the roots or on the stem which is below the soil surface
-soil-borne fungi or bacteria or disease carried on seed (Fusarium, Phytophthora, Pythium or Rhizoctonia)

lower stem and taproot are dark and rotted
-charcoal rot   -Phytophora rot
    stubby, secondary roots on the plant appeared burned-off
-nematodes - fertilizer salt burn  -soil herbicide injury  -soil compaction

roots or lower stem is chewed
-wireworms   -white grubs

little or no nodule development
-molybdenum deficiency  -nitrogen deficiency  -soybean cyst nematode (not prevalent in ND)  -low soil pH  -calcium deficiency  -soil compaction


tunneling of stem at or near the soil line
-lesser cornstalk borer   -wireworms

stem girdled above the soil line
-three-cornered alfalfa hopper   -cutworms

stem girdled at the soil line
-lesser cornstalk borer  -cutworms   -high soil temperature   -Rhizoctonia  -Fusarium

Stem girdled below the soil line
-cutworms  -lesser cornstalk borer  -wireworms

stem snaps off near soil line
-three-cornered alfalfa hopper - lesser cornstalk borer  -soil-applied herbicide

upper part of the plant chewed or cut
-wildlife or livestock feeding   -cutworms

lower stem has cracks
-excessive rainfall  -herbicide injury

lower stem is discolored
-Phytophthora  -Rhizoctonia

leaves discolored, dead or dropped
-thrips (silvering of upper leaf surface) -herbicide injury   -soybean cyst nematode  -spider mites

leaves wilted or dropping
-lesser cornstalk borer  -frost damage  -three-cornered alfalfa hopper   -wireworms  -white grubs

leaves wilted or dropped with plants dead in a circular pattern in the field

leaves torn with obvious physical damage
-hail damage  -grasshoppers   -green cloverworm larvae    -armyworms

leaves show spots with later necrotic areas
-brown spot disease  -bacterial pustule  -bacterial blight  -downy mildew (usually has fungal growth under the leaf surface) -powdery mildew (white powdery patches)

leaves appear sandblasted, speckled or burned and the plants may be stunted
-thrips  -spider mites  -bean leaf beetle  -herbicide injury   -sunburn   -air pollution

interveinal yellowing or along leaf margins
-potassium deficiency   -potato leaf hopper  -rhizobia-induced chlorosis  -soybean cyst nematode  -herbicide injury  -boron toxicity   -manganese deficiency  -iron chlorosis  -magnesium deficiency   -sulfur deficiency  -nitrogen deficiency  -molybdenum deficiency   -water damage -wheat straw allelopathy  -aluminum toxicity  -low pH   -zinc deficiency

leaves crinkled and possibly plants are stunted
-herbicide injury   -various plant viruses   -manganese toxicity  -boron toxicity

Denise A. McWilliams
Extension Crop Production Specialist

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