Dickinson Research Extension Center's adaptive research is providing swine producers with an understanding of feeding methods using alternative crops in swine production. Our work includes the utilization and feeding level of raw and extruded field pea grain and Paul naked oats in the diets of growing-finishing pigs, and the establishment of winter gestation energy level recommendations for lean genotype sows housed in low-input housing.
Doug Landblom, Animal Scientist, reported that feeding field pea to very young pigs weighing less than 11 pounds reduced performance, but larger pigs, weighing at least 16 pounds at weaning, grew equally well with 20% field pea when compared to pigs receiving soybean meal. Paul oat, the new naked oat release from NDSU, was fed to very young weanling pigs and found to be an excellent substitute for corn and a portion of the soybean meal. In further investigations, Mr. Landblom found that when 20% extruded field pea and Paul oat were combined and fed to weanling pigs, all of the corn and soybean meal could be replaced with no depression in performance.
Field pea can completely replace soybean meal as a source of supplemental protein in the growing-finishing diets. Resident lysine in the pea grain was determined to be sufficient for optimal pig growth. Gilts fed to finish weights grew slower, consumed less feed, were more efficient and demonstrated lower feed cost/pound of gain. Their carcasses were leaner than carcasses from barrows, but carcass yield, hot carcass weight, and carcass value was similar to those of barrows.
Pigs finished during winter months with field pea as the supplemental protein source were less efficient than summer finished hogs, but carcasses of winter fed pigs were higher yielding. Gestation energy levels of 6681, 7868 and 8682 Kcal of metabolizable energy/day are being fed during winter gestation over a 4-year period. Sow performance indicators are showing a trend toward recommending 7,868 Kcal/ME/day for sows in their second parity and older.
A pig starter study is planned in which dried whey, spray dried animal plasma, fish meal, lactose, blood meal and soy protein concentrate will be evaluated to determine if blood meal and soy protein concentrate can be substituted for blood plasma, and whether dried whey will replace lactose at a lower cost without depressing performance.