Table 1. Pasture-forage costs of native rangeland and domesticated grass pastures to be grazed by range cows during the 31-day spring portion of the lactation production period.
Native
Rangeland
(12-m RS)
Native
Rangeland
(6.0-m SL)
Crested
Wheatgrass
Unfertilized
(4.5-m SL)
Crested
Wheatgrass
Unfertilized
(4.0-m Def)
Crested
Wheatgrass
Fertilized
(4.5-m TOR)
Days
31
16
31
76
31
Growth Stage
spring
spring
spring
spring
spring
Herbage Weight lb/ac
780
906
1980
2192
4960
Forage DM Weight lb/ac
195
226
495
548
1240
Costs/Acre
Land Rent $
8.76
8.76
8.76
8.76
8.76
Custom Work $
12.50
Seed Cost $
Baling Cost $
Production Costs $/ac
8.76
8.76
8.76
8.76
21.26
Forage DM Costs $/ton
89.85
77.52
35.39
31.97
34.29
Land Area/Month ac
4.62
4.04
1.82
1.67
0.73
Land Area/Period ac
4.77
2.10
1.88
4.16
0.75
Land Cost/Period $/pp
41.79
18.40
16.47
36.44
15.95
Forage Costs/Day $/d
1.35
1.15
0.52
0.48
0.51
Forage Costs/Period $/pp
41.85
18.40
16.47
36.44
15.95
Crude Protein %
16.3
Crude Protein Yield lb/ac
31.79
Crude Protein Cost $/lb
0.28
Supplementation
Roughage/Day lb/d
Crude Protein/Day lb/d
Sup. Cost/Period $/pp
Total Feed Cost $/pp
41.85
18.40
16.47
36.44
15.95
Cost/Day $/d
1.35
1.15
0.52
0.48
0.51

 

Table 2. Forage costs of perennial grass hays to be fed to range cows during the 31-day spring portion of the lactation production period.
Crested
Wheatgrass
Hay
Crested
Wheatgrass
Hay
Growth Stage
Mature
Boot stage
Herbage Weight
lb/ac
-
-
Forage DM Weight

lb/ac
1600

1300

Costs/Acre
Land Rent
$
14.22
14.22
Custom Work
$
5.31
5.31
Seed Cost
$
-
-
Baling Costs
$
8.58
6.97
Production Costs
$/ac
28.11
26.50
Forage DM Costs
$/ton
34.80
40.80
Land Area /Month
ac
0.56
0.40
Land Area/Period
ac
0.58
0.41
Land Cost/Period
$/pp
8.25
5.83
Forage Costs/Day
$/d
0.70
0.35
Forage Costs/Period
$/pp
21.70
10.85
Crude Protein
%
6.4
14.5
Crude Protein Yield
lb/ac

102

189

Crude Protein Cost
$/lb
0.28
0.14
Supplementation
Roughage/Day
lb/d
12.69
Crude Protein/Day
lb/d
0.78
Sup. Cost/Period
$/pp
7.27
6.88
Total Feed Cost
$/pp
28.97
17.73
Cost/Day
$/d
0.93
0.57

 

Table 3. Pasture-forage costs of native rangeland pastures to be grazed by range cows during the 137-day summer portion of the lactation production period.
Native Rangeland
(12-m RS)
Native Rangeland
(6.0-m SL)
Native Rangeland
(4.5-m SL)
Native Rangeland
(4.0-m Def)
Native Rangeland
(4.5-m TOR)
Days
137
137
137
92
137
Growth Stage
summer
summer
summer
summer
summer
Herbage Weight lb/ac
1450
906
1280
1649
1794
Forage DM Weight lb/ac
363
226
320
412
449
Costs/Acre  
Land Rent $
8.76
8.76
8.76
8.76
8.76
Custom Work $
Seed Cost $
Baling Costs $
Production Costs $/ac
8.76
8.76
8.76
8.76
8.76
Forage DM Costs $/ton
48.26
77.50
54.75
42.52
39.02
Land Area/Month ac
2.52
4.04
2.86
2.22
2.04
Land Area/Period ac
11.32
18.10
12.70
6.70
9.00
Land Costs/Period $/pp
99.16
158.55
111.25
58.26
78.84
Forage Costs/Day $/d
0.72
1.16
0.81
0.63
0.58
Forage Costs/Period $/pp
98.64
158.55
111.25
58.26
78.84
Crude Protein %
9.6
Crude Protein Yield lb/ac
34.85
Crude Protein Cost $/lb
0.25
Supplementation
Roughage/Day lb/d
Crude Protein/Day lb/d
Sup. Cost/Period $/pp
Total Feed Cost $/pp
98.64
158.55
111.25
58.26
78.84
Cost/Day $/d
0.72
1.16
0.81
0.63
0.58

 

Table 4. Pasture-forage costs of native rangeland pastures to be grazed by range cows during the 30-day fall portion of the lactation production period.
Native Native Native Native Native
Days
15
15
15
30
30
30
Growth Stage
fall
fall
fall
fall
fall
fall
Herbage Weight
lb/ac
870
725
973
1423
891
1649
Forage DM Weight
lb/ac
218
180
243
356
223
412
Costs/Acre
Land Rent
$
8.76
8.76
8.76
8.76
8.76
8.76
Custom Work
$
Seed Cost
$
Baling Costs
$
Production Costs
$/ac
8.76
8.76
8.76
8.76
8.76
8.76
Forage DM Costs
$/ton
80.37
97.33
72.10
49.21
78.57
42.52
Land Area/Month
ac
4.20
5.00
3.26
2.53
4.04
2.22
Land Area/Period
ac
2.10
2.50
1.63
2.53
4.04
2.18
Land Costs/Period
$/pp
18.40
21.90
14.28
22.16
35.39
19.53
Forage Costs/Day
$/d
1.21
1.46
0.95
0.74
1.18
0.65
Forage Costs/Period
$/pp
18.40
21.90
14.28
22.16
35.39
19.53
Crude Protein
%
4.8
4.8
Crude Protein Yield
lb/ac
10.46
8.64
Crude Protein Cost
$/lb
0.34
1.01
Supplementation
Roughage/Day
lb/d
Crude Protein/Day
lb/d
1.21
1.21
Sup. Cost/Period
$/pp
5.45
5.45
Total Feed Cost
$/pp
23.85
27.35
14.28
22.16
35.39
19.53
Cost/Day
$/d
1.59
1.82
0.95
0.74
1.18
0.65

 

Table 5. Pasture-forage costs of domesticated grass and cropland pastures to be grazed by range cows during the 30-day fall portion of the lactation production period.
Altai Wildrye
(4.5-m TOR)
Cropland Aftermath
(4.5-m SL)
Days 30 30
Growth Stage
fall
fall
Herbage Weight lb/ac
2590
270
Forage DM Weight lb/ac
648
135
Costs/Acre
Land Rent $
8.76
2.00
Custom Work $
Seed Cost $
Baling Costs $
Production Costs $/ac
8.76
2.00
Forage DM Costs $/ton
27.04
29.63
Land Area/Month ac
1.39
6.63
Land Area/Period ac
1.39
6.63
Land Costs/Period $/pp
12.18
13.26
Forage Costs/Day $/d
0.40
0.44
Forage Costs/Period $/pp
12.00
13.26
Crude Protein %
Crude Protein Yield lb/ac
Crude Protein Cost $/lb
Supplementation
Roughage/Day lb/d
Crude Protein/Day lb/d
Sup. Cost/Period $/pp
Total Feed Cost $/pp
12.00
13.26
Cost/Day $/d
0.40
0.44

 

Table 6. Forage costs of perennial grass hays to be fed to range cows during the 30-day fall portion of the lactation production period.
Crested
Wheatgrass
Hay
Crested
Wheatgrass
Hay
Growth Stage Mature Boot stage
Herbage Weight lb/ac - -
Forage DM Weight lb/ac 1600

1300

Costs/Acre
Land Rent $
14.22
14.22
Custom Work $
5.31
5.31
Seed Cost $
-
-
Baling Costs $
8.58
6.97
Production Costs $/ac
28.11
26.50
Forage DM Costs $/ton
34.80
40.80
Land Area /Month ac
0.56
0.40
Land Area/Period ac
0.56
0.40
Land Cost/Period $/pp
7.96
5.69
Forage Costs/Day $/d
0.70
0.35
Forage Costs/Period $/pp
21.00
10.50
Crude Protein %
6.4
14.5
Crude Protein Yield lb/ac
102
189
Crude Protein Cost $/lb
0.28
0.14
Supplementation
Roughage/Day lb/d
12.69
Crude Protein/Day lb/d
0.78
Sup. Cost/Period $/pp
7.02
6.66
Total Feed Cost $/pp
28.02
17.16
Cost/Day $/d
0.93
0.57

 

Table 7. Forage costs of annual cereal hays and annual legume hays to be fed to range cows during the 30-day fall portion of the lactation production period.
Forage
Barley
Hay
Oat
Forage
Hay
Pea
Forage
Hay
Forage
Lentil
Hay
Oat-Pea
Hay
Growth Stage Milk Milk Late Late
Herbage Weight lb/ac
Forage DM Weight lb/ac
4733
4667
4650
3867
5143
Costs/Acre
Land Rent $
22.07
22.07
22.07
22.07
22.07
Custom Work $
16.08
16.08
16.08
16.08
16.08
Seed Cost $
4.69
6.00
23.80
12.60
29.80
Baling Costs $
25.37
25.02
24.92
20.73
27.57
Production Costs $/ac
68.21
69.17
86.87
71.48
95.52
Forage DM Costs $/ton
28.80
29.60
37.40
37.00
37.20
Land Area/Month ac
0.12
0.14
0.11
0.13
0.12
Land Area/Period ac
0.12
0.14
0.11
0.13
0.12
Land Costs/Period $/pp
2.65
3.09
2.43
2.87
2.65
Forage Costs/Day $/d
0.28
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.38
Forage Costs/Period $/pp
8.40
9.90
9.90
9.90
11.40
Crude Protein %
13.0
11.5
14.4
14.7
12.5
Crude Protein Yield lb/ac
606
535
685
567
611
Crude Protein Cost $/lb
0.11
0.13
0.13
0.13

0.16

Supplementation
Roughage/Day lb/d
10.7
8.2
12.6
12.9
9.9
Crude Protein/Day lb/d
Sup. Cost/Period $/pp
5.62
4.31
6.62
6.77
5.20
Total Feed Cost $/pp
14.02
14.21
16.52
16.67
16.60
Cost/Day $/d
0.47
0.47
0.55
0.56
0.55

 

Table 8. Pasture and forage costs during the spring portion of the lactation production period.
Land
Area
ac/pp
Forage
Dry
Matter
$/ton
Crude
Protein
$/lb
Forage
Cost
$/pp
Supplement
Cost
$/pp
Total
Feed
Cost
$/pp
Cost
per
Day
$/d
12-m RS
Native Rangeland

4.77
89.85
0.28
41.85
41.85
1.35
6.0-m SL
Native Rangeland

4.04
77.52
35.65
35.65
1.15
4.5-m SL
Crested Wheatgrass

1.88
35.39
16.47
16.47
0.52
4.0-m Def
Crested Wheatgrass

1.73
31.97
14.88
14.88
0.48
4.5-m TOR
Crested Wheatgrass

0.75
34.29
15.95
15.95
0.51
Crested Wheatgrass
Mature

0.58
34.80
0.28
21.70
7.27
28.97
0.93
Crested Wheatgrass
Boot Stage

0.41
40.80
0.14
10.85
6.88
17.73
0.57

Table 9. Pasture and forage costs during the summer portion of the lactation production period.
Land
Area
ac/pp
Forage
Dry
Matter
$/ton
Crude
Protein
$/lb
Forage
Cost
$/pp
Supplement
Cost
$/pp
Total
Feed
Cost
$/pp
Cost
per
Day
$/d
12-m RS
Native Rangeland

11.32
48.26
0.25
98.64
98.64
0.72
6.0-m SL
Native Rangeland

18.10
77.50
158.55
158.55
1.16
4.5-m SL
Native Rangeland

12.70
54.75
111.25
111.25
0.81
4.0-m Def
Native Rangeland

9.99
42.52
86.31
86.31
0.63
4.5-m TOR
Native Rangeland

9.00
39.02
78.84
78.84
0.58

 

Table 10. Pasture and forage costs during the fall portion of the lactation production period.
Land
Area
ac/pp
Forage
Dry
Matter
$/ton
Crude
Protein
$/lb
Forage
Cost
$/pp
Supplement
Cost
$/pp
Total
Feed
Cost
$/pp
Cost
per
Day
$/d
12-m RS
Native Rangeland

4.60
88.85
0.68
40.30
10.90
51.20
1.71
6.0-m SL
Native Rangeland

4.04
78.57
35.39
35.39
1.18
4.5-m SL
Cropland Aftermath

6.63
29.63
13.26
13.26
0.44
4.0-m Def
Native Rangeland

2.18
42.52
19.53
19.53
0.65
4.5-m TOR
Altai Wildrye

1.39
27.04
12.00
12.00
0.40
Crested Wheatgrass
Mature

0.56
34.80
0.28
21.00
7.02
28.02
0.93
Crested Wheatgrass
Boot Stage

0.40
40.80
0.14
10.50
6.66
17.16
0.57
Forage Barley
Milk

0.12
28.80
0.11
8.40
5.62
14.02
0.47
Oat Forage
Milk

0.14
29.60
0.13
9.90
4.31
14.21
0.47
Pea Forage
Late

0.11
37.40
0.13
9.90
6.62
16.52
0.55
Forage Lentil
Late

0.13
37.00
0.13
9.90
6.77
16.67
0.56
Oat-Pea Forage
Hay

0.12
37.20
0.16
11.40
5.20
16.60
0.55

 

Table 11. Range cow and calf performance on native rangeland and domesticated grass pastures during the 31- day spring portion of the lactation production period.
Native
Rangeland
(12-m RS)*

Native
Rangeland
(6.0-m SL)
Crested
Wheatgrass
Unfertilized
(4.5-m SL)
Crested
Wheatgrass
Unfertilized
(4.0-m Def)
Crested
Wheatgrass
Fertilized
(4.5-m TOR)
Length of Period days
31
16
31
76
31
Acres/Month ac
4.62
4.04
1.82
1.67
0.75
Acres/Period ac
4.77
2.10
1.88
4.16
0.75
Cow Gain/Day lbs
0.12
1.95
0.91
2.68
Cow Gain/Acre lbs
0.91
32.15
16.63
110.77
Cow Gain/Period lbs
1.92
60.45
69.16
83.08
Calf Gain/Day lbs
1.80
1.80
1.91
1.79
2.18
Calf Gain/Acre lbs
11.70
13.64
31.49
32.70
90.11
Calf Gain/Period lbs
55.80
28.80
59.21
136.04
67.58

* Based on estimated calf weight

Table 12. Range cow and calf performance on native rangeland pastures during the 137-day summer portion of the lactation production period.
Native
Rangeland
(12-m RS)*

Native
Rangeland
(6.0-m SL)
Crested
Wheatgrass
Unfertilized
(4.5-m SL)
Crested
Wheatgrass
Unfertilized
(4.0-m Def)
Crested
Wheatgrass
Fertilized
(4.5-m TOR)
Length of Period days
137
183
137
122
137
Acres/Month ac
2.52
4.04
2.86
2.22
2.04
Acres/Period ac
11.32
24.24
12.70
8.88
9.00
Cow Gain/Day lbs
0.12
0.34
0.32
0.62
Cow Gain/Acre lbs
0.91
3.67
4.40
9.44
Cow Gain/Period lbs
21.96
46.58
39.04
84.94
Calf Gain/Day lbs
1.80
1.80
2.09
1.80
2.21
Calf Gain/Acre lbs
21.78
13.59
22.55
24.73
33.64
Calf Gain/Period lbs
246.60
329.40
286.33
219.60
302.77

* Based on estimated calf weight

Table 13. Range cow and calf performance on native rangeland pastures during the 30-day fall portion of the lactation production period.
Native
Rangeland
(12-m RS)*
Early Late
Native
Rangeland
(SL 4.5-m)
Early
Native
Rangeland
(SL 5-6-m)
Native
Rangeland
(6.0-m SL)
Native
Rangeland
(4.0-m Def)
Length of Period days
15
15
15
30
30
30
Acres/Month ac
4.20
5.00
3.26
2.53
4.04
2.22
Acres/Period ac
2.10
2.50
1.63
2.53
4.04
2.18
Cow Gain/Day lbs
-0.52
-0.82
-1.74
-0.74
Cow Gain/Acre lbs
-4.75
-9.77
-12.90
-9.96
Cow Gain/Period lbs
-7.74
-24.60
-52.20
-22.20
Calf Gain/Day lbs
1.80
1.80
1.35
0.92
0.59
0.77
Calf Gain/Acre lbs
12.86
10.80
12.47
10.90
4.38
10.36
Calf Gain/Period lbs
27.00
27.00
20.33
27.60
17.73
23.10

* Based on estimated calf weight

Table 14. Range cow and calf performance on domesticated grass and cropland pastures during the 30-day fall portion of the lactation production period.
Altai
Wildrye
(4.5-m TOR)
Crop
Aftermath
(4.5-m SL)
Length of Period days
30
30
Acres/Month ac
1.39
6.63
Acres/Period

ac
1.39
6.63
Cow Gain/Day lbs
0.55
-1.61
Cow Gain/Acre lbs
11.87
-7.27
Cow Gain/Period lbs
16.50
-48.17
Calf Gain/Day lbs
1.73
0.42
Calf Gain/Acre lbs
37.96
1.90
Calf Gain/Period lbs
52.77
12.57

 

Table 15. Costs and returns during the spring, summer, and fall portions of the lactation production period for grazing management strategies.
12-M
Repeated
Seasonal*
6.0-M
Seasonlong
4.5-M
Seasonlong
4.0-M
Deferred
4.5-M
Twice-over
Rotation
Spring Lactation Period   Native Rangeland Native Rangeland Crested
Wheatgrass
Unfertilized
Crested
Wheatgrass
Unfertilized
Crested
Wheatgrass
Fertilized
Accumulated Calf Wt. lbs
55.80
28.80
59.21
136.04
67.58
Weight Value @ $0.70/lb $
39.06
20.16
41.45
95.23
47.31
Pasture and Forage Costs $
41.85
18.40
16.47
36.44
15.95
Net Return/c-c pr $
-2.79
1.76
24.98
58.78
31.36
Net Return/acre $
-0.58
0.83
13.29
14.13
41.82
Cost/lb of Calf Gain $
0.75
0.64
0.27
0.27
0.24
Summer Lactation Period
Native Rangeland
Native Rangeland
Native Rangeland
Native Rangeland
Native Rangeland
Accumulated Calf Wt. lbs
246.60
282.87
286.33
196.50
302.77
Weight Value @ $0.70/lb $
172.62
198.01
200.43
137.55
211.94
Pasture and Forage Costs $
98.64
158.55
111.25
58.26
78.84
Net Return/c-c pr $
73.98
38.75
89.18
79.29
133.10
Net Return/acre $
6.54
2.13
7.02
11.83
14.79
Cost/lb of Calf Gain $
0.40
0.56
0.39
0.30
0.26
Fall Lactation Period
Native Rangeland
Native Rangeland
Cropland
Aftermath
Native Rangeland
Altai
Wildrye
Accumulated Calf Wt. lbs
54.00
17.73
12.57
23.10
52.77
Weight Value @ $0.70/lb $
37.80
12.41
8.80
16.17
36.94
Pasture and Forage Costs $
51.20
35.39
13.26
19.53
12.00
Net Return/c-c pr $
-13.40
-22.98
-4.46
-3.36
24.76
Net Return/acre $
-2.91
-5.69
-0.67
-1.51
17.81
Cost/lb of Calf Gain $
0.95
1.99
1.05
0.85
0.23

* Based on estimated calf weight

Table 16. Range cow and calf performance and costs and returns during the lactation production period for grazing management strategies.

12-M
Repeated
Seasonal*

6.0-M
Seasonlong
4.5-M
Seasonlong
4.0-M
Deferred
4.5-M
Twice-over
Rotation
Length of Season days
198
183
198
198
198
Acres/Month ac
3.19
4.04
3.27
2.01
1.72
Acres/Season ac
20.69
24.24
21.21
13.04
11.14
Cow Gain/Day lbs
0.12
0.30
0.55
0.93
Cow Gain/Acre lbs
0.91
2.78
8.30
16.56
Cow Gain/Season lbs
21.96
58.86
108.20
184.52
Calf Gain/Day lbs
1.80
1.80
1.81
1.80
2.14
Calf Gain/Acre lbs
17.23
13.59
16.88
27.27
37.98
Calf Gain/Season lbs
356.40
329.40
358.11
355.64
423.12
Weight Value @ $0.70/lb $
249.48
230.58
250.68
248.95
296.18
Pasture and Forage Costs $
191.69
212.34
140.98
114.23
106.79
Net Return/c-c pr $
57.79
18.24
109.70
134.72
189.39
Net Return/Acre $
2.79
0.75
5.17
10.33
17.00
Cost/lb of Calf Gain $
0.54
0.64
0.39
0.32
0.25

* Based on estimated calf weight

Table 17. Projection of net returns from 100-cow and 300-cow herds on grazing management strategies during the 6.5-month grazing season.
100 Cows 300 Cows
Grazing
Management
Strategies
Land
Area
Acres
Total
Feed
Cost
$
Calf
Weight
Value
@$0.70/lb
$
Net
Return
$
Land
Area
Acres
Total
Feed
Cost
$
Calf
Weight
Value
@$0.70/lb
$
Net
Return
$
12-M Repeated Seasonal 2069 19,169 24,948 5779 6207 57,507 74,844 17,337
6.0-M Seasonlong 2424 21,234 23,058 1824 7272 63,702 69,174 5472
4.5-M Seasonlong 2121 14,098 25,068 10,970 6363 42,294 75,204 32,910
4.0-M Deferred 1304 11,423 24,895 13,472 3912 34,269 74,685 40,416
4.5-M Twice-over Rotation 1114 10,679 29,618 18,939 3342 32,037 88,854 56,817