2006 Annual Report
Dickinson Research Extension Center
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Dickinson, ND 58601
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M. Carr, Glenn B. Martin, Burt. A
Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the most widely grown annual, cool-season pulse
The benefit of field peas when rotated
with spring wheat and other small grain crops to cereal grain yield is
documented. Grain yield increases of
more than 20% have occurred when wheat or barley followed field peas rather
than small grains in the prairie region of
Work on the impact of field peas in crop
rotations has focused almost exclusively on determining the fertilizer replacement-value
of field peas (
No effort has been made to quantify the various
factors that together explain the benefit provided by field peas to subsequent
Materials and Methods
A 3-yr study was conducted during 2003, 2004, and 2005 in plots managed under conventional-tillage (CT), reduced-tillage (RT), and no-tillage (NT) methods since 1993. Beginning in 1999, both a HRSW-pea rotation along with a continuous HRSW monoculture were established and maintained across the three tillage environments. Treatments were in a randomized complete block design with a split-plot arrangement. Tillage treatments comprised whole plots and cropping system comprised subplots. All phases of both cropping systems occurred each year.
Results and Discussion
Precipitation was 75% of the l00-yr average of 243 mm during the growing season (01 Apr. through 31 July) in 2003, 56% of the average in 2004, and 142% of the average in 2005. Temperatures during the growing season were near the long-term average of 13oC. Water stress conditions developed and persisted during both 2003 and 2004, whereas relatively wet conditions favored the development of Fusarium head blight in HRSW during 2005.
Grain yield averaged 2090 kg/ha for HRSW following field peas compared with 1800 kg/ha in the monoculture across the 3-yr. Decreases in tillage also enhanced HRSW grain yield; yield averaged 1690 kg/ha under CT and 2330 kg/ha under NT. The combined effects of rotation and tillage elimination were additive and elevated grain yield by 55% in the wheat-pea rotation under NT compared with the continuous HRSW monoculture under CT.
Larger kernels were produced by HRSW in a HRSW-pea rotation compared with a continuous wheat monoculture. However, grain test weight and crude protein concentration were not affected consistently by rotation. In contrast, crude protein was over 10 g kg-1 lower in NT compared with CT plots, even though enough fertilizer N was applied in each plot for a 3360 kg ha-1 yield goal based on soil test results. Grain N yield (the product of grain yield and N concentration) was greater for NT than CT, so the lower grain protein concentration under NT probably resulted from a yield-induced N deficiency. Still, these data suggest that fertilizer recommendations may need adjustment when CT is replaced with NT for grain protein content to be maintained, even after 10 or more years after moving to NT.
Consideration of soil N (nitrate, ammonium, total) following pea did not explain the grain yield elevations for HRSW consistently, but some soil samples collected during the late summer and fall in 2005 were not analyzed prior to writing this report. Inclusion of these soil samples into the data set along with additional analyzes could make the impact of pea on the soil N pool easier to understand. The additional soil samples may also help explain why no differences in soil N levels across tillage treatments were detected.
Soil water content was unaffected by cropping system in this study. Conversely, preliminary analyses indicate that an additional 22 mm of soil water occurred in the 0- to 30-cm soil depth under NT compared with CT. Likewise, soils under NT were cooler during and for several weeks after planting. The combination of cooler soil temperatures and greater soil water content may explain partially the elevated grain yields for HRSW under NT compared with CT in this study.
demonstrated a positive rotation effect from pea to HRSW in southwestern
positive benefits resulting from replacing CT with NT in southwestern
More thorough summaries of this study will be prepared by the end of 2006.
Clayton, G., P.Miller,
Y. Gan, R. Blackshaw, P. Carr, B. Gossen, K. Harker, G. LaFond, J. O'Donovan,
and O. Olfert. 2005.
Ecological pulse crop management. In Annual Meetings Abstracts [CD-ROM
computer disk]. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA,
Meyer, D.W. 1987. Influence of green-manured, hayed, or grain legumes on
grain yield and quality of the following barley crop in the northern
Stevenson, F.C., and van Kessel, C. 1996. A landscape-scale assessment of the nitrogen and non-nitrogen rotation benefits of pea. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 60:1797-1805.
Wright, A.T. 1990. Yield effect of pulses on subsequent cereal crops in the
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