North Dakota State University * Dickinson Research Extension Center
1089 State Avenue, Dickinson, ND 58601-4642 Voice: (701) 483-2348 FAX: (701) 483-2005


Small Grain Crops in Southwestern North Dakota

Patrick M. Carr, Associate Agronomist, Dickinson Research Extension Center
Glenn B. Martin, Research Specialist, Dickinson Research Extension Center
Burt A. Melchior, Research Technician, Dickinson Research Extension Center
Elias Elias, Associate Professor, Department of Plant Sciences
Jerome D. Franckowiak, Professor, Department of Plant Sciences
Richard Frohberg, Professor, Department of Plant Sciences
Richard D. Horsley, Associate Professor, Department of Plant Sciences
Michael McMullen, Associate Professor, Department of Plant Sciences

Abstract

New crop cultivars and advanced experimentals from public and private agencies must be developed for the continued viability of crop and crop-livestock systems. The objective of this research is to identify the genotypes of hard red winter wheat (HRWW), hard red spring wheat (HRSW), durum spring wheat (durum), spring barley (barley), and spring oats (oats) that are best adapted to growing conditions in southwestern North Dakota. To do this, 31 HRWW, 47 HRSW, 39 durum, 18 barley, and 35 oat cultivars were evaluated in separate adaptation experiments at Dickinson in 1997. Selected cultivars of each crop also were evaluated at Hannover, as were HRSW cultivars at Beulah. Arapahoe, CDC Kestrel, Seward, and Roughrider were among the highest yielding cultivars in the HRWW experiment at Dickinson. Differences in yield were not detected at the P < 0.05 level of significance among cultivars in the HRSW experiment. Mean yield was 44.5 bushels (bu)/acre for the HRSW cultivars evaluated, and gross economic returns averaged $147.14/acre. Mean yield was 32.7 bu/acre for cultivars in the durum experiment at Dickinson. Yield differences between durum cultivars were not detected; gross economic returns averaged $180.17/acre. Baronesse and Stander were among the highest yielding barley cultivars in the experiment at Dickinson. Gross economic returns were greater for these two cultivars than any other commercial barley cultivar, if barley grain was sold for feed. Bay, Brawn, Derby, Dumont, Monida, Otana, and Troy were among the highest yielding cultivars evaluated in the oats experiment at Dickinson in 1997. Brawn, Derby, Dumont, Hytest, Jerry, Monida, Otana, Troy, and Valley cultivars produced grain generating comparable or greater gross economic returns than other cultivars evaluated. These data show which small grain cultivars were best adapted to environmental conditions encountered at Dickinson in 1997.

Introduction

Crop production is a significant income generator for southwestern farmers and ranchers. Cash receipts from crops accounted for 52% of total farm income in the South Central, Southwestern, and West Central Crop Reporting Districts in 1994 (Anonymous, 1996). When government payments were considered, more than 57% of farm income came directly from cash receipts for crops. This excludes the value of forages grown and fed directly to livestock on farms.

Wheat, barley, and oats are the major small grain crops grown in western North Dakota. The annual value of these cereal grains grown between 1990-94 was more than $280,000,000 in the three southwestern crop reporting districts (Anonymous, 1996). Development of improved small grain cultivars is necessary to ensure that the farm income generated by grain crops, either directly by cash payment or indirectly through livestock, can be maintained or enhanced.

Cultivar comparison trials have been the foundation of yield, quality, and agronomic evaluation of crop cultivars in North Dakota. Early reports from the Agricultural Experiment Station contained data obtained from comparison trials (Hays, 1893a, 1893b). These trials still are important to obtain information for cultivar release and recommendations (Cox et al., 1988; Frohberg, 1991). Each year HRWW, HRSW, durum, barley, and oat cultivars are evaluated in comparison studies at the Dickinson Research Extension Center (DREC). These comparisons include both named cultivars and experimental lines from NDSU, and other public and private breeding programs in the U.S. and Canada. Evaluations are used to make cultivar recommendations.

Grain produced in plots from the comparison trials is used in quality evaluations in the Department of Cereal Chemistry and Food Technology at NDSU, Fargo, ND. Quality evaluations of experimental lines are compared with cultivars currently grown by producers. The quality and agronomic performance of an experimental line at various locations is one of the major bases for the recommended release of that line as a named cultivar or its removal from consideration for further testing.

Experimental lines from other state experiment stations and private plant breeding companies also are evaluated for quality. Although data from this project are not instrumental in the eventual release or rejection of lines from these sources, the data do provide information on agronomic characteristics before release and does help in cultivar recommendations.

Soils at the DREC represent many southwestern North Dakota soils. However, not all prominent soil types occurring in the southwestern portion of the state occur at the DREC. Moreover, local climatic differences between different areas in the region exist. For these reasons, cultivar comparison studies are conducted at sites besides the DREC to provide an area test of crop cultivar performance at several locations in southwestern North Dakota.

Materials and Methods

Cultivars were evaluated in comparison trials at Beulah, Dickinson, and Hannover, ND. Grain for planting generally was provided by plant breeders at North Dakota State University in Fargo, or from drill strips at the DREC. Cultivars developed from neighboring land-grant institutions, Canada, and private plant breeding companies were included.

Cultural practices including tillage and seeding, fertilization, herbicide application, and harvesting followed currently acceptable agronomic procedure for conducting cultivar comparison trials. Cultivars and genotypes of each small grain crop (HRWW, HRSW, durum, barley, and oats) were evaluated in separate experiments. Plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design with blocks replicated four times. Demonstration strips also were maintained for grower observation, crop field tours, and for a sufficient amount of seed for quality evaluations. Crop trials were conducted on both previously fallowed and continuously-cropped land. Experiments were located on both conventionally-tilled and no-tilled seedbeds.

Plant growth was monitored throughout the growing season. Variables measured on each plot at Dickinson included: days to heading, plant height, plant lodging at physiological maturity, grain yield, kernel weight, and grain volume weight. Crude protein (CP) concentration was determined by NIR reflectometry for grain of commercially available cultivars of each crop, except oats.

Data collected at off-station sites included grain yield, grain volume weight, kernel weight, and grain CP concentration for wheat. Quality characteristics for product acceptance will be determined by the Department of Cereal Science and Food Technology at North Dakota State University from grain samples provided, but are not provided in this manuscript.

Data were analyzed using a computer statistical program.

Results and Discussion

HRWW

Plants of all cultivars survived the winter during 1996-97 (Table 1). We attribute this level of survivability to establishment of this experiment in a no-till seedbed. Snow covered seedlings in the no-till seedbed to a greater depth, and for a longer period, than it covered seedlings planted in a conventionally tilled seedbed in the same field (data not provided). The snow insulated seedlings in the no-tillage seedbed from the cold ambient air temperatures recorded during the winter (Eriksmoen et al., 1997).

Arapahoe, CDC Kestrel, Seward, and Roughrider were among the highest yielding HRWW cultivars in 1997 (Table 1). These same cultivars, along with Elkhorn and Nekota, generated comparable or greater gross economic returns than the other commercially available cultivars evaluated in 1997: Agassiz, Alliance, and Pronghorn. Average economic returns generated by the HRWW cultivars compared favorably to those generated by the HRSW cultivars evaluated at Dickinson in 1997 (Table 2), suggesting that HRWW production may be an alternative to HRSW production in southwestern North Dakota.

HRSW

Average grain yield was 44.5 bu/acre for the 47 cultivars at Dickinson in 1997 (Table 2). Yield ranged from 26.9 bu/acre for the cultivar BacUp to 57.3 bu/acre for the cultivar ND 695, although differences were not detected at the P < 0.05 level. Uncontrolled variability, as indicated by the high coefficient of variation (C.V. %) associated with analyses of the data, explains why yield differences between cultivars were not detected. Complex soil patterns comprise most fields at Dickinson, confounding the ability of a randomized complete block design to reduce uncontrolled variability between plots. Plots will be arranged in a lattice rather than a randomized complete block in an attempt to improve our ability to detect yield differences between HRSW cultivars, beginning in 1998.

The cultivars 2375, 2398, AC Barrie, Amidon, Ernest, Keene, Russ, and Verde were among the highest yielding cultivars at Hannover (Table 3) in 1997. Of these, 2398, Amidon, and Keene, along with McNeal, have produced comparable or greater amounts of grain than other cultivars evaluated at Dickinson over the past three years (Table 2). Both 2398 and McNeal are short cultivars, while Amidon and Keene are tall.

The CP concentration of grain averaged 16.1% at Dickinson in 1997 (Table 2). The grain CP concentration was more than 15% for each cultivar at this location, except Keene. In contrast, the CP concentration of grain averaged only 13.7% at Hannover (Table 4). Environmental differences between the two locations may account for the differences in the CP concentration of grain.

The HRSW experiment was damaged at Beulah by hail. Average yield was only 17.5 bu/acre for the twelve cultivars at this location (Table 3). The CP concentration of grain averaged 15.9%.

Gross economic returns averaged $147.14/acre for the 47 cultivars evaluated at Dickinson (Table 2). Differences between cultivars for economic returns were not detected. At Hannover, the cultivars 2375, 2398, Amidon, Ernest, Keene, Russ, and Verde generated comparable or greater returns than 2370, Butte 86, Grandin, and Oxen (Table 4).

Durum

Grain yield averaged 32.7 bu/acre for the 39 durum cultivars evaluated at Dickinson in 1997 (Table 5). Differences in yield were not detected between cultivars, which ranged from 21.6 bu/acre for the cultivar D931011 to 43.6 bu/acre for the cultivar D91080. No cultivar was superior to others for grain yield at Hannover (Table 6); yield averaged 38.9 bu/acre.

Grain CP concentration averaged 17.5% for commercial durum cultivars at Dickinson in 1997 (Table 5). The cultivar Vic was comparable or superior to other cultivars for grain CP concentration. Grain CP concentration averaged only 14% for six cultivars evaluated at Hannover. AC Melita produced grain with a CP concentration that was comparable or superior to grain CP concentration of other cultivars.

Gross economic returns averaged $180.79/acre for the durum cultivars at Dickinson (Table 5). Differences between cultivars for economic returns were not detected. Returns averaged $230.75/acre for the six durum cultivars evaluated at Hannover (Table 6).

Barley

Average grain yield was 76.9 bu/acre for the 18 barley cultivars at Dickinson in 1997 (Table 7). The 6-rowed barley cultivar Stander produced more grain than all other cultivars, except Baronesse and Logan. Logan was superior to five other barley cultivars for grain yield at Hannover (Table 8). Over the past three years, Logan and Stander have been comparable or superior to other barley cultivars for grain yield at Dickinson (Table 7).

Less grain was produced by the cultivar Bowman than any other barley cultivar at Dickinson in 1997 (Table 7), and at Hannover (Table 8). Kernel test weight was less for Bowman than for Conlon, Stark, and other commonly grown, two-rowed cultivars. These data, and results of other experiments (Eriksmoen et al., 1995; 1996), show that Bowman is inferior to other two-rowed barley cultivars (e.g., Conlon, Logan, Stark) for grain yield and kernel quality. Franckowiak (1997, per. comm.) suggested that Bowman is susceptible to new races of net and spot blotch and, therefore, is unable to produce as much grain as can Conlon, Logan, and Stark cultivars. We suggest that Bowman should be replaced by Conlon, Logan, and other cultivars in cropping systems in southwestern North Dakota.

Oats

The cultivar Brawn was among the highest yielding, commercially available oat cultivars at Dickinson in 1997 (Table 9). Other cultivars producing comparable yields to Brawn included Bay, Derby, Dumont, Monida, Otana, and Troy. Whitestone and CDC Boyer produced comparable or greater amounts of grain than four other oat cultivars at Hannover (Table 10). Among hulless oat cultivars, Paul was superior to AC Belmont for grain yield at Dickinson (Table 9), but not at Hannover (Table 10). Kernel test weight was heavier for Paul oats than AC Belmont oats in both experiments.

The oat cultivars Brawn, Derby, Dumont, Otana, and Troy generated gross returns that were comparable or higher than those generated by other cultivars at Dickinson in 1997, if oats were sold to local elevators for livestock feed (Table 9). Highest economic returns were generated by the cultivars CDC Boyer, Jerry, and Whitestone at Hannover (Table 10).

Conclusion/Implications of Research

HRWW

Elkhorn, Arapahoe, CDC Kestrel, Roughrider, and Seward generated comparable or higher gross economic returns than other cultivars at Dickinson in 1997. These five cultivars have good winter survival characteristics, except Arapahoe. Roughrider is superior to the other cultivars for milling and baking uses (Eriksmoen et al., 1997), and this cultivar is an excellent choice for HRWW producers in southwestern North Dakota.

HRSW

Grain production has averaged 44.5 bu/acre for cultivars evaluated at Dickinson in each of the last two years. The cultivars 2398 and McNeal have been among the highest yielding commercial cultivars grown at Dickinson over the past several years (Eriksmoen et al., 1995, 1996, 1997). Disease and grain quality problems associated with these two cultivars suggest that other high yielding, disease resistant cultivars are needed. Experimental cultivars are being developed which have shown high yield potential in southwestern North Dakota, as data in Table 2 show. Commercially available cultivars that are well adapted to growing conditions include Amidon and Keene. Of these, Amidon produces grain with superior milling and baking characteristics. Amidon also shows some tolerance to dryland root rot. For these reasons, we suggest that the cultivar Amidon is among those best adapted to growing conditions in southwestern North Dakota.

Durum

No single durum cultivar has been superior to others for grain yield or returns in the last three years at Dickinson. AC Melita, Ben, Belzer, and Munich are cultivars that have compared favorably to other cultivars for grain yield at Dickinson; all have been released for commercial production in the last five years. Lloyd, Renville, Sceptre, and Ward are older cultivars that still are competitive for grain yield and economic returns. We suggest that any of these cultivars are adapted to growing conditions in southwestern North Dakota.

Barley

Stark was the most widely grown barley cultivar in the Southwest Crop Reporting District in 1996, followed by Bowman (Anonymous, 1997). The cultivar Logan has been superior to both Bowman and Stark for grain yield at Dickinson in 1995, 1996, and 1997. Conlon is another two-rowed cultivar that has compared favorably to Bowman and Stark. We suggest that Conlon and Logan may be superior to Stark for grain yield and economic returns. Bowman is inferior to these cultivars for grain yield and sometimes grain quality.

Stander, Excel, and Foster are six-rowed barley cultivars adapted to growing conditions in southwestern North Dakota. We recommend these three cultivars in environments favorable for the production of malt quality barley.

Oats

Hulless oat cultivars have generated excitement among oat growers in southwestern North Dakota because of their excellent feed grain quality, and because of potential industrial applications (D. Barondeau, 1998, per. comm.). The hulless oat cultivar Paul has been superior to other hulless cultivars for grain yield and test weight at Dickinson. Among hulled oat cultivars, no single cultivar has been superior to others for grain yield over the past three years. The cultivar Otana was developed in 1977 and continues to produce large amounts of grain compared with newer cultivars. Brawn, Calibre, Derby, Monida, Troy, and Whitestone are other cultivars that have produced large amounts of grain during 1995, 1996, and 1997.

Literature Cited

Anonymous, 1996. North Dakota agricultural statistics. Bull. No. 66. North Dakota State Univ. Agric. Exp. Stat. And U.S. Dept. Agric. Agric. Stat. Fed. Bldg., Fargo.

Anonymous. 1997. North Dakota agricultural statistics. Bull. No. 67. North Dakota   State Univ. Agric. Exp. Stat. And U.S. Dept. Agric. Agric. Stat. Fed. Bldg., Fargo.

Cox, D.J., B.L. D’Appolonia, and J.D. Miller. 1988. Registration of ‘Seward’ wheat.  Crop Sci. 28:378-389.

Eriksmoen, E., P. Carr, G. Martin, R. Olson and L. Tisor. 1995. Twelfth annual west Dakota crops day research report. Hettinger, Research Extension Center,  Hettinger. ND.

Eriksmoen, E., P. Carr, G. Martin, R. Olson and L. Tisor. 1996. Thirteenth annual west dakota crops day research report. Hettinger, Research Extension Center, Hettinger. ND.

Eriksmoen, E., P. Carr, G. Martin, R. Olson, and L. Tisor. 1997. Fourteenth annual west dakota crops day research report. Hettinger, Research Extension Center, Hettinger. ND.

Frohberg, R.C. 1991. Economic impact of plant breeding programs. p. 3-4. In G.   Moran (ed.) North Dakota Farm Res. Bimonthly Bull. Vol. 48(4). Fargo, ND.

Hays, W.M. 1893a. p. 72. In Grain and forage crops. North Dak. Agric. Expt. Stat. Bull. No. 10.

Hays, W.M. 1893b. p. 32. In Grain and forage crops. North Dak. Agric. Expt. Stat. Bull. No. 11.

 

Table 1. Days to heading (DTH) from planting, winter survival, plant height, lodging score (LDG), grain yield, kernel test weight, crude protein (CP) concentration, and gross economic returns of hard red winter wheat cultivars in an experiment in 1997 located at Dickinson, ND.

Cultivar

DTH

Winter
survival
 

Plant
heigh

LDG

Test
weigh
t

CP

Grain yield

Returns

2-year
average

1996

1997

days

%

in

0-9

lb/bu

%

bu/acre

$/ac

bu/ac

Agassiz

43

100

31

4.8

62.6

15.0

64.1

61.9

198.91

63.0

Alliance1

38

98

21

6.3

60.9

12.7

70.2

59.9

188.79

65.0

Arapahoe

39

100

24

2.3

61.1

15.3

74.5

71.7

230.17

73.1

CDC Kestrel

43

100

26

2.0

62.1

13.5

77.8

74.1

237.43

76.0

Elkhorn

43

100

26

2.3

61.8

15.3

64.4

66.3

212.40

65.4

ND 8889

43

99

27

3.5

61.5

--

74.4

72.9

--

73.6

ND 8955

42

100

24

4.0

60.4

--

77.3

63.3

--

70.3

ND 8955-A

43

100

24

4.5

60.9

--

--

66.1

--

--

ND 9257

42

99

24

3.0

60.9

--

76.1

66.6

--

71.4

ND 9272

40

100

23

2.3

61.1

--

78.2

72.1

--

75.2

ND 9274

42

100

22

3.0

60.6

--

76.7

69.2

--

73.0

ND 9304

39

98

25

4.0

62.0

--

--

71.5

--

--

ND 9321

41

100

27

2.5

62.0

--

--

64.2

--

--

ND 9324

39

100

26

1.8

61.8

--

--

60.9

--

--

ND 9329

40

100

28

3.0

61.4

--

--

64.1

--

--

ND 9376

43

100

28

1.8

61.3

--

--

67.8

--

--

ND 9382

43

100

26

3.8

61.8

--

--

71.4

--

--

ND 9419

42

100

24

3.3

61.4

--

--

69.6

--

--

ND 9448

39

100

26

3.0

62.0

--

--

66.2

--

--

ND 9454

42

100

23

1.5

60.3

--

--

62.7

--

--

ND 9460

41

99

24

4.3

60.5

--

--

65.2

--

--

ND 9480

43

100

28

3.8

62.5

--

--

72.4

--

--

NE 90625

39

100

24

2.5

60.9

--

79.2

68.3

--

73.7

Nekota

38

99

23

3.3

62.3

13.8

69.3

64.3

205.54

66.8

Pronghorn1

38

99

23

6.8

61.8

14.1

--

47.6

152.65

--

Roughrider

43

99

28

3.5

62.0

15.5

68.8

68.1

218.26

68.4

SD 891191

39

100

24

3.0

62.0

--

--

64.4

--

--

SD 89153

41

100

24

2.3

62.9

--

--

69.8

--

--

SD 92107

42

100

25

2.0

61.5

--

--

70.3

--

--

SD 92191

41

100

26

2.8

63.3

--

--

76.2

--

--

Seward

43

100

26

3.5

61.4

13.6

75.5

68.2

218.31

71.9

  
Mean

41

99.7

25

3.1

61.6

14.3

--

67

206.94

--

C.V. %

1.1

1.5

7.2

29.8

0.8

3.4

--

10.3

12.30

--

LSD .05

1

NS

3

1.3

0.7

0.7

--

9.7

37.15

--

1Plants in plots were damaged by gophers.

 

Table 2. Days to heading (DTH) from planting, kernel weight, plant height, lodging score (LDG), grain yield, kernel test weight, crude protein (CP) concentration, and gross economic returns of hard red spring wheat cultivars in an experiment in 1997 located at Dickinson, ND.
Cultivar

DTH

Kernels 

Plant
height

LDG

TW

CP

Grain yield

Returns 

Average yield

1995

1996

1997

2-Year

3-Year

days

lb

in

0-9

lb/bu

%

bu/acre

$/acre

bu/acre

Semidwarf
2370

55

14,452

21

0.0

53.5

16.5

46.8

44.5

36.8

122.07

40.6

42.7

2371

58

16,613

27

0.0

52.8

15.9

49.1

40.4

45.2

147.98

42.8

44.9

2375

55

14,211

20

0.5

55.0

16.9

49.1

45.5

31.1

108.25

38.3

41.9

2398

55

13,866

22

0.0

54.4

15.4

60.7

53.5

48.0

158.82

50.7

54.1

Grandin

55

13,446

24

0.8

55.6

16.3

54

41.2

42.1

146.04

41.6

45.8

Gus

57

16,905

24

0.0

54.0

16.4

52.8

42.5

45.4

155.28

44.0

46.9

Hamer

55

15,196

21

0.0

52.3

16.4

53.8

42.8

41.1

135.32

41.9

45.9

Lars

56

15,553

20

0.0

51.8

15.5

62.1

41.1

42.9

137.67

42.0

48.7

Len

58

13,864

24

0.0

52.9

15.5

--

--

47.7

151.39

--

--

McNeal

56

12,857

25

0.0

53.9

15.4

61.5

48.6

51.3

170.02

50.0

53.8

N 92-0434

56

12,792

22

0.0

54.6

--

--

--

49.3

--

--

--

ND 690

54

13,968

23

0.8

53.6

--

50.5

42.2

36.2

--

39.2

43.0

ND 695

55

14,471

24

0.0

55.1

--

--

52.1

57.3

--

54.7

--

ND 701

55

14,980

26

0.0

54.3

--

--

--

48.6

--

--

--

ND 704

54

14,525

24

0.5

55.3

--

--

--

51.8

--

--

--

Nora

53

13,739

19

1.0

54.9

16.7

--

45.9

38.0

129.14

42.0

--

Norlander

52

15,697

19

0.0

54.0

17.5

53.7

45.3

30.0

102.24

37.6

43.0

Oxen

51

14,320

23

0.0

55.4

15.6

54.5

44.7

48.2

164.71

46.4

49.1

SBE 0050

55

15,602

20

0.0

53.3

--

--

--

43.0

--

--

--

SD 3156

51

15,643

22

0.5

53.1

--

--

45.7

40.4

--

43.0

--

Verde

57

13,706

22

0.0

55.1

15.7

56.4

47.4

45.2

151.42

46.3

49.7

Tall
AC Barrie

56

14,842

26

0.3

54.3

16.2

50.7

43.2

49.6

167.93

46.4

47.8

AC Cadillac

57

14,227

27

0.8

54.4

15.4

--

42.9

48.2

156.93

45.6

--

AC Cora

56

15,178

26

1.0

57.0

17.0

45.3

45

47.0

167.59

46.0

45.8

AC Eatonia

56

15,652

28

3.0

55.3

16.0

36

38.4

49.6

172.30

44.0

41.3

AC Elsa

55

18,272

23

0.8

51.1

16.5

--

43.6

40.5

127.49

42.0

--

AC Vista

54

12,420

22

0.8

54.1

15.4

--

--

39.7

131.65

--

--

Amidon

57

15,984

27

0.5

51.6

15.1

59.6

45.3

53.7

166.63

49.5

52.9

BacUP

52

15,434

20

0.3

55.8

19.4

--

33.2

26.9

95.95

30.0

--

Butte 86

53

14,080

26

0.5

54.6

15.4

52.7

48.6

47.4

159.47

48.0

49.6

Ernest

56

16,202

24

0.5

52.3

15.8

55.2

48.5

44.1

142.53

46.3

49.3

Gunner

58

16,089

26

0.0

57.0

16.3

--

43.7

52.3

185.12

48.0

--

Keene

57

16,477

28

0.0

55.6

14.4

58.8

45.8

54.6

178.11

50.2

53.1

Kulm

50

15,133

23

0.5

57.8

17.9

51.8

39.6

34.3

122.81

36.9

41.9

Majestic

58

17,490

25

0.0

53.0

16.7

--

36.7

37.7

126.37

37.2

--

ND 691

59

16,304

26

0.3

53.5

--

--

45.8

53.6

--

49.7

--

ND 694

56

15,092

27

0.8

52.4

--

--

44.2

47.4

--

45.8

--

ND 700

57

17,719

24

0.0

53.3

--

--

51.6

39.6

--

45.6

--

ND 702

55

14,833

22

0.0

54.9

--

--

--

37.2

--

--

--

ND 703

54

16,783

26

0.3

55.0

--

--

--

50.1

--

--

--

Russ

54

14,556

22

0.0

54.8

15.8

49.7

38.4

42.9

145.77

40.6

43.7

SD 3249

51

15,438

22

0.3

57.1

--

--

--

45.4

--

--

--

Sharp

52

14,584

23

1.3

55.5

16.4

48.2

44.6

37.6

127.19

41.1

43.5

Sharpshooter

53

14,263

22

1.0

56.5

15.7

--

--

48.6

165.48

--

--

SL 93609

57

12,455

24

0.0

56.1

15.1

--

--

53.6

186.40

--

--

Splendor

54

14,191

25

0.3

55.4

15.9

--

41.4

46.7

155.33

44.0

--

Trenton

56

14,795

25

0.3

54.6

16.1

53.6

47.1

41.6

141.49

44.4

47.4

  
Mean

55

14,998

24

0.4

54.4

16.1

--

--

44.5

147.14

--

--

C.V. %

1.5

6.8

15.1

144.5

2.9

7.4

--

--

29.6

29.1

--

--

LSD .05

1

1,429

NS

NS

2.2

1.7

--

--

NS

NS

--

--

 

Table 3. Grain yield, kernel test weight, kernel weight, crude protein (CP) concentration, and gross economic returns of hard red spring wheat cultivars in an experiment in 1997 located at Beulah, ND.
Cultivar

Seeds

Test
weight

CP

Grain yield

% of
Grandin

Returns

2-year
average

1995

1997

lb

lb/bu

%

bu/acre

%

$/acre

bu/acre

2370

18,935

56.8

16.4

--

12.5

108

68.61

--

2375

17,629

58.9

15.4

44.6

24.4

213

110.40

34.5

2398

18,057

57.5

16.2

--

25.8

224

109.76

--

AC Barrie

21,028

56.3

17.0

--

15.4

134

69.42

--

Amidon

19,749

57.9

15.0

40.3

19.4

169

96.19

29.9

Butte 86

17,384

57.5

16.1

46.8

9.4

82

61.12

28.1

Ernest

19,032

57.9

15.9

41.2

18.0

156

85.06

29.6

Grandin

20,079

54.5

16.2

37.3

11.5

100

74.94

24.4

Keene

18,743

58.9

15.2

--

18.3

159

93.90

--

Oxen

21,090

56.5

16.3

--

16.9

147

82.31

--

Russ

19,233

57.3

15.9

--

16.3

142

89.00

--

Verde

19,834

56.5

15.6

--

22.6

196

100.18

--

 
Mean

19,233

57.2

15.9

--

17.5

--

86.74

--

C.V. %

1.5

1.5

--

--

15.8

--

--

--

LSD .05

3,746

1.3

--

--

NS

--

--

--

 

Table 4. Plant height, grain yield, kernel test weight, kernel weight, crude protein (CP) concentration, and gross economic returns of hard red spring wheat cultivars in an experiment in 1997 located at Hannover, ND.
Cultivar 

Seeds

Ht

Test
weight

CP

Grain yield

% of
Grandin

Returns

2-year
average

1995

1997

lb

in

lb/bu

%

bu/acre

%

$/acre

bu/acre

2370

17,702

27

56.5

14.6

--

34.0

98

119.04

--

2375

15,800

28

57.9

13.6

36.0

40.0

116

137.22

38.0

2398

14,950

27

57.9

13.0

--

40.2

116

136.67

--

AC Barrie

16,895

32

57.0

14.2

--

36.6

106

126.55

--

Amidon

16,297

35

58.1

13.3

27.9

43.0

125

147.10

35.5

Butte 86

15,502

28

57.6

14.0

38.7

33.2

96

114.23

36.0

Ernest

15,795

34

58.1

14.0

31.3

42.7

124

148.11

37.0

Grandin

15,775

29

57.5

14.0

23.4

34.5

100

118.97

29.0

Keene

17,104

33

59.5

13.3

--

41.2

119

140.10

--

Oxen

18,540

26

56.0

14.1

--

34.7

101

118.16

--

Russ

16,451

31

57.0

13.5

--

40.3

117

137.45

--

Verde

17,073

28

56.6

13.4

--

41.5

120

139.48

--

   
Mean

16,490

30

57.5

13.7

--

38.5

--

131.92

--

C.V. %

4.2

4.0

0.7

3.0

--

8.1

--

7.8

--

LSD .05

994

2

0.6

0.6

--

4.5

--

14.82

--

 

Table 5. Days to heading (DTH) from planting, plant height, lodging score (LDG), grain yield, kernel test weight, kernel weight, crude protein (CP) concentration, and gross economic returns of durum wheat cultivars in an experiment in 1997 located at Dickinson, ND.
Cultivar

DTH

Kernels

Plant
height

LDG

Test
weight

CP

Grain yield

Returns

Average yield

1995

1996

1997

2-year

3-year

days

lbs

in

0-9

lb/bu

%

bu/acre

$/acre

bu/acre

AC Melita

55

13,199

22

0.0

52.3

17.8

49.1

56.4

32.6

175.47

44.5

46.0

Belzer

55

12,710

21

1.3

51.1

16.9

49.3

61.6

33.9

177.68

47.7

48.3

Ben

55

12,432

24

0.3

54.0

17.3

60.1

59.3

30.0

166.75

44.6

49.8

D88303

54

13,457

19

0.0

52.0

--

59.9

59.9

28.0

--

44.0

49.3

D89135

56

13,727

19

0.0

51.6

--

56.6

55.6

29.6

--

42.6

47.3

D901155

53

13,440

22

0.0

53.8

--

--

55.4

26.6

--

41.0

--

D901247

55

12,416

23

0.0

54.0

--

--

--

31.3

--

--

--

D901297

56

13,678

24

0.0

51.3

--

--

--

28.1

--

--

--

D901313

47

12,410

21

0.0

55.0

--

59.6

61.3

38.9

--

50.1

53.3

D901419

54

13,660

19

0.0

54.3

--

54.5

61.8

35.1

--

48.4

50.5

D901442

55

12,346

21

0.0

54.6

--

58.5

60.8

29.9

--

45.3

49.7

D901518

56

12,497

20

0.0

54.6

--

59.8

66.9

34.9

--

50.9

53.9

D901536

54

13,020

21

0.0

53.3

--

58.0

59.0

31.5

--

45.3

49.5

D91-1526

55

13,539

20

0.0

50.9

--

--

--

25.5

--

--

--

D91058

55

12,865

21

0.0

53.1

--

--

59.8

32.8

--

46.3

--

D91066

56

12,616

22

0.0

54.6

--

--

57.7

37.1

--

47.4

--

D91080

57

12,052

22

0.0

55.8

--

--

59.8

43.6

--

51.7

--

D920016

56

13,156

18

0.0

54.9

--

--

--

33.2

--

--

--

D920078

56

12,122

20

0.0

54.6

--

--

--

38.3

--

--

--

D921019

56

12,234

24

0.0

53.8

--

--

--

32.2

--

--

--

D921585

56

12,371

23

0.3

54.5

--

--

--

34.8

--

--

--

D930503

55

11,626

24

0.0

54.1

--

--

--

33.4

--

--

--

D931011

56

12,634

21

0.0

51.9

--

--

--

21.6

--

--

--

D931054

51

12,977

23

0.3

53.0

--

--

--

30.2

--

--

--

D931114

55

12,415

21

1.0

53.9

--

--

--

38.1

--

--

--

Dressler

54

11,998

24

0.0

54.9

17.2

--

58.3

37.8

213.81

48.0

--

Laker

56

12,089

22

1.8

53.3

16.8

50.0

57.0

29.4

160.06

43.2

45.5

Lloyd

56

11,942

20

0.0

53.8

16.0

46.9

63.8

33.6

183.10

48.7

48.1

Medora

54

12,995

21

0.8

55.3

16.7

45.0

52.5

37.6

213.49

45.1

45.1

Monroe

51

12,456

23

0.8

53.1

17.7

48.7

52.3

26.3

143.73

39.3

42.4

Munich

54

13,527

20

0.0

51.5

18.2

56.9

56.1

34.7

184.51

45.4

49.2

Plenty

57

12,645

25

0.0

51.6

18.5

50.3

57.2

30.7

166.63

43.9

46.1

Regold

56

11,283

23

0.0

54.5

16.6

53.0

55.7

33.1

183.90

44.4

47.3

Renville

55

12,828

23

0.3

53.4

18.0

54.3

60.9

31.1

171.32

46.0

48.8

Rugby

55

12,536

24

0.0

54.0

18.3

56.0

51.6

34.8

194.62

43.2

47.5

Sceptre

55

13,194

21

0.0

53.5

18.1

52.9

58.1

33.7

186.45

45.9

48.2

Vic

55

13,249

22

0.5

51.8

18.6

56.2

55.7

27.7

151.68

41.7

46.5

Voss

55

11,575

20

0.0

54.4

16.1

59.6

54.2

37.7

207.06

46.0

50.5

Ward

55

12,383

24

0.3

53.6

17.8

53.9

57.1

35.1

193.15

46.1

48.7

   
Mean

55

12,674

22

0.2

53.5

17.5

--

--

32.7

180.79

--

--

C.V. %

4.6

6.3

7.9

166.4

2.8

3.5

--

--

18.7

17.0

--

--

LSD .05

3.6

1,122

2

NS

2.1

0.9

--

--

NS

NS

--

--

 

Table 6. Plant height (Ht), grain yield, kernel test weight, kernel weight, crude protein (CP) concentration, and gross economic returns of durum wheat cultivars in an experiment in 1997 located at Hannover, ND.
Cultivar

Seeds

Ht

Test
weight

CP

Grain yield

% of
Renville

Returns

Average
2-year

1995

1997

lb

in

lb/bu

%

bu/acre

%

$/acre

bu/acre

AC Melita

14,433

33

58.4

14.6

--

38.9

102

235.60

--

Belzer

13,522

34

57.1

13.3

--

37.7

99

219.27

--

Ben

11,987

35

60.4

14.2

--

42.7

112

257.17

--

D 88303

13,326

27

58.3

13.6

--

36.6

96

216.49

--

Munich

15,230

30

56.3

14.4

37.4

39.4

103

229.01

38.4

Renville

14,320

34

58.3

13.7

34.5

38.1

100

226.98

36.3

  
Mean

13,803

32

58.1

14.0

--

38.9

--

230.75

--

C.V. %

5.6

5.0

0.7

2.4

--

12.0

--

11.9

--

LSD .05

1,165

2

0.6

0.5

--

7.0

--

41.51

--

 

Table 7. Days to heading (DTH) from planting, plant height (HT), lodging score (LDG), grain yield, kernel test weight (TW), kernel weight, crude protein (CP) concentration, percentage of plump kernels, and gross economic returns of barley cultivars in an experiment in 1997 located at Dickinson, ND.
Cultivar

DTH

Kernels

HT

LDG

TW

CP

% Plump

Grain yield

Returns

Average yield

1995

1996

1997

2-year

3-year

days

lb

in

0-9

lb/bu

%

>6/64

bu/acre

$/ac

-----bu/ac----

Six Row
6 B 88-3213

50

12,522

24

1.5

46.6

13.0

87.0

--

62.2

78.8

141.78

70.5

--

Azure

50

13,241

25

4.0

43.8

13.4

79.1

57.8

60.7

72.5

125.36

66.6

63.7

Excel

53

11,992

26

1.8

45.3

13.6

84.7

65.2

67.2

79.8

142.49

73.5

70.7

Foster

54

12,208

26

2.3

44.1

13.3

88.2

56.3

64.1

81.3

141.69

72.7

67.2

MNS 85

56

12,313

28

4.3

46.3

14.8

86.8

--

--

74.0

133.14

--

--

Morex

50

13,602

28

4.3

44.3

13.9

82.9

45.8

54.2

63.3

110.75

58.8

54.4

ND 15403

52

12,236

27

3.5

44.8

13.5

84.5

--

--

76.5

135.18

--

--

ND 15477

50

12,744

25

1.8

44.8

13.5

85.9

--

--

77.4

136.32

--

--

ND 15483

51

13,254

25

3.0

45.1

13.6

80.7

--

--

73.4

130.96

--

--

Robust

55

11,156

28

1.5

47.5

14.1

90.6

56.7

56.8

78.6

141.52

67.7

64.0

Stander

55

12,050

27

0.5

46.9

13.6

91.0

67.1

62.2

94.1

169.42

78.2

74.5

Two Row
Baronesse

58

12,081

22

1.8

44.9

13.3

79.5

--

--

88.0

155.51

--

--

Bowman

50

13,090

25

8.0

44.1

14.0

72.2

56.7

56.3

54.1

94.18

55.2

55.7

Chinook

58

11,466

28

3.0

47.5

13.6

76.2

62.9

57.7

82.4

148.39

70.1

67.7

Conlon

51

10,725

25

4.0

47.5

12.7

90.2

68.9

62.7

73.9

132.98

68.3

68.5

Harrington

58

14,150

27

5.5

42.9

13.9

58.2

50.4

56.9

71.1

120.32

64.0

59.5

Logan

54

10,497

27

2.5

47.3

13.2

85.5

73.0

74.9

90.2

162.33

82.5

79.4

Stark

56

11,406

28

3.3

47.0

13.7

79.6

58.9

56.2

74.4

134.00

65.3

63.2

    
Mean

53

12,263

26

3.1

45.6

13.6

82.4

--

--

76.9

136.46

--

--

C.V. %

1.6

5.2

3.6

30.8

1.4

2.7

5.4

--

--

6.6

6.9

--

--

LSD .05

1

909

1

NS

0.9

0.5

6.3

--

--

7.2

13.43

--

--

 

Table 8. Plant height, lodging score, grain yield, kernel test weight (TW), kernel weight, and gross economic returns of barley cultivars in an experiment in 1997 located at Hannover, ND.
Cultivar

Kernels

Plant
height

Lodging
score

Test
weight

Grain yield

% of
Stark

Returns

2-year
average

1995

1997

lb

in

0-9

lb/bu

bu/acre

%

$/acre

bu/acre

Six Row
Foster

12,236

27

0.5

42.2

38.4

63.7

121

106.23

51.0

Stander

12,459

29

0.0

44.1

--

65.3

124

113.88

--

Two Row
Bowman

11,466

27

1.3

44.3

30.2

44.7

85

78.23

37.5

Conlon

10,265

25

0.3

45.6

--

55.0

104

98.26

--

Logan

10,238

28

0.0

46.5

46.1

72.2

137

129.35

59.1

Stark

10,104

30

0.0

47.0

35.8

52.8

100

95.00

44.3

    
Mean

11,128

28

0.3

45.0

--

59.0

--

103.49

--

C.V. %

4.6

4.6

137.8

1.8

--

6.5

--

6.8

--

LSD .05

767

2

NS

1.3

--

5.7

--

10.58

--

 

Table 9. Days to heading (DTH) from planting, plant height, grain yield, kernel test weight (TW), kernel weight, and gross economic returns of barley cultivars in an experiment in 1997 located at Dickinson, ND.
Cultivar

DTH

Kernels

Plant
height

Test
weight

Grain yield

Returns

Average yield

1995

1996

1997

2-year

3-year

days

lb

in

lb/bu

bu/acre

$/acre

bu/acre

AC Assinaboia

55

11,989

30

34.8

--

--

97.4

110.48

--

--

AC Belmont

57

19,496

30

34.2

91.3

74.0

60.2

67.29

67.1

75.2

AC Medallion

57

13,732

32

34.8

--

--

82.2

93.07

--

--

Bay

56

15,221

24

32.0

110.3

75.9

108.5

110.85

92.2

98.2

Brawn

55

12,226

24

32.8

100.6

84.1

124.8

131.02

104.4

103.2

CDC Boyer

56

11,542

31

34.3

--

--

74.2

82.69

--

--

Calibre

57

14,116

32

34.0

98.1

96.7

98.5

107.29

97.6

97.8

Derby

57

12,161

29

38.7

99.4

101.2

119.9

149.93

110.6

106.8

Dumont

56

14,759

30

33.7

80.0

73.9

118.6

129.22

96.2

90.8

Hytest

51

12,473

30

38.7

73.0

79.8

94.9

118.57

87.3

82.6

Jerry

50

12,972

26

37.8

95.4

85.3

95.3

117.71

90.3

92.0

Jim

46

13,527

21

38.0

71.7

91.3

68.6

84.96

80.0

77.2

Milton

51

15,641

25

36.7

82.3

70.1

91.4

110.54

80.8

81.3

Monida

57

14,791

27

34.2

105.9

87.6

109.3

120.66

98.4

100.9

Jud

55

13,801

29

35.0

115.3

65.5

99.5

112.46

82.5

93.4

ND 900697

56

11,906

30

34.8

--

96.2

128.7

145.38

112.4

--

ND 900779

55

14,043

27

35.0

122.7

88.2

84.9

97.35

86.6

98.6

ND 910117

56

13,513

29

36.2

--

81.2

102.6

121.57

91.9

--

ND 910569

55

13,843

26

34.5

--

63.9

101.9

114.30

82.9

--

ND 910592

51

14,014

24

35.8

--

58.9

93.3

110.35

76.1

--

ND 910779

58

11,036

34

35.3

122.6

81.7

118.7

135.60

100.2

107.7

ND 910916

57

12,600

25

34.3

--

107.8

126.3

141.23

117.0

--

ND 911048

55

13,801

25

36.0

--

89.9

94.6

111.91

92.3

--

ND 930122

52

13,460

25

34.7

--

--

102.6

115.99

--

--

ND 930376

51

14,791

27

36.0

--

--

87.7

102.59

--

--

ND 931318

56

15,481

30

35.2

--

--

106.7

122.28

--

--

ND 931475

57

14,294

34

34.0

--

--

102.4

112.99

--

--

Newdak

50

13,732

25

33.5

93.0

81.8

91.9

98.65

86.9

88.9

Otana

56

14,905

30

35.7

95.0

84.7

114.5

133.96

99.6

98.1

Paul

57

18,144

33

41.0

92.0

64.7

82.3

102.85

73.5

79.7

Robert

56

11,711

28

34.7

95.3

86.0

94.9

107.23

90.4

92.1

SW 18352

61

12,293

30

35.2

--

--

109.4

125.22

--

--

Troy

55

15,916

29

36.2

100.2

90.0

108.0

129.37

99.0

99.4

Valley

54

14,680

24

35.8

91.3

70.2

101.2

118.72

85.7

87.6

Whitestone

55

15,623

25

34.8

107.1

96.2

98.4

113.49

97.3

100.6

     
Mean

55

13,747

28

35.4

--

--

99.8

114.51

--

--

C.V. %

1.0

6.3

5.6

2.6

--

--

13.8

15.0

--

--

LSD .05

1

1,563

3

1.5

--

--

22.4

27.93

--

--

 

Table 10. Plant height, Lodging score, grain yield, kernel test weight (TW), kernel weight, and gross economic returns of barley cultivars in an experiment in 1997 located at Hannover, ND.
Cultivar

Kernels

Height

Lodging
score

Test
weight

Grain yield

% of
Jerry

Returns

2-year
average

1995

1997

lb

in

0-9

lb/bu

bu/acre

%

$/ac

bu/acre

AC Belmont

18,217

33

1.5

37.3

--

55.6

79

67.96

--

CDC Boyer

11,805

34

2.0

32.9

--

75.0

107

79.55

--

Jerry

15,057

30

0.5

35.3

65.9

70.2

100

79.96

68.0

Jim

14,632

26

0.0

34.1

--

59.9

85

65.83

--

Paul

18,235

34

0.5

43.4

62.8

46.7

67

58.42

54.8

Whitestone

16,390

29

0.8

32.9

68.2

78.0

111

81.94

73.1

   
Mean

15,376

31

0.9

36.0

--

64.3

--

72.28

--

C.V. %

5.0

5.1

94.7

2.1

--

6.8

--

8.0

--

LSD .05

1248

2

NS

1.1

--

6.6

--

8.76

--


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