North Dakota State University * Dickinson Research Extension Center
1089 State Avenue, Dickinson, ND 58601-4642 Voice: (701) 483-2348 FAX: (701) 483-2005


ALTERNATIVE CROPS AND CROPPING SYSTEMS IN SOUTHWESTERN NORTH DAKOTA

P. Carr, Associate Agronomist, Dickinson Research Extension Center
G. Martin, Research Technician, Dickinson Research Extension Center
B. Melchior, Research Technician, Dickinson Research Extension Center
L. Tisor, Research Technician, Dickinson Research Extension Center
C. Poland, Area Extension Livestock Specialist, Dickinson Research Extension Center
D. Meyer, Professor, NDSU Plant Sciences, Fargo, ND

SUMMARY

Crop production systems in the southwestern North Dakota are almost exclusively limited to small grains. Average yields for these crops sometimes are lower than those required to return an adequate profit margin to producers, if government price supports are not considered. Even when government payments are made, in some instances small grain crops cannot profitably be grown in most years.

Expanding cropping choices has been suggested as a possible strategy for profitable crop production (Jolliff, 1989). Crop diversity also can expand market opportunities, improve pest control, and enhance soil conservation (Jolliff and Snapp, 1988). In North Dakota, development of crambe points to the benefits which biological diversity in cropping systems can offer. Crambe is naturally resistant to many pests and can be used to break small grain disease cycles in rotations (Endres and Schatz, 1991). The seed oil is highly-valued by the chemical industry (Van Dyne et al., 1990), opening up new markets to primarily food and feed producers. Crambe also produces considerable amounts of residue and can be managed to protect cultivated fields from wind and water erosion.

Successful production of alternative crops in southwestern North Dakota would provide many benefits to producers. Crambe and other industrial crops could be grown and sold as high-value industrial feedstocks. Pulses like field pea can be intercropped with cereal feed grains to enhance protein content of annual forages (Carr and Martin., 1996). Field pea also can be grown alone as high-protein feed grains as well as soil-enhancing crops. This project is directed at evaluating several alternative crops in southwestern North Dakota. This project will collect and publish information on the performance of cereal forage crops and alternative crops and crop management strategies in southwestern North Dakota.

OBJECTIVES

  1. Evaluate cereals, pulses, and alfalfa alone and/or in mixtures with one another for feed and forage in southwestern North Dakota.
  2. Investigate several plant species as oilseed crops.

INTRODUCTION

Corn is an important annual forage in southwestern North Dakota. According to Beard and Hamlin (1996), corn was planted on approximately 800,000 acres of cropland in 1994; this is approximately the same amount of acreage that was devoted to oat production. The importance of corn in the region supports adaptation trials of newly developed hybrids. These trials should reflect changes in corn production strategy, including increased planting rates and narrower row spacing.

Conlon and Douglas (1957) reported that corn produced larger yields per acre than any other feed crop grown at the Dickinson Research Extension Center between 1907-57. In summarizing earlier research, Conlon and Douglas (1953) concluded that a corn-wheat-oat rotation generated considerably greater returns than a fallow-wheat-oat rotation on diversified crop-livestock farm operations. The corn produced on the farm was marketed through livestock.

Corn grown as silage is an excellent forage crop. However, soybean meal generally is added to correct protein deficiencies (Goodrich and Meiske, 1976). The soybean meal added to the feed ration is an off-farm cost to producers in southwestern North Dakota, since soybean is not adapted to local growing conditions and little is grown (Beard and Hamlin, 1996). Adaptation screening trials suggest that pea may successfully be grown in western North Dakota (Eriksmoen et al., 1995). However, much must still be learned on how to best grow pea in the dryland environment of western North Dakota. If successful pea production practices can be developed, then pea might be grown and used as a high protein supplement in selected livestock rations.

An alternative to growing corn for silage is to grow other cereals like barley or oat as haylage. While past work indicates that both these crops produce less total digestible nutrients than corn grown for either grain or silage (Smith and Stoa, 1944; Wiidakas, 1967), it may be possible to enhance the feed value of barley or oat haylage by growing these cereals together with field pea. Izaurralde et al. (1989) concluded that intercropping barley with field peas significantly increased crude protein content of the hay produced. Similarly, protein yield sometimes was increased when oats were intercropped with field peas in western North Dakota rather than grown alone (Carter and Larson, 1964). While these North Dakota researchers reported that hay yields generally were decreased when oats were intercropped with either field pea (or vetch), their data reveal several exceptions. For example, dry matter production of oat-field pea mixtures compared favorably with monocropped oat in recropped environments at Dickinson, Minot, and Williston.

Recent work indicated that dry matter yield was maintained when oats and peas were intercropped at Dickinson (Carr and Martin, 1996). The influence of intercropping on hay yield and protein content must be determined for widespread adoption of this practice in the Southwest. For this to be known, the influence of cereal to pea plant populations on intercrop performance must be established, as must be the optimum time for harvesting the mixed forage.

Alfalfa has been grown for decades in western North Dakota. Still, obstacles to successful alfalfa establishment exist for many farmers and ranchers. An important question continues to revolve around alfalfa establishment methods: should alfalfa be clear seeded or grown with a nurse crop? Work is needed to determine the best method for seeding alfalfa in western North Dakota. Research also is needed to determine optimum plant stand for maximum alfalfa hay production in western North Dakota.

Flax and crambe are industrial oilseed crops which offer advantages to crop producers if they are incorporated into crop rotations in western North Dakota. Canola is an edible oilseed crop that offers similar benefits. Adaptation screening trials are needed to identify the cultivars which are best adapted to growing conditions in this portion of the state.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Objective 1

Cultivar Adaptation Trials and Pea Production Trials. Field pea and lentil were evaluated in cultivar comparison trials at the Dickinson. A corn cultivar trial also was conducted. Seed of 25 field pea and 9 lentil cultivars were provided by the Carrington and North Central Research Extension Centers for testing at Dickinson. Corn seed was solicited from private seed companies. Cultural practices including tillage and seeding, fertilization, herbicide application, and harvesting followed currently acceptable agronomic procedure in implementing and maintaining cultivar comparison trials.

Cultivars were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Individual plot dimensions were 28 by 6 ft for all crops except corn. Corn plot dimensions were 50 by 6 ft. Variables measured in each plot varied, depending on the crop being considered.

The suitability of placing 'pop-up' N fertilizer with pea seed at planting was evaluated at Dickinson and Glen Ullin, as were alternative seeding rates for pea at Glen Ullin. Experimental design and plot dimensions were the same as those for the pea cultivar adaptation trials.

Data collected from each trial were analyzed by computer using a statistical software program.

Cereal-Pea Cutting-Date Trial, Cool and Warm-season Forage Trial, Forage Barley and Oat Trial , Alfalfa Establishment and Alfalfa Density Trials.

Dumont oat and Horsford barley were sown alone and mixed with Trapper field pea at different rates to compare forage production among alternative intercropping strategies. Other cool and warm season forages were grown, and forage yield comparisons made, with the cereal-pea mixtures. Each experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Individual plot dimensions were 28 by 6 ft. An experiment was also conducted to determine which of four cereal growth stages was optimum for forage yield and quality of cereal-pea mixtures: late boot, milky kernel, soft dough, or hard dough.

Variables measured in each plot included plant(s) height and forage yield. Forage yield must still be determined.

Under the direction of Dwain Meyer, an alfalfa establishment experiment and an alfalfa density experiment were begun at Dickinson in 1994 and 1996, respectively. Experimental design are described elsewhere in this annual report by Dr. Meyer.

Data were analyzed by computer using a statistical software program.

Objective 2

Crambe, canola, and flax cultivar adaptation trials were established at Dickinson, along with adaptation trials for canola and flax at Glen Ullin. Cultural practices including tillage and seeding, fertilization, herbicide application, and harvesting followed currently acceptable agronomic procedure in implementing and maintaining cultivar comparison trials.

Cultivars were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Individual plot dimensions were 28 by 6 ft at all locations for all crops. Variables measured in each plot varied, depending on the crop being considered.

RESULTS

OBJECTIVE 1

Corn

Average silage yield for corn was 5.7 tons of dry matter per acre among the nine hybrids evaluated in 1996. Silage yield was comparable among 7 of the 9 hybrids evaluated; Pioneer corn hybrids 3963 (79 d) and 3970 (76d) produced less silage than the other hybrids developed by Pioneer and other corn seed developers that were evaluated at Dickinson.

Grain yield averaged 79 bu/acre among the nine corn hybrids evaluated; this was the first year grain had been produced since 1992 at Dickinson. The corn hybrids did not differ (p < 0.05) for grain yield. Test weight ranged from 50.6 lbs/bu (Dekalb 442) to 58.9 (Pioneer 3970).

The differences in silage yield were not observed among the hybrids, in part because of soil and other uncontrolled variability. Silage yield for the two hybrids included in the corn trial at Dickinson over the last three years has been around 4 tons/acre.

For the first time in three years, corn produced grain at Dickinson. Grain yield ranged from 43 bushels per acre for Pioneer 3963 to 62 bushels per acre for Pioneer 3905, though significant differences in grain yield among hybrids were not observed. Test weight was light (<56 lbs/bu), with the exception of grain produced by Cargill 1077 (58.6 lbs/bu).

Cool Season Annual Forages

The triticale cultivar '2700' produced more hay (4.2 tons/acre) than other cultivars or intercrop evaluated at Dickinson in 1996. Intercropping triticale or oat with Trapper pea reduced hay production compared to growing the cereal cultivar as a sole-crop. This was expected since the rate at which the cereal was sown was reduced in cereal-pea intercrop compared to cereal sole-crop (Carr and Martin, 1996). Intercropping 'Whitestone' oat with semi-leafless pea cultivar 'Carneval' did not affect hay production compared to intercropping Whitestone with Trapper pea.

Forage Barley and Oat Cultivars

'Bay' (forage-type) oat, 'Chopper' (forage-type) barley, 'Haybet' (forage-type), and Dumont (grain-type) oat produced the most hay among the 10 cereal cultivars and two oat-pea intercrops that were evaluated in 1996. Over the past two years, Haybet barley has produced the most hay among the cultivars and intercrops evaluated. Dumont oat-Trapper pea mixtures produced less hay than Dumont oat sole-crop, even when Dumont oat was seeded at a sole-crop rate in the mixture and Trapper pea was seeded at 1.5x the sole-crop rate. Horsford barley, perhaps the most widely grown forage-type barley grown in western North Dakota, has produced less hay than Haybet barley in both years the two cultivars have been compared for hay production. Paul oat was included in this experiment for the first time in 1996; hay production by Paul oat was less than for five other cultivars (Bay, Dumont, Chopper, Haybet, and the barley cultivar B 7518) included in the experiment.

Cereal/Pea Cutting Dates

Hay yield generally increased for oat sole-crop, oat-pea intercrop, and oat-lentil intercrop as the cutting date was delayed from early heading to the kernel hard dough stage. This general trend also existed for barley sole-crop and barley-pea intercrop, except when cutting was delayed from kernel soft dough to hard dough stages. In this instance, hay yield was reduced, probably because of leaf senescence of barley and oat plants.

Alfalfa Establishment and Density Evaluations

Establishing alfalfa with an oat nurse crop enabled an oat hay crop (1.8 tons/acre) to be produced in 1996; too little hay was produced when alfalfa was clear seeded in a no-tillage seedbed for any forage to be harvested in 1996. No difference in hay yield was measured between second and third year alfalfa stands between plots where alfalfa had been established with an oat nurse crop, and in plots where alfalfa had been clear seeded in a no-tillage seedbed.

Less than a ton of hay (avg. 0.6 tons/acre) was produced across seeding rates in the alfalfa density trial established at Dickinson in 1996. Increasing the alfalfa seeding rate from 1 lbs PLS/acre to 4 lbs PLS/acre did increase hay yield from 0.7 to 0.8 tons/acre. Increasing the seeding rate from 4 lbs PLS/acre to 16 PLS/acre did not increase hay yield, and yield was reduced as the seeding rate was increased to 32 lbs PLS/acre.

Hay yield was increased as alfalfa plants were arranged in a hexagonal, equidistant pattern and plant stand density was increased from 10 to 30 plants/m2. Further increases in plant stand density did not affect hay yield.

Warm Season Annual Forages

German millet and the sorghum x sudan cross 'Sudax ST6E) produced more hay (avg. = 4.7 tons/acre) than the other millet, sudangrass, sorghum x sudan, and forage legume cultivars evaluated. Least amount of hay was produced by foxtail dalea (1.6 tons/acre), a forage legume which may have some potential in western North Dakota as a green fallow cover crop. Overall yield of the 7 cultivars evaluated was 3.6 tons/acre.

Field Pea - Seeding Rate

More peas were established as the pea seeding rate was increased from 300 000 (100 lbs/acre) to 400 000 (130 lbs/acre) PLS/acre at Glen Ullin. However, altering the seeding rate within this range failed to affect pea seed yield. However, pea plots seemed easier to harvest mechanically as more peas were planted.

Field Pea - Cultivar Evaluations

Seed yield of the 25 pea cultivars evaluated at Dickinson averaged 1722 lbs/acre (29 bu/acre) in a field where rye had been plowed down in 1995. At Glen Ullin in a field where hard red spring wheat was grown in 1995, seed yield for the 12 pea cultivars averaged 2823 lbs/acre (47 bu/acre). These data suggest that field pea is adapted to western North Dakota conditions; total annual and growing season precipitation was less than the 30-year average in 1996.

Trapper probably remains the most widely grown pea in western North Dakota. However, the cultivar trials at Dickinson and Glen Ullin suggest that other pea cultivars exist which will produce more seed than Trapper in western North Dakota. For example, seed yield for Trapper is the lowest of the 4 cultivars that have been evaluated at Dickinson over the past three years: 'Profi' (2024 lbs/acre), 'Express' (2008 lbs/acre), 'Century' (1916 lbs/acre), and Trapper (1837 lbs/acre).

Field Pea - N Pop-Up Evaluations

Applying N as urea with pea seed reduced pea plant stand at both the 5 lbs N/acre and 10 lbs N/acre rates at both Dickinson and Glen Ullin. Across both sites, pea plant stand was reduced an average of around 15% for each 5 lbs N/acre increment that was placed with the seed. However, this reduction in pea plant stand failed to affect seed yield, test weight, or seed weight. These data indicate that there is no benefit to applying small amounts of urea with pea seed in western North Dakota under dryland conditions.

Lentil - Cultivar Evaluations

Seed yield of the 9 cultivars evaluated at Dickinson averaged around 950 lbs/acre, while that of the 6 cultivars evaluated at Glen Ullin averaged about 1400 lbs/acre. Seed yield of the cultivars developed in Canada ('CDC Matador', 'CDC Redwing', 'CDC Richlea') were the highest yielding cultivars at Dickinson; yield was comparable among the cultivars evaluated at Glen Ullin except for that of 'Chilean' and 'Laird', which was less.

'Crimson' produced less seed (810 lbs/acre) than several other cultivars evaluated at Dickinson in 1996. In past years, Crimson has generally been among the highest yielding cultivars evaluated. It is unclear why Crimson lentil was a relatively poor yielding cultivar in 1996; this cultivar was developed and released for dry regions at northern latitudes by USDA-ARS scientists located at Pullman, WA.

Objective 2

Canola - Cultivar Evaluations

Canola yield averaged around 900 lbs/acre among the 7 commercial cultivars evaluated at Dickinson in 1996, and almost 1100 lbs/acre among the 4 cultivars evaluated at Glen Ullin. Damage from blister beetles to late maturing cultivars at Dickinson reduced the amount of seed harvested from plots of 'Bullet', 'Ebony', 'Jewel', 'OAC Springfield', and 'Pearl'. This damage also increased seed yield variability within replicates since feeding by the beetles what not uniform across the experiment or across the plots of any cultivar evaluated. As a result, a high coefficient of variation (20.9%) occurred for seed yield when data were analyzed at Dickinson and cultivars could not be ranked by mean comparison methods. At Glen

Ullin, 'Hyola 308' produced more seed than the other three cultivars evaluated ('Crusher', 'Cyclone', and 'Reward').

Crambe - Cultivar Evaluation

Seed yield of the 5 commercial cultivars evaluated at Dickinson in 1996 averaged about 1750 lbs/acre. 'Meyer' crambe produced less seed than any of the other cultivars evaluated. 'Belann' crambe produced the most seed (2126 lbs/acre), although this amount was comparable to that produced by the cultivars 'Indy' (1840) and 'Prophet' (2109 lbs/acre).

Flax - Cultivar Evaluation

Seed yield of the 5 flax cultivars evaluated at Glen Ullin in a field where hard red spring wheat was grown in 1995 averaged around 35 bu/acre. 'Linora' flax produced the most seed (37.6 bu/acre), although comparable amounts were also produced by the cultivars 'Neche', 'Omega' (yellow seeded), and 'Verne'. The data indicate that flax can be productive when grown in selected environments in western North Dakota.

1996 Hybrid Corn - Recrop Dickinson
Brand Hybri RM
days
Grain
bu/a
Tst Wt
lb/bu
Harvest
Moisture
%
Silage Yield
70% 1996 1995 1994 3 year
Tons/acre
Dekalb 343 84 79 54.8 57 19.6 5.9 5.5 3.6 5.0
Dekalb 385 85 70 52.4 64 18.3 5.5 6.5 -- --
Dekalb 412 91 71 51.0 61 19.1 5.7 -- -- --
Dekalb 442 94 72 50.6 60 19.4 5.8 -- -- --
Pioneer 3878 90 70 52.2 62 19.7 5.9 -- -- --
Pioneer 3893 89 99 54.0 61 20.4 6.1 -- -- --
Pioneer 3963 79 88 55.6 60 16.7 5.0 5.7 3.7 4.8
Pioneer 3970 76 82 58.9 59 16.8 5.0 -- -- --
Pioneer 3979 76 83 56.6 53 20.8 6.2 -- -- --
Mean     79 54 60 19.0 5.7      
C.V. %     16.2 2.3 7.0 14.7 14.6      
LSD .05     NS 1.8 6.1 4.1 1.2      
Planting Date: May 29
Harvest Date: Sept 11 for corn silage; Sept 17 for corn grain
Previous crop:Oat hay; Soil test results 12 lbs N, 9 ppm P - Applied 250 lbs Urea and 50 lbs DAP per acre Applied 1pt Roundup + 1pt Class Act per acre May 29; Applied .66oz Accent + 1qt Scoil per acre June 12
Bushel per acre and Test weight are at 12% moisture.

 

1996 Cool Season Annual Forages - Recrop Dickinson
Crop Variety Harvest
Moistur
%
Hay Yield
12% DM Basis
1996 1995 1994 2 year
Tons/acre
barley Azure 65 3.2 2.8 4.4 -- 3.6
triticale 2700 52 4.7 4.2 -- -- --
triticale/pea 2700/Trapper 54 3.9 3.4 -- -- --
triticale Frank 56 4.0 3.5 3.2 -- 3.4
triticale/pea Frank/Trapper 54 3.5 3.0 2.7 -- 2.8
oat Paul 66 2.6 2.2 -- -- --
oat/pea Paul/Trapper 67 2.4 2.1 -- -- --
oat Whitestone 64 3.1 2.7 3.3 -- 3.0
oat/pea Whitestone/Trapper 66 2.9 2.6 2.6 -- 2.6
oat/pea Whitestone/Carneval 65 3.0 2.7 -- -- --
oat/pea CLOL 1 67 2.8 2.4 -- -- --
oat/pea CLOL 2 66 2.8 2.4 -- -- --
pea Arvika 67 2.7 2.4 -- -- --
Mean   62 3.2 2.8      
C.V.%   2.6 9.2 9.2      
LSD .05   2.0 0.4 0.4      
Planting Date: May 14; planted at 100 lbs (Azure), 75 lbs (Frank), 130 lbs (Frank[50] + Trapper[80]), 65 lbs (Whitestone), 115 lbs (Whitestone[35] + Trapper[80]), 115 lbs (Whitestone[35] + Carneval[80]), 70 lbs (Paul), 105 lbs (Paul[45] + Trapper[60]), 75 lbs (2700), 130 lbs (2700[50] + Trapper[80]), 100 lbs (Arvika), 110 lbs both ( CLOL 1 & 2 ).
Harvest Date: Azure harvested July 11, Frank, Trical/Trapper, Trical 2700, Frank/Trapper, harvested Aug 8, other entries harvested July 24.
Previous crop: Black lentil (plow down); Soil test results 70 lbs N, 12 ppm P - no fertilizer applied.

 

1996 Forage Barley and Oat - Recrop Dickinson
Crop Variety

Harvest
Moisture
%

Hay Yield
12% DM Basis
1996 1995 1994 3 year
Tons/acre
oat Bay 63 3.6 3.2 3.3 -- --
oat Dumont 64 3.8 3.3 3.2 2.4 3.0
oat Mammoth 67 3.3 2.9 3.4 -- --
oat Paul 67 2.9 2.5 -- -- --
oat/pea Dumont/Trap 5/51 70 2.7 2.4 2.9 2.2 2.5
oat/pea Dumont/Trap 10/152 65 3.1 2.8 3.4 2.5 2.9
barley B 7518 64 3.8 3.3 3.8 -- --
barley Chopper 56 4.1 3.6 3.4 -- --
barley Haybet 60 3.7 3.3 4.0 -- --
barley Horsford 62 3.0 2.7 3.2 4.6 3.5
barley Stark 64 3.2 2.8 3.7 -- --
barley Weal 67 2.4 2.2 3.3 -- --
Mean   64 3.3 2.9      
C.V. %   4.6 11.6 11.6      
LSD .05   4.0 0.6 0.5      
Planting Date: May 14
Planted at 800,000 Pure Live Seed (PLS) per acre, except for the oat/pea mixtures which were sown at 750,000 oat plus 487,000 pea PLS per acre(2 ) and 375,000 oat plus 162,500 PLS
per acre(1); no herbicide was applied.
Previous crop: Black lentil (plow down); Soil test results: 70 lbs N, 12 ppm P - no fertilizer was applied.
Harvest Date: reps 1 and 4 of Stark and Weal were harvested on July 11; reps 1 and 4 of Horsford, Chopper, and Haybet were harvested on July 16; all other plots were harvested on July 22.

 

1996 Cereal/Pea Cutting Date Trial - Recrop Dickinson
Crop Variety Seeding Rate Harvest Moisture
Cereal Pea 1st cut 2nd 3rd cut 4th cut 5th cut
barley/pe Horsford/Trapper 1125000 487000 73 66 62 44 63
barley/pe Horsford/Trapper 750000 325000 75 67 62 45 64
barley/pe Horsford/Trapper 375000 162500 74 68 65 43 64
barley Horsford 750000 0 74 65 62 43 65
oat/pea Dumont/Trapper 1125000 487000 72 69 65 48 --
oat/pea Dumont/Trapper 750000 325000 72 68 65 49 --
oat/pea Dumont/Trapper 375000 162500 73 70 68 54 --
oat Dumont 750000 0 74 68 67 54 --
oat/lentil Dumont/Indian 750000 350000 71 68 66 49 --
lentil Indian head 0 350000 73 70 72 66 --
Mean       73 68 65 49 64
CV(%)       3.6 2.6 2.6 8.6 2.6
LSD .05       3.8 2.6 2.4 6.2 2.7

 

Variety Seeding Rate Yield DM Basis
tons/acre
Cereal Pea 1st cut 2nd 3rd cut 4th cut 5th cut
Horsford/Trapper 1125000 487000 1.8 2.6 2.9 1.9 0.7
Horsford/Trapper 750000 325000 1.5 2.4 2.8 2.5 0.7
Horsford/Trapper 375000 162500 1.4 2.2 2.5 2.4 0.6
Horsford 750000 0 1.6 2.7 2.9 2.6 0.7
Dumont/Trapper 1125000 487000 2.2 2.6 2.8 2.9 --
Dumont/Trapper 750000 325000 2.1 2.4 2.8 2.6 --
Dumont/Trapper 375000 162500 1.9 2.2 2.3 2.7 --
Dumont 750000 0 2.0 2.4 2.6 2.9 --
Dumont/Indian head 750000 350000 2.0 2.4 2.6 2.9 --
Indian head 0 350000 0.4 0.9 1.2 2.1 --
Mean     1.7 2.3 2.5 2.6 0.7
CV(%)     11.1 7.1 10.9 15.0 12.0
LSD .05     0.3 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.1
Planting date: May 14
Previous crop: Sweet clover; soil test results 47 lbs N, 15 lbs P - no fertilizer applied
Harvest date: all the plots were harvested 4 times; each time at a different growth stage; 1st cut was on July 11 at the early heading stage, 2nd cut was on July 16 at the milk stage, 3rd cut was on July 22 at the soft dough stage, 4th cut was on Aug 8 at the hard dough stage; the 5th cut was a cut of the regrowth from cut 1 of the barley/pea plots.

 

1996 Alfalfa Establishment Trial - Recrop Dickinson
Year Establishment method Plant Count Yield DM Basis
Oat Alfalfa 1st cut 2nd cut
1 Clear seeded into notill -- -- 1.2 --
  With an oat nurse crop -- -- 1.1 --
Mean   -- -- 1.1 --
CV(%)   -- -- 9.0 --
LSD .05   -- -- NS --
2 Clear seeded into notill -- -- 1.2 --
  With an oat nurse crop -- -- 1.1 --
Mean   -- -- 1.1 --
CV(%)   -- -- 21.2 --
LSD .05   -- -- NS --
3 Clear seeded into notill -- 523 591 -- --
  With an oat nurse crop 610 711 692 604 1.8 --
Mean   -- 608 097 -- --
CV(%)   -- 51.2 -- --
LSD .05   -- 700 886 -- --
Planting date: April 17; 10 lbs PLS/acre of alfalfa with a John Deere 750 drill; Harvest date: June 26 for year 1 & year 2 alfalfa; July 11 for year 3 with nurse crop; Year 1 established 1994, year 2 established 1995, year 3 established 1996.

Previous crop: Black lentil (plow down); Soil test results 20 lbs N, 6 ppm P - Applied 100 lbs 0-44-0; Herbicide: Applied 1.25pt Post + 1qt Scoil + 1.5qt Am.Sulfate in 1996 notill plots on June 27; applied 1.5lbs/acre of Kerb 50W on Oct 9 to year 1 and 2 seedings.

 

1996 Alfalfa Plant Density Trial- Fallow Dickinson
Seeds per acre PPA Harvest
Moisture
%
Hay Yield
12% --- DM basis---
---- Tons/ac----
4 lbs PLS/ac 60708 68 1.0 0.8
Hand planted @ 2 plants /ft2 -- 70 0.5 0.4
Hand planted @ 3 plants /ft2 -- 70 0.6 0.5
Hand planted @ 1 plant /ft2 -- 70 0.3 0.3
32 lbs PLS/ac 302568 66 0.8 0.7
16 lbs PLS/ac 207917 68 0.9 0.8
Hand planted @ 4 plants /ft2 -- 70 0.6 0.5
0.58 lbs PLS/ac 102661 67 0.9 0.8
1 lbs PLS/ac 15732 70 0.8 0.7
2 lbs PLS/ac 34417 67 0.9 0.8
Mean 120667 69 0.7 0.6
C.V. % 13.0 2.5 13.9 13.9
LSD .05 23608.0 NS 0.1 0.1
Planting Date: May 21; Previous crop: fallow; Harvest Date: Aug 2nd; Hebicide applied: 1pt Poust + 2pt Scoil on June 20; 4oz Pursuit + 2pt Scoil June 20.

 

1996 Warm Season Annual Forages Dickinson
Crop Variety Harvest
Moisture
%
12% Forage Yield
DM Basis
1996 1995 1992 3 Year
Tons/acre
millet German 56 5.4 4.8 4.3 4.7 4.6
millet Siberian 64 4.1 3.6 2.9 4.3 3.6
sudangrass Piper 52 3.1 2.8 2.9 -- --
foxtail Dalea 60 1.8 1.6 -- -- --
sorghum x sudan Sudax ST6E 65 5.2 4.6 -- -- --
sorghum x sudan Greentreat 3 60 4.5 4.0 -- -- --
millet Millex 32 62 4.0 3.5 -- -- --
Mean   60 4.0 3.6      
C.V. %   3.0 12.6 12.6      
LSD .05   2.6 0.8 0.7      
Planting Date: May 28
Harvest Date: Aug 29
Previous crop: Black lentil (plow down);Soil test results 70 lbs N, 12 ppm P - no fertilizer applied.
Planted at 20 lbs (millets) and 25 lbs (Sudangrass and Sorghum x Sudan cross); no herbicide applied.

 

Field Pea Seeding Rate - Recrop Glen Ullin
Variety Seeding Rate Plant Stand Seeds
lbs
Test Weight
lbs/bu
Grain Yield
lbs/ac
Trapper 300000 186779 3154 63.8 2903.1
Trapper 350000 181554 3082 63.1 3011.4
Trapper 400000 227270 3074 63.6 2925.8
Mean   198643 3103 63.5 2946.8
C.V. %   11.1 2.2 0.4 2.5
LSD .05   37981 NS 0.5 NS
Planting Date: May 28; Harvest Date: August 21; Previous crop: Spring wheat; Applied 130lbs Urea and 25lbs DAP per acre; Applied 1.5pt Poast+2pt COC per acre on June 17.

 

Field Pea - Green Fallow Dickinson
Variety Type

Flower Duration

Days to Flowe Days to Maturity Plant Height
in
Lodging Score
0-9
Seeds
lbs
ARVIKA FG 7 51 79 15.3 7.8 2698
ASTINA G 13 44 75 17.1 0.8 1860
AUSTRIAN WINTER G 11 51 -- 12.5 7.8 3795
CARNEVAL Y 10 47 78 20.0 1.3 1844
CENTURY Y 9 49 79 14.6 7.0 1984
COLUMBIAN G 19 35 70 10.2 8.0 2379
DELTA Y 11 46 77 16.3 1.0 1941
ESPACE G 11 46 77 19.2 0.0 1884
EXPRESS Y 10 48 78 13.7 5.3 1752
GRANDE Y 9 49 78 20.1 2.0 1668
HM2648 Y 13 44 76 16.3 2.8 1549
MAGDA FG 8 49 79 13.7 7.3 2576
MAJORET G 10 46 79 20.5 0.5 1786
MIKO Y 10 46 78 19.1 1.8 1725
PROFI Y 12 46 76 18.4 2.3 1841
PROMAR MF 15 41 79 16.2 1.0 1443
RADLEY G 11 46 77 11.3 6.0 2468
RICHMOND Y 12 45 76 10.1 7.0 2098
SIRIUS FD 9 47 74 13.2 7.5 1704
SWING Y 13 44 75 19.5 1.5 1991
TENOR FD 13 44 76 16.7 4.8 1763
TRAPPER Y 11 50 79 13.3 7.8 3358
VOYAGEUR Y 11 47 78 17.1 0.5 2334
WHERO M 7 52 80 8.2 9.0 1864
YORKTON Y 10 48 79 17.2 1.3 1900
               
Mean   8 46 77 15.6 4.1 2088
C.V. %   11 2 2 13.6 22.9 6
LSD .05   1 1 2 3.0 1.3 168
Planting Date: May 13
Harvest Date: August 19 (except for Arvika, Trapper, Century, Austrian Winter, Whero, which were harvested on August 5)
Type: FG=Forage, MF=Marrowfat, FD=Feed, M=Maple, G=Green, Y=Yellow

 

Field Pea - Green Fallow Dickinson
Variety Test Weight
lbs/bu
Yield Average Yield
1994 1995 1996 2 Year 3 Year
--------- --------------- lbs/ac ----------------------
ARVIKA 61.4 -- -- 1811.6 -- --
ASTINA 62.9 -- -- 1792.4 -- --
AUSTRIAN WINTER 63.9 -- -- 1559.1 -- --
CARNEVAL 63.0 -- 2816.8 1723.4 2270.1 --
CENTURY 62.6 1678.1 2719.4 1349.8 2034.6 1915.8
COLUMBIAN 61.8 -- 1273.5 1156.2 1214.9 --
DELTA 64.1 -- -- 1914.9 -- --
ESPACE 63.3 -- -- 2117.8 -- --
EXPRESS 62.8 1611.1 2586.4 1827.9 2207.2 2008.5
GRANDE 63.3 -- -- 2381.2 -- --
HM2648 62.4 -- -- 1658.6 -- --
MAGDA 61.0 -- -- 1853.6 -- --
MAJORET 63.6 -- 2619.7 1745.2 2182.4 --
MIKO 63.0 -- 2489.1 1951.5 2220.3 --
PROFI 62.1 1699.0 2646.8 1726.9 2186.8 2024.2
PROMAR 61.9 -- -- 1434.6 -- --
RADLEY 62.5 -- 1607.6 1415.1 1511.3 --
RICHMOND 61.9 -- -- 1498.1 -- --
SIRIUS 61.8 -- -- 1726.7 -- --
SWING 64.0 -- -- 1923.9 -- --
TENOR 64.3 -- -- 1875.0 -- --
TRAPPER 63.1 1429.8 2214.8 1866.8 2040.8 1837.1
VOYAGEUR 63.6 -- -- 1737.2 -- --
WHERO 62.0 -- -- 1293.8 -- --
YORKTON 63.0 -- -- 1715.7 -- --
          -  
Mean 62.8     1722.3    
C.V. % 1.6     17.1    
LSD .05 1.4     NS    
Previous crop: Rye (plow down); Soil test results 29 lbs N and 19 ppm P - No fertilizer applied; Applied 2.5 pt Sonolan per acre on April 23; Applied 2 oz Pursuit + 2 pt Scoil per acre on June 10.

 

Field Pea - Recrop Glen Ullin
Variety Cotyledon Color Seeds
lbs
Test Weight
lbs/b
Grain Yield
lbs/ac
Arvika Green 2421 61.5 2828.5
Carneval Yellow 2042 63.9 2815.5
Century Yellow 1876 63.4 2762.6
Columbian Green 2143 63.6 1850.5
Express Yellow 1918 62.9 3072.6
Grande Yellow 1726 64.6 3551.9
Magda Green 2600 62.8 2809.2
Majoret Green 1801 64.3 2595.5
Profi Yellow 1931 63.6 2886.7
Radley Green 2322 63.3 2878.3
Sirius Green 1914 62.9 3168.4
Trapper Yellow 3189 63.5 2655.9
         
Mean   2157 63.3 2823.0
C.V. %   14.0 1.3 9.5
LSD .05   435 1.2 385.1
Planting Date: May 28
Harvest Date: August 21
Previous crop: Spring wheat; Applied 130lbs Urea and 25lbs DAP per acre; Applied 1.5pt Poast+2pt COC per acre on June 17.

 

Field Pea Pop-up Fertilizer Trial - Recrop Glen Ullin
Variety N
Fertilizer
Rate
lbs/ac
Plant
Stand
Seeds
lbs
Test Weight
lbs/bu
GrainYield
lbs/ac
Trapper 0 190698 3167 63.1 2786.9
Trapper 10 146289 3183 62.8 2665.4
Trapper 5 156738 3135 63.1 2751.4
 
Mean   164357 3162 63.0 2734.6
C.V. %   14.0 6.3 1.2 8.8
LSD .05   39872 NS NS NS
Planting Date: May 28
Harvest Date: August 21
Previous crop: Spring wheat; Applied 130lbs Urea and 25lbs DAP per acre; Applied 1.5pt Poast+2pt COC per acre on June 17.

 

Field Pea Pop-up Fertilizer Trial - Recrop Dickinson
Variety N
Fertilizer
Rate
lbs/ac
Plant
Stand
Seeds
lbs
Test
Weight
lbs/bu
Grain
Yield
lbs/ac
Trapper 0 288985 2887 61.1 1664.2
Trapper 10 195922 2920 60.5 1578.9
Trapper 5 253066 2680 61.5 1610.7
 
Mean   245991 2829 61.0 1617.9
C.V. %   9.8 11.7 1.1 7.9
LSD .05   41900 NS NS NS
Planting Date: May 13; Previous crop: Rye (plow down); Soil test results 29lbs N and 19ppm P - No fertilizer applied; Applied 2.5pt Sonolan per acre on April 23; Applied 2oz Pursuit+2pt Scoil per acre on June 10.

 

Lentils - Green Fallow Dickinson
Variety Type Flower
Duration
Days
to
Flower
Days
to
Maturity
Plant
Height
in
Lodging
Score
0-9
Seeds
lbs
Brewer C 14 43 76 9.7 5.0 6900
CDC Matador SB 12 48 80 10.5 4.0 14568
CDC Redwing R 14 46 78 11.1 2.3 10993
CDC Richlea C 13 46 80 10.8 4.3 8207
Crimson R 13 48 77 6.9 7.8 11794
Eston P 12 45 78 10.3 2.5 12318
Laird C 14 51 85 14.1 1.8 6655
Pardina SB 12 44 76 8.3 6.0 10036
Red Chief R 13 44 77 9.4 4.5 7620
 
Mean   13 46 78 10.1 4.2 9899
C.V. %   10 2 2 8.8 17.1 4
LSD .05   2 1 2 1.3 1.1 572

 

Variety Test Weight
lbs/bu
Yield Average Yield
1994 1995 1996 2 year 3 year
lbs/ac
Brewer 57.0 652.0 1448.0 815.0 1131.5 971.7
CDC Matador 59.9 -- -- 1132.4 -- --
CDC Redwing 59.9 -- -- 1128.7 -- --
CDC Richlea 57.3 846.0 2108.2 1285.1 1696.7 1413.1
Crimson 60.6 1106.0 2009.2 810.3 1409.8 1308.5
Eston 60.3 701.0 1826.6 1024.7 1425.7 1184.1
Laird 56.6 545.0 1693.2 945.4 1319.3 1061.2
Pardina 60.1 -- -- 652.0 -- --
Red Chief 56.8 -- -- 740.4 -- --
 
Mean 58.7 -- -- 948.2 -- --
C.V. % 2.5 -- -- 14.8 -- --
LSD .05 2.1 -- -- 205.0 -- --

Planting Date: May 13; Harvest Date: August 8 (Brewer, CDC Matador, CDC Redwing, Crimson, Eston, Pardina, Red Chief ) August 19 (Laird); Type: C=Chilean, R=Red, P=Persian, SB=Spanish Brown; Previous crop: Rye (plow down); Soil test results 29 lbs N and 19 ppm P - No fertilizer applied; Applied 2.5 pt Sonolan per acre on April 23.

 

Lentil - Recrop Glen Ullin
Variety Seeds
lbs
Test Weight
lbs/bu
GrainYield
lbs/ac
Brewer 7204 58.9 1466.6
Chilean 8972 54.6 1274.6
Eston 13579 62.1 1514.0
Laird 7279 55.6 1072.0
Red Chief 8031 57.1 1450.8
Rose 10049 59.8 1617.7
 
Mean 9185 58.0 1399.3
C.V. % 3.1 2.6 10.6
LSD .05 432 2.2 224.1
Planting Date: May 28
Harvest Date: August 21 (Brewer, Chilean, Eston, Red Chief, Rose); August 27 (Laird)
previous crop: Durum; Applied 130lbs Urea and 25lbs DAP per acre; Applied 1.5pt Poast+2pt COC per acre on June 17.

 

Canola - Green Fallow Dickinson
Variety Days to Flower Flower
Period
Days to Harvest Plant
Height
in
Lodging Score
0-9
Seeds
Lb
Oil
%
Test Weight
lbs/bu
Grain
Yield
lbs/ac
BULLET 48 17 92 25.0 1.0 125889 43.1 47.1 627.0
EBONY 54 12 --- 26.6 0.0 117466 45.0 42.6 891.5
JEWEL 50 14 93 24.5 0.0 124650 44.3 46.1 1006.2
OAC 49 14 93 23.8 0.0 100370 43.8 47.0 762.2
PEARL 53 14 94 26.1 0.0 132286 42.7 46.1 776.5
REWARD 42 20 83 23.2 1.5 213715 41.9 49.4 709.2
TOBIN 41 21 82 24.1 1.8 210884 40.8 51.1 797.3
 
Mean 50 15 91 26 0 132661   46.2 895.7
C.V. % 2 7 1 6 233 13   2.4 20.9
LSD .05 1 1 NS 2.2 0.9 23785   1.6 NS
Planting Date: May 1
Harvest Date: July 26 (Reward and Tobin); August 6 (BC 94-123, Bullet, Jewel, LG 3260, LG 3300, LG 3310, LG 3369, OAC Springfield, Pearl, PSL 121); August 7 (PSL 124); August 8 (Ebony); August 9 (PSL 9603).
Lodging: 0=Upright, 9=Completely flat
Previous crop: Sweet clover (plow down); Soil test results: 54 lbs N, 18 ppm P - Applied 210 lbs Urea per acre; Applied 1 pt Treflan per acre on April 26; Applied 2 oz Malathion per acre on July 13 (Blister beetle control).

 

Canola - Recrop Glen Ullin
Variety Seeds
lbs
Oil
%
Test Weight
lbs/bu
Grain Yield
lbs/ac
Crusher 137882 41.2 50.4 738.6
Cyclone 140244 41.9 50.1 833.3
Hyola 308 135554 42.7 50.1 1625.4
Reward 149803 43.4 51.0 1088.8
 
Mean 140871 -- 50.4 1071.5
C.V. % 7.4 -- 1.0 8.1
LSD .05 NS -- 0.8 139.3
Planting Date: May 28
Harvest Date: August 21 (Cyclone and Reward), August 27 (Hyola 308 and Crusher)
Previous crop: Oats; Applied 130lbs Urea and 25lbs DAP per acre; Applied 1.5pt Poast+2pt COC per acre on June 17.

 

Crambe - Green Fallow Dickinson
Variety Days to Flower Flower
Duration
Days to
Maturity
Plant Height
in
Lodging Score
0-9
Seeds
Lb
Oil
%
Test Weight
lbs/bu
Grain Yield
lbs/ac
Belann 55 13 87 28 3 75592 34.1 29.1 2126.5
Belenzian 54 14 87 28 4 62539 34.3 28.9 1807.0
Indy 54 13 86 28 2 68880 34.2 29.0 1839.8
Meyer 54 12 85 27 1 70927 35.2 29.9 1482.8
Prophet 54 15 87 28 3 55363 35.4 27.1 2109.0
 
Mean 52 14 86 28 2 69767 34.9 29.3 1751.4
C.V. % 2 9 1 4 49 10 2.4 2.9 11.8
LSD .05 2 2 1 1 2 9755 1.2 1.2 295.6
Planting Date: May 1 (No-Till)
Harvest Date: July 31
Lodging: 0=Upright, 9=Completely flat
Previous crop: Black lentil (burn down); Soil test results: 31 lbs N, 12 ppm P - Applied 250 lbs Urea and 25 lbs DAP per acre; Applied .75pt Roundup+1pt Class Act+.25pt 2,4-D ester per acre on April 23.

 

Flax - Recrop Glen Ullin
Variety Seeds
lbs
Test Weight
lbs/bu
Grain Yield
bu/ac
Linora 80031 53.4 37.6
Neche 80337 52.9 35.9
Omega 78685 53.6 35.4
Prompt 81944 54.1 31.8
Verne 85326 54.1 33.6
Mean 81265 53.6 34.9
C.V. % 4.4 1.6 9.5
LSD .05 5555 1.3 5.1
Planting Date: May 28; Harvest Date: August 27; Previous crop: Oats; Applied 130lbs Urea and 25lbs DAP per acre; Applied 1.5pt Poast+2pt COC per acre on June 17.

LITERATURE CITED

Beard, L.W., and W.G. Hamlin. 1996. North Dakota agricultural statistics. Bull. No. 65. North Dak. State Univ. Agric. Expt. Stat. And U.S. Dept. Agric. Ag. Stat. Fed. Bldg., Fargo, ND.

Carr, P.M., and G.B. Martin. 1996. Forage and N yield of barley-pea and oat-pea intercrops. P. 115. Amer. Soc. Agron. Abstracts, 88th Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, IN, Nov. 3-8, 1996.

Carter, J.F., and K.L. Larson. 1964. Oats, peas, and vetch for hay and silage in North Dakota. North Dak. Agric. Exp. Stat. Bull. No. 447. Fargo, ND. 8 p.

Conlon, T.J., and R.J. Douglas. 1957. Corn for silage. North Dak. Farm Res. 19(4): 107-114.

Conlon, T.J., and R.J. Douglas. 1953. Rotation and tillage investigations at the Dickinson Experiment Station. North Dak. Agric. Exp. Stat. Bul. No. 383. 126 p.

Endres, G., and B. Schatz. 1991. Crambe production. North Dak. State Univ. Ext. Circ. A-1010. Fargo, ND. 4 p.

Eriksmoen, E., P. Carr, G. Martin, R. Olson. 1995. Twelfth annual west Dakota crops day research report. Hettinger, Research Extension Center, Hettinger. ND. 98 p.

Goodrich, R.D., and J.C. Meiske. 1976. High-energy silage. p. 569-580. In M.E. Heath, D.S. Metcalfe, and R.F. Barnes (eds.) Forages: the science of grassland agriculture. The Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, IA.

Izaurralde, R.C., N.G. Juma, and W.B. McGill. 1990. Plant and nitrogen yield of barley-field pea intercrop in cryoboreal-subhumid central Alberta. Agron. J. 82:295-301.

Jolliff, G.D. 1989. Strategic planning for new-crop development. J. Prod. Agric. 2:6-13.

Jolliff, G.D., and S.S. Snapp. 1988. New crop development: opportunity and challenges. J. Prod. Agric. 1:83-89.

Smith, R.W., and T.E. Stoa. 1944. A comparison of different grains for feed production in North Dakota. North Dak. Agric. Exp. Stat. Bimon. Bul. 6(4): 13-17.

Van Dyne, D.L., M.G. Blase, and K.D. Carlson. 1990. Industrial feedstocks and products from high erucic acid oil: crambe and industrial rapeseed. Univ. Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO.

Wiidakas, W. 1967. Adapted corn hybrids are more dependable. North Dak. Agric. Exp. Stat. Bimonthly Bull. Farm Res. 25(1): 13-15.

Zollinger, R.K. 1992. Agricultural weed control guide. North Dak. State Univ. Ext. Circ. W-253 (rev.) 66 p.


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