North Dakota State University * Dickinson Research Extension Center
1089 State Avenue, Dickinson, ND 58601-4642 Voice: (701) 483-2348 FAX: (701) 483-2005


WHEAT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS FOR SOUTHWESTERN NORTH DAKOTA

1P. Carr, Associate Agronomist, Adjunct Assistant Professor; 1G. Martin, Research Specialist II;
1B. Melchior, Agricultural Technician II; 2M. McMullen, Associate Professor; 3J. Kuprinsky, Plant Pathologist
1NDSU, Dickinson Research Extension Center
2NDSU, Extension Service
3USDA, Agricultural Research Service

OBJECTIVES

1. Determine how cultivar selection and seeding rate affect spring wheat performance across wheat-black fallow, wheat-ecofallow, and wheat-chemical fallow systems.

2. Evaluate N fertilizer and N fertilizer by fungicide interactions for tan spot suppression, grain yield and phenotypic response in continuously cropped environments.

3. Compare the agronomic performance of several spring wheat cultivars across wheat-black fallow, wheat-wheat, and wheat-corn rotations.

4. Determine the agronomic potential of crops as a substitute for fallow in southwestern North Dakota.

SUMMARY

The wheat-black fallow rotation has been used extensively as a production strategy for spring wheat in western North Dakota and throughout the Great Plains. There are several benefits the black fallow period provides, including the mineralization of organic matter (Haas et al., 1974), the recharge of soil water (Black and Power, 1965), and the stabilization of farm income (Smika, 1970). With these benefits come costs, including the formation of saline seeps (Halvorson and Black, 1974), uncontrolled wind and water erosion (Haas and Black, 1974), and reduced soil nutrient levels over time (Haas et al., 1957). The idling of productive land in a wheat-black fallow rotation has also raised economic efficiency questions (Ali and Johnson, 1981). Soil conservation mandates, as exemplified by the Conservation Compliance Provision of the 1985 Farm Bill, indicate that alternatives to the wheat-black fallow rotation must be developed for the long-term viability of wheat production in North Dakota.

This publication will be made available in alternative formats upon request.

North Dakota State University is an equal opportunity institution.

INTRODUCTION

A cultivar by tillage (C by TS) system interaction exists for several crops (Cox and Shelton, 1992; Elmore, 1987; Hallauer and Calvin, 1985; Hwu and Allan, 1986). However, C by TS interactions with spring wheat seldom have been evaluated. Thompson and Hoag (1987) compared grain yield, test weight, and other agronomic characteristics of 10 spring wheat cultivars across conventionally-tilled fallow and recrop experiments, and in a recrop no-till trial. They concluded that the cultivars responded similarly across different tillage systems. Because comparisons were made between separate field experiments each year, it was difficult to separate tillage effects from those of other factors.

A significant C by TS interaction for grain yield and seed weight existed among 18 spring wheat cultivars grown across conventionally-tilled and reduced-till systems in South Dakota (Hall and Cholick, 1989). These data support earlier work indicating that spring wheat cultivars respond differently in contrasting tillage systems (Chevalier and Ciha, 1986). However, Chevalier and Ciha limited evaluations of C by TS interactions to systems where wheat was sown following wheat, even though most of the spring wheat in western North Dakota is produced on previously fallowed land (Wiyatt and Hamlin, 1992). Soil moisture status and other factors can differ dramatically between fallow and recrop land, regardless of the tillage system used.

Several studies indicate that spring wheat yield tends to be reduced in no-till compared to conventionally-tilled systems (Chevalier and Ciha, 1986; Ciha, 1982; Thompson and Hoag, 1987). The reduced yield may result from an allelopathic effect of the crop residue on the seeded crop (Elliott et al., 1978). Allelopathy could account for the poor plant stands sometimes established in no-till compared to conventionally-tilled wheat fields. Increasing the seeding rate in no-till compared to conventionally-tilled systems may improve stand establishment and, ultimately, grain yield in a no-till system. It is unknown how seeding rate influences grain yield and quality in reduced- and no-till compared to conventionally-tilled systems, or if a cultivar by tillage by seeding rate interaction exists. This project is directed is quantifying how the seeding rate used and the cultivar selected affect hard red spring wheat performance in conventionally-, reduced-, and no-till environments.

Tan spot and other leaf-spotting diseases affect spring and winter wheats in North Dakota. Of the leaf spotting diseases, tan spot generally is the most prominent (McMullen and Nelson, 1992). Severe tan spot infestations can drastically reduce both grain yield and quality of spring wheat (Hosford and Busch, 1974). Even mild infestations can adversely impact yield (McMullen, per. comm.).

Tan spot incidence increases as tillage is reduced in wheat production systems (Rees and Platz, 1992). This negative relationship suggests tan spot control measures are needed to maintain profitable wheat production in reduced- and no-till systems.

Rotating wheat with nonsusceptible crops is an effective tan spot control measure in reduced-till systems. Fungicides can also be used, but they are rarely economical in western North Dakota. Thus, other controls may be needed in reduced- and no-till systems in the west for wheat yield and quality to be maintained or enhanced.

Nitrogen fertilizer applications have reduced tan spot infection severity in winter wheat. For example, tan spot infection was reduced by anhydrous ammonia applications in Indiana (Huber et al., 1987). It is unknown what, if any, effect N applications have on tan spot infection in spring wheat. If N applications could reduce tan spot severity, then tan spot might be controlled in reduced- and no-till systems by implementing an aggressive N fertilizer program. Applying N would have many benefits besides suppressing tan spot in western North Dakota, where insufficient amounts of N generally are applied (Goos, per. comm.). This project will explore what, if any, effects applications of ammonium nitrate have on incidence of leaf spotting in spring wheat.

Crop rotation is a management practice well known for its yield benefits. Several explanations have been suggested for the "rotation effect" including reduced pest problems, improved soil fertility, and reduced allelopathic or phytotoxic effects (Ball, 1987).

Past work indicates that a crop rotation incorporating both food and feed crops is best suited to farm operations in southwestern North Dakota (Conlon et al., 1953). Among the most productive crop rotations was a corn-spring wheat-oat sequence. Subsequent work indicated that a corn-wheat rotation compared favorably with cropping sequences commonly used in the region (Conlon, 1992, per. comm.).

It is unknown if contrasting cropping systems influence agronomic performance of spring wheat cultivars differently. Because varying the cropping sequence can dramatically influence soil moisture and other factors (Badaruddin and Meyer, 1990; Black et al., 1981), and spring wheat cultivar by environment interactions are known to exist (Carr et al., 1992; Peterson et al., 1986), a spring wheat cultivar by cropping sequence interaction is likely. Evidence of a cultivar by cropping sequence interaction would indicate that rotations should be considered when making cultivar recommendations for spring wheat. This project will compare the agronomic performance of several spring wheat cultivars across wheat-wheat, wheat-corn, and wheat-black fallow cropping sequences.

Spring wheat generally is grown in fields previously fallowed in western North Dakota. Recent work suggests that buckwheat and other crops might be economically grown in place of a fallow period without adversely affecting spring wheat yield in the subsequent year. This project will evaluate the potential of buckwheat in continuously-cropped, low-fertility environments.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Objective 1

HRSW Cultivar by Seeding Rate by Tillage System Trial. A field experiment was conducted under dryland conditions. Plots were arranged in a modified randomized complete block design in a split split-plot arrangement. Tillage system com-prised main plots, seeding rate comprised subplots, and spring wheat cultivar comprised sub-subplots. Tillage systems included: (1) conventional-till (spring disking and leveling with a cultivator and culti-harrow until less than 5% of residue remains at the soil surface at planting); (2) reduced-till (leveling with a cultivator and culti-harrow in attempts to maintain between 30%-60% of residue at planting); and (3) no-till (direct sowing into standing stubble). Subplots consisted of seeding rates of 500,000, 1,000,000, and 1,500,000 PLS per acre. Sub-subplots consisted of 2 conventional height (AC Minto, Amidon) and 3 semidwarf (Bergen, Grandin, Norm) spring wheat cultivars representing a range of genotypes and phenotypes presently grown in the Northern Great Plains Region.

Both phases of each tillage system (crop and fallow) were established and are being maintained through-out the trial's duration. As a result, 50% of the space allocated for plots was not planted in 1995 (i.e., fallow plots); weeds in these plots were either mechanically controlled (conventional-till), control-led both mechanically and with herbicides (reduced-till), or controlled solely using herbicides (no-till).

Main plots were 4500 square feet (90 by 50 ft). There were 6 main plots per replicate and four replicates in the experiment. Sub-subplot dimen-sions were 50 by 6 ft.

Plant nutrients were supplied as needed for a grain yield goal of 60 bu per acre, based on soil test results.

Postemergent herbicides were used during the crop phase in conventional- and reduced-till systems to control weeds. In the fallow plots, mechanical cultivation was used to control weeds in the conven-tional-till system. Two herbicide applications and a light disking were used in the reduced-till system. Non-incorporated herbicides were used in the no-till system.

Variables measured on each cropped plot included: number of plants at emergence, plant height, grain yield, 100 seed weight, grain volume weight, and grain protein content. Number of tillers at the six-leaf stage and at maturity were counted.

Data were analyzed using a computer-driven statistical program.

Amidon Spring Wheat by Seeding Rate Trial. Amidon spring wheat was sown in a no-till environ-ment at Beach, a conventionally-tilled, fallowed environment at Beulah and Glen Ullin, and a conventionally-tilled, continuously-cropped environment at Hannover in southwestern North Dakota. Amidon spring wheat was sown at five rates at each location: 500,000 Pure Live Seed (PLS) per acre; 750,000 PLS per acre; 1,000,000 PLS per acre; 1,250,000 PLS per acre; and 1,500,000 PLS per acre.

Plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates at each location. Vari-ables measured on each plot included: grain yield, test weight, kernel weight, and grain protein content.

Data were analyzed using a computer-driven statistical program.

Objective 2

Nitrogen Rate by Fungicide by Tillage System Trial. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in a split split-plot arrange-ment. Tillage system comprised main plots, fungi-cide treatment comprised subplots, and N applica-tions comprised sub-subplots. Tillage systems were established as described for the HRSW Cultivar by Seeding Rate by Tillage System Trial under Objective 1.

A single application of mancozeb at 1.0 lb a.i per acre made at the 5 leaf stage (Haun 6.0) along with a control (no fungicide) constituted subplot treatments. Applications of mancozeb at this rate may be economical in western North Dakota if severe tan spot infestations exist. The fungicide treatment was also used to assess if applications of N fertilizer were effective in suppressing tan spot.

Nitrogen as ammonium nitrate was applied, based on soil test results, at high and low rates. The high rate corresponded to a fertilizer plus soil N amount of 100 lbs N per acre and the low rate to 50 lbs N per acre.

Main plots were 2200 square ft. Sub-subplot dimensions were 55 by 10 ft. There were four replicates.

The following variables were measured on each plot: foliar leaf spotting at anthesis, plant height, grain yield, 1000 seed weight, and grain volume weight. Data were analyzed using a computer-driven statistical program.

Nitrogen Rate by Spring Wheat Cultivar Trial. Amidon, Grandin, Gus, Kulm, Norm, and 2375 wheat cultivars were each sown in plots where soil- plus applied-N was 50, 75, 100, and 125 pounds of N per acre. Plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design in a split-plot arrangement; N level comprised main plots and wheat cultivar comprised subplots. Plot dimensions were 10 by 28 feet.

Variables measured on each plot included: foliar leaf spotting, plant height, grain yield, test weight, kernel weight and grain protein content. Data were analyzed using a computer-driven statistical program.

Objective 3

The experiment was arranged in a modified randomized complete block design in a split-plot arrangement. Cropping sequence comprised main plots and consisted of wheat-black fallow, wheat-wheat, and wheat-corn rotations. Five conventional-height (AC Minto, Amidon, Butte 86, Sharp, and Stoa) and five semidwarf (Bergen, Grandin, HiLine, Norm, and 2371) spring wheat cultivars comprised subplots treatments.

Both phases of wheat-black fallow and wheat-corn rotations were established and will be maintained throughout the trial's duration. Hence, two main plots will be maintained each year for both rotations. By having both phases represented each year, wheat grain yield and quality data will be generated annually by each rotation. These data can then be compared with that produced by the wheat-wheat rotation each year the experiment is conducted.

Main plots were 1680 square feet. There were five main plots per replicate (two each for both wheat-black fallow and wheat-corn rotations and one for the wheat-wheat rotation). There were four replicates. Subplot dimensions were 6 by 28 ft.

Variables measured on each plot included: plant height, grain yield, 1000 seed weight, grain volume weight, and grain protein content.

The data were analyzed using a computer-driven statistical program.

Objective 4

Buckwheat Cultivar Adaptation Trial. Six buckwheat cutlivars were sown in a low-fertility, continuously-cropped environment in a field following barley. Plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Individual plot dimensions were 6 by 28 ft.

Variables measured on each plot included: days to flower, plant height, seed yield, test weight, and seed weight. The data were analyzed using a computer-driven statistical program.

Buckwheat/Wheat Nitrogen by Sulfur Trial. Butte 86 spring wheat and Manor buckwheat were each sown in plots receiving 0, 10, and 20 pounds of nitrogen per acre as either ammonium nitrate (34-0-0) or ammonium sulfate (21-0-0-24). Elemental sulfur (ES) was applied at 10 and 20 pounds per acre with selected ammonium nitrate (AN) treatments. Crop (wheat or buckwheat) constituted main plots and fertilizer treatment constituted subplots. There were 7 subplot treatments per main plot: 29 lbs AN per acre; 29 lbs AN plus 10 lbs ES per acre; 60 lbs AN plus 20 lbs ES per acre; 40 lbs ammonium sulfate (AS) per acre; 80 lbs AS per acre; and a check (no fertilizer applied).

Subplot dimensions were 6 by 28 feet. Variables measured on each plot included: plant height, grain yield, test weight, and kernel or seed weight. The data were analyzed using a computer-driven statistical program.

RESULTS

Objective 1

Hard Red Spring Wheat Cultivar by Seeding Rate by Tillage System

No differences in success at establishing wheat in no-till compared to reduced- and conventional-till environments were detected in 1994 or 1995. More plants generally were counted in a conventional-till environment than a no-till environment in 1994, whereas more plants were counted in a no-till environment in 1995.

More plants were counted as the seeding rate was increased across the tillage systems, but fewer tillers and heads on plants were counted. More heads than tillers were sometimes counted per plant; this anomaly can be explained by the method in which tillers were counted. Only well developed tillers were counted at the 6-leaf stage (Haun 7.0); head counts were made prior to harvest, suggesting that some of the less developed tillers not counted at earlier did develop heads. Cultivars differed in the tillers and heads which formed on a plant, but a consistent trend among cultivars was not observed.

The seeding rate by cultivar interaction was generally significant for plant, tiller, and head count, but the tillage system by cultivar and tillage system by seeding rate by cultivar interactions were not significant for these parameters in 1994 and 1995.

Both kernel weight and test weight differed across tillage system. A consistent trend in kernel weight was not observed, but a heavier test weight occurred when wheat was sown in a conventional- than a no-till environment. A heavier test weight also resulted as the seeding rate was increased. Bergen generally produced the heaviest kernels with the heaviest test weight.

Grain yield, grain protein content, and economic returns did not vary across the tillage systems. More grain and, consequently, greater returns were generated as the seeding rate was increased. The cultivars varied in grain yield, grain protein content, and returns; Bergen was the highest yielding cultivar and generated the greatest returns. AC Minto produced grain containing the most crude protein.

Amidon Spring Wheat by Seeding Rate

Seeding rate generally influenced grain yield; more grain was produced as the seeding rate was increased from 500,000 to 1,250,000 Pure Live Seed (PLS) per acre. Grain yield was sometimes increased as the seeding rate was increased from 1,250,000 PLS per acre to 1,500,000 PLS per acre, depending on the location.

Grain protein content, test weight, and kernel weight generally were not affected by seeding rate when each location was analyzed separately. While these data have not been analyzed across locations and years, some general trends were observed: (1) grain yield and test weight tended to increase as the seeding rate was increased from 500,000 PLS per acre to 1,500,000 PLS per acre; (2) a slight decrease in grain protein content resulted as the seeding rate was increased; and (3) kernel weight was not affected by the seeding rate.

Objective 2

Nitrogen Rate by Fungicide by Tillage System

Amount of leaf spotting did not vary across tillage systems in either 1994 or 1995, and grain yield did not differ among tillage systems in 1994. Less grain was produced in a no-till than a conventional-till environment in 1995. Grain contained more crude protein when produced in a no-till than a conventional-till environment in 1995, and kernels weighed less in no-till plots. Test weight varied among tillage systems in both 1994 and 1995, although a consistent trend was not observed.

Applications of mancozeb reduced leaf spotting (P<0.10) in 1995; this did not have a significant impact on grain yield, grain protein content, kernel weight, or test weight. In general, an application of mancozeb at the 6-leaf stage failed to significantly impact any grain parameter.

Leaf spotting was not affected by the amount of N available to wheat plants, but more grain was produced as greater amounts of N fertilizer was available. Grain protein content was also increased in 1995 as more N was available. Tillage system by N rate, fungicide treatment by N rate, and tillage system by fungicide treatment by N rate interactions generally have not been significant for any parameter.

N Rate by Spring Wheat Cultivar

Amount of leaf spotting was not affected by the amount of N that was available to wheat plants. However, leaf spotting did vary among the spring wheat cultivars. Least amount of leaf spotting occurred with Amidon, Grandin, and Gus in 1994 and 1995. Very little leaf spotting was observed with Norm in 1994, whereas more leaf spotting occurred with Norm than Amidon in 1995. Greatest amount of leaf spotting occurred with 2375 in 1995.

Grain yield and grain protein content were increased as more N was available in 1994 and 1995, whereas kernel weight and test weight generally increased. Grain yield varied among the cultivars in 1995 but not in 1994. Kernel weight and test weight varied among the cultivars in both years. Kernels produced by Norm and 2375 were among the heaviest in both years, whereas those produced by Gus were among the lightest. Kulm produced kernels with the heaviest weight in both years.

Objective 3

Cropping systems generally have not varied for any parameter, whereas differences have been detected among cultivars. Among the conventional height wheats, AC Minto has been the latest maturing and lowest yielding cultivar. Amidon has been among the highest yielding conventional height cultivars, but grain protein content of Amidon has been lower than AC Minto and Butte 86. Among the semidwarf cultivars, 2371 has been the latest maturing and lowest yielding cultivar. Bergen has been the earliest maturing and highest yielding cultivar.

The cropping system by cultivar interaction generally has not been significant for any parameter, except in 1994 for grain yield, test weight, and gross returns. In that year, greatest amount of grain was produced when semidwarf cultivars followed corn in a sequence, and when conventional-height cultivars followed fallow. This same trend was not observed in 1995.

Objective 4

Buckwheat Cultivar Adaptation

Seed yield among the six entries averaged over 1000 pounds per acre in a low-N, continuously-cropped environment in 1995. Common buckwheat and 85624 were the highest yielding entries, whereas germplasm from Japan was the lowest yielding.

Buckwheat/Wheat Nitrogen by Sulfur

Spring wheat was shorter, but produced more grain with a heavier test weight, and produced a heavier kernel than buckwheat. Wheat produced more grain as more N and S were applied, but a response to fertilizer application was not observed for grain protein content, test weight, or kernel weight. Buckwheat failed to respond to applications of N and S for any grain parameter.

LITERATURE CITED

Ali, M.B., and R.G. Johnson. 1981. Economics of summerfallow - wheat systems in North Dakota. North Dak. Agric. Exp. Stat. Bul. 511.

Badaruddin, M., and D.W. Meyer. 1990. Green-manure legume effects on soil nitrogen, grain yield, and nitrogen nutrition of wheat. Crop Sci. 30:819-824.

Ball, W.S. 1987. Crop rotations for North Dakota. North Dakota State Univ. Ext. Serv. Circ. EB-48. 20 p.

Black, A.L., and J.F. Power. 1965. Effect of chemical and mechanical fallow methods on moisture storage, wheat yields, and soil erodibility. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 29:465-468.

Black, A.L., P.L. Brown, A.D. Halvorson, and F.H. Siddoway. 1981. Dryland cropping strategies for efficient water use to control saline seeps in the Northern Great Plains. Agric. Water Manag. 4:295-311. Elesevier Pub. Co., Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Carr, P.M., J.S. Jacobsen, G.R. Carlson, and G.A. Nielsen. 1992. Influence of soil and N fertilizer on performance of barley and spring wheat cultivars. Can. J. Plant Sci. 72:651-662.

Chevalier, P.M., and A.J. Ciha. 1986. Influence of tillage on phenology and carbohydrate metabolism of spring wheat. Agron. J. 78:296-300.

Ciha, A.J. 1982. Yield and yield components of four spring wheat cultivars grown under three tillage systems. Agron. J. 74:314-320.

Conlon, T.J., R.J. Douglas, and L. Moomaw. 1953. Rotation and tillage investigations at the Dickinson Experiment Station. North Dak. Exp. Stat. Bul. 383.

Cox, D.J., and D.R. Shelton. 1992. Genotype-by-tillage interactions in hard red winter wheat quality evaluation. Agron. J. 84:627-630

Elliott, L.F., T.M. McCulla, and A. Waiss, Jr. 1978. Phytotoxicity associated with residue management. p. 131-146, In W.R. Oschwald (ed.) Crop Residue Management Systems. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI.

Elmore, R.W. 1987. Soybean cultivar response to tillage systems. Agron. J. 79:114-119.

Haas, H.J., C.E. Evans, and E.F. Miles. 1957. Nitrogen and carbon changes in Great Plains soils as influenced by soil treatments. USDA Tech. Bull. 1164. Washington, D.C.

Haas, H.J., W.O. Willis, and J.J. Bond. 1974. Summer fallow in the western United States. USDA-ARS Conservation Rep. No 17. Washington, D.C.

Hall, E.F., and F.A. Cholick. 1989. Cultivar by tillage interaction of hard red spring wheat cultivars. Agron. J. 81:789-792.

Hallauer, A.R., and T.S. Calvin. 1985. Corn hybrid response to four methods of tillage. Agron. J. 77:547-550.

Halvorson, A.D., and A.L. Black. 1974. Saline-seep development in dryland soils of northeastern Montana. J. Soil Water Cons. 29:77-81.

Hosford, R.M., Jr., and R.H. Busch. 1974. Losses in wheat caused by Pyrenophora trichostoma and Leptosphaeria avenaria F. sp. triticea. Phytopathology 64:184-187.

Huber, D.M., T.S. Lee, M.A. Ross, and T.S. Abney. 1987. Amelioration of tan spot-infected wheat with nitrogen. Plant Dis. 71:49-50.

Hwu, K.K., and R.E. Allan. 1986. Responses of genetically diverse winter wheat populations to conservation management systems. p. 66. In Agronomy Abstracts, ASA, Madison, WI.

McMullen, M.P., and D.R. Nelson. 1992. Tan spot and five years of wheat disease survey. p. 80-85, In L.J. Francl, J.M. Kuprinsky, and M.P. McMullen (eds.) Adv. in Tan Spot Res.: Proc. Second International Tan Spot Workshop. North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND.

Peterson, C.J., V.A. Johnson, and P.J. Mattern. 1986. Influence of cultivar and environment on mineral and protein concentration of wheat flour, bran, and grain. Cereal Chem. 63:183-186.

Rees, R.G., and G.J. Platz. 1992. Tan spot and its control-some Australian experiences. p. 1-9, In L.J. Francl, J.M. Kuprinsky, and M.P. McMullen (eds.) Adv. in Tan Spot Res.: Proc. Second International Tan Spot Workshop. North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND.

Smika, D.E. 1970. Summer fallow for dryland wheat in the semiarid Great Plains. Agron. J. 62:15-17.

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HRSW CULTIVAR X SEEDING RATE X TILLAGE SYSTEM TRIAL --- DICKINSON
  Plants Tillers Spikes
Treatment 1994 1995 1994 1995 1994 1995
  acre plant plant
Tillage system (TS)            
No-tillage 542,269 675,205 3.6 1.7 3.9 3.3
Reduced-tillage 559,521 637,327 3.7 2.3 3.6 3.4
Conventional-tillage 587,004 591,612 2.9 2.2 3.4 3.3
             
Seeding Rate (SR)            
500,000 PLS/acre 264,005 337,058 4.7 3.1 5.2 4.7
1,000,000 PLS/acre 582,650 654,380 3.1 1.9 3.2 2.9
1,500,000 PLS/acre 842,138 912,706 2.5 1.2 2.5 2.3
             
Cultivar (C)            
AC Minto 783,507 726,847 3.6 2.2 3.3 3.2
Amidon 551,031 641,221 3.9 2.1 3.6 3.2
Bergen 591,848 664,805 3.0 1.6 3.4 3.0
Grandin 506,858 483,637 3.1 2.6 3.7 4.4
Norm 381,413 657,064 3.4 1.8 4.1 2.8
             
TS NS NS NS NS NS NS
SR *** *** *** *** *** ***
TS x SR NS NS NS NS NS NS
C *** *** ** ***   ***
TS x C NS NS NS NS NS NS
SR x C *** * *   * NS
TS x SR x C NS NS NS NS NS NS
=P<0.10 level of significance

Previous crop: fallow; Soil test results: varied by treatment; Planting date: May 11; Applied Dakota TP (0.5 pt Fenoxyprop + 1 pt MCPA) + 2 oz Banvel per acre on June 6; Harvested on September 5.

 

HRSW CULTIVAR X SEEDING RATE X TILLAGE SYSTEM TRIAL ---DICKINSON
  Plant height Kernel weight - Test weight
Treatment 1994 1995 1994 1995 1994 1995
  inches kernels/lb lbs/bu
Tillage system (TS)            
No-tillage 32 30 12,910 15,592 59.3 54.5
Reduced-tillage 31 31 13,320 14,918 58.7 55.1
Conventional-tillage 31 30 12,248 14,262 60.3 55.3
             
Seeding Rate (SR)            
500,000 PLS/acre 30 30 12,828 15,282 58.9 54.0
1,000,000 PLS/acre 31 30 12,841 14,797 59.7 55.3
1,500,000 PLS/acre 32 31 12,810 14,693 59.7 55.7
             
Cultivar (C)            
AC Minto 35 34 13,458 15,860 59.2 53.6
Amidon 33 34 13,121 15,987 59.8 55.5
Bergen 28 27 12,173 13,655 59.6 55.5
Grandin 30 29 13,078 14,768 59.8 55.2
Norm 29 28 12,300 14,351 58.9 54.9
             
             
TS NS NS   * * *
SR *** NS NS NS *** **
TS x SR NS NS NS NS NS *
C *** *** *** *** *** ***
TS x C   NS NS * NS NS
SR x C NS   NS NS NS NS
TS x SR x C NS * NS NS NS NS
=P<0.10 level of significance

Previous crop: fallow; Soil test results: varied by treatment; Planting date: May 11; Applied Dakota TP (0.5 pt Fenoxyprop + 1 pt MCPA) + 2 oz Banvel per acre on June 6; Harvested on September 5.

 

HRSW CULTIVAR X SEEDING RATE X TILLAGE SYSTEM TRIAL --- DICKINSON
  Protein Grain yield Returns
Treatment 1994 1995 1994 1995 1994 1995
  % bu/ac $/acre
Tillage system (TS)            
No-tillage 15.9 14.1 48.9 37.1 245.56 158.24
Reduced-tillage 15.4 14.3 43.9 41.9 215.87 181.10
Conventional-tillage 15.6 14.5 49.1 40.9 246.11 178.81
             
Seeding Rate (SR)            
500,000 PLS/acre 15.6 14.4 41.6 37.1 205.78 158.76
1,000,000 PLS/acre 15.6 14.3 48.6 40.6 242.75 175.41
1,500,000 PLS/acre 15.7 14.3 51.7 42.1 258.91 183.98
             
Cultivar (C)            
AC Minto 16.2 15.1 46.1 33.2 233.19 145.78
Amidon 15.8 14.1 48.8 42.3 245.96 183.13
Bergen 15.0 13.9 51.3 44.0 251.12 188.52
Grandin 15.7 14.5 44.7 38.8 223.71 170.36
Norm 15.4 14.1 45.6 41.4 225.10 175.81
             
TS NS NS NS NS NS NS
SR NS NS * ** *** ***
TS x SR NS NS NS NS NS NS
C *** *** *** *** *** ***
TS x C NS NS NS NS NS *
SR x C NS NS NS   NS  
TS x SR x C   NS NS NS NS NS
=P<0.10 level of significance

Previous crop: fallow; Soil test results: varied by treatment; Planting date: May 11; Applied Dakota TP (0.5 pt Fenoxyprop + 1 pt MCPA) + 2 oz Banvel per acre on June 6; Harvested on September 5.

 

SEEDING RATE TRIAL - AMIDON HRSW DICKINSON
Seeding Rate Kernel weight Protein Test Weight Grain Yield
kernels/lb - % - lbs/bu bu/acre
500,000 16,149 14.9 56.5 34.9
750,000 15,911 14.8 57.0 39.4
1,000,000 16,220 14.8 57.6 41.7
1,250,000 15,752 14.8 57.0 43.2
1,500,000 16,163 14.7 57.5 44.2
Previous crop: Green fallow (Beach), Corn (Hannover), Fallow (Beulah and Glen Ullin); Soil test results (varied with location - refer to off-station variety trial data tables); Planted on May 18 (Beach) and 19 (other locations); Did not apply herbicides at Beach - applied 2.7 pt Hoelon + 0.33 oz Harmony Extra + 0.75 pt MCPA Ester per acre in two passes on June 13 at other sites; Harvested on September 8 (Beach), 11 (Beulah), 12 (Glen Ullin), and 13 (Hannover).

 

SEEDING RATE TRIAL - AMIDON HRSW --- DICKINSON
Location Seeding Rate Seeds Protein Test Weight Grain Yield
    1994 1995 1994 1995 1994 1995 1994 1995
    lbs % lbs/bu bu/acre
Beach 500,000 16,029 20,427 14.2 14.1 59.0 53.5 26.5 26.7
  750,000 16,307 20,660 13.9 14.0 59.6 54.1 30.6 26.6
  1,000,000 16,670 20,929 14.1 13.9 60.2 55.6 29.6 26.9
  1,250,000 16,267 19,994 14.0 13.9 60.1 55.2 31.2 28.8
  1,500,000 17,028 21,559 14.0 13.9 60.1 55.5 32.1 28.7
Mean   16,460 20,714 14.0 13.9 59.8 54.8 30.0 27.5
CV(%)   2.7 7.6 1.8 0.9 1.0 2.2 6.1 5.3
LSD.05   NS NS NS NS NS NS 2.8 NS
                   
Beulah 500,000 13,628 16,981 16.3 14.6 60.2 53.0 57.9 30.1
  750,000 14,007 16,129 16.3 14.4 60.6 53.5 62.6 33.3
  1,000,000 13,881 17,278 16.3 14.4 61.4 54.1 67.3 35.7
  1,250,000 14,414 16,541 16.1 14.2 61.9 54.4 69.9 36.9
  1,500,000 14,382 16,926 16.1 14.2 61.5 54.4 68.4 37.8
Mean   14,063 16,771 16.2 14.4 61.1 53.9 65.2 34.8
CV(%)   2.6 4.2 1.3 2.1 0.8 1.3 3.1 5.4
LSD.05   555 NS NS NS 0.7 NS 3.1 2.9
                   
Glen Ullin 500,000 13,815 16,659 14.5 14.5 57.5 56.2 47.0 40.1
  750,000 13,799 16,127 13.9 14.3 58.0 57.0 50.8 52.8
  1,000,000 13,334 15,865 14.2 14.2 58.1 57.5 52.2 56.34
  1,250,000 12,321 15,653 14.2 14.2 57.9 57.7 57.4 56.5
  1,500,000 13,233 15,328 13.9 14.2 57.0 57.0 57.0 59.2
Mean   13,300 15,927 14.2 14.3 57.8 57.2 52.9 53.0
CV(%)   8.4 7.4 1.7 1.0 0.8 1.2 6.7 5.9
LSD.05   NS NS 0.4 0.2 NS NS 5.5 4.8
                   
Hannover 500,000 14,388 17,264 16.6 14.8 59.6 52.6 29.1 21.9
  750,000 14,113 16,143 16.8 14.7 59.9 53.1 32.7 26.0
  1,000,000 14,027 17,777 16.6 14.7 60.6 53.5 37.2 28.5
  1,250,000 14,078 16,747 16.8 14.7 60.5 53.5 35.9 29.4
  1,500,000 14,393 16,454 16.8 14.6 60.9 53.7 37.1 33.0
Mean   14,200 16,877 16.7 14.7 60.3 53.3 34.4 27.8
CV(%)   3.2 12.6 1.4 1.0 0.9 1.1 9.9 6.5
LSD.05   NS NS NS NS 0.8 NS 5.3 2.8

 

NITROGEN BY FUNGICIDE BY TILLAGE SYSTEM TRIAL --- DICKINSON
  Leaf  
  Spotting Grain Yield
Treatment 1993 1994 1995 1993 1994 1995
  % of flag leaf bu/ac
Tillage system            
No-tillage (NT) 26 36 22 31.9 43.2 27.7
Reduced-tillage (RT) 37 31 32 34.6 45.4 30.5
Conventional-tillage (CT) 34 47 26 38.3 40.6 32.2
             
Fungicide Treatment            
No Fungicide (NF) 32 42 29 35.1 43.7 30.5
Fungicide (F) 33 34 24 34.7 42.4 29.7
             
N Fertilizer Rate            
Low Rate (LR) ---- 38 27 ---- 40.6 28.3
High Rate (HR) ---- 38 26 ---- 45.5 31.9
             
NT + NF + LR -- 36.5 33.5 -- 40.9 27.6
NT + F + LR -- 40.7 22.0 -- 42.5 23.1
NT + NF + HR 25.6 32.2 18.7 29.8 42.8 29.6
NT + F + HR 26.4 35.3 14.2 33.9 46.6 30.4
             
RT + NF + LR -- 34.0 27.2 -- 46.6 28.3
RT + F + LR -- 24.5 32.0 -- 39.6 29.1
RT + NF + HR 33.1 40.3 34.1 37.4 50.7 33.9
RT + F + HR 41.2 24.8 33.4 33.6 44.6 30.6
             
CT + NF + LR -- 56.2 27.3 -- 38.2 30.5
CT + F + LR -- 33.0 22.8 -- 35.7 31.4
CT + NF + HR 35.9 50.4 33.1 38.1 42.6 33.3
CT + F + HR 31.6 47.1 20.3 38.4 45.7 33.4
             
Tillage System (TS) * NS NS NS NS  
Fungicide Treatment (FT) NS NS   NS NS NS
TS x FT NS NS NS * NS NS
Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate (NFR) -- NS NS -- * *
TS x NR -- NS   -- NS NS
FT x NR -- NS NS -- NS NS
TS x FT x NR -- NS NS -- NS NS
=P<0.10 level of significance

Previous crop: HRSW; Soil test results: varied by treatment and plot; Fertilizer applied: Sufficient N and P to support a yield goal of 20 bu/acre (LR) or 40 bu/acre (HR) at a grain protein content of 14%; Planted with Stoa HRSW at 1,000,000 Pure Live Seed per acre on April 26; Applied Dakota TP (0.5 pt Fenoxyprop + 1 pt MCPA) + 2 oz Banvel per acre on May 31; Applied 1 lb Mancozeb on June 14 when wheat plants at the 5-leaf stage (Haun 6.0); Harvested on September 1.

 

NITROGEN BY FUNGICIDE BY TILLAGE SYSTEM TRIAL --- DICKINSON
  Protein Kernel Weight Test Weight
Treatment 1994 1995 1993 1994 1995 1993 1994 1995
  % kernels/lb lbs/bu
Tillage system                
No-tillage (NT) 15.0 14.8 15,521 14,225 18,573 57.7 60.6 54.4
Reduced-tillage (RT) 14.6 14.4 15,300 14,589 13,224 57.4 60.2 54.4
Conventional -tillage (CT) 14.6 14.0 15,337 14,965 16,358 57.6 59.7 56.2
                 
Fungicide Treatment                
No Fungicide (NF) 14.8 14.4 15,595 14,560 17,831 57.5 60.2 55.2
Fungicide (F) 14.7 14.3 15,166 14,626 17,605 57.6 60.2 54.8
                 
N Fertilizer Rate                
Low Rate (LR) 14.6 14.2 -- 14,282 17,765 ---- 60.5 55.1
High Rate (HR) 14.9 14.6 -- 14,904 17,671 ---- 59.8 54.9
                 
NT + NF + LR 14.8 13.8 -- 14,081 18,846 -- 60.9 54.7
NT + F + LR 14.4 13.6 -- 13,998 18,336 -- 60.7 53.6
NT + NF + HR 14.8 14.1 15,447 14,449 18,926 57.6 60.2 54.7
NT + F + HR 14.6 14.5 15,226 14,371 18,183 57.8 60.5 54.5
                 
RT + NF + LR 14.6 14.4 -- 13,971 18,641 -- 60.5 54.7
RT + F + LR 14.0 13.9 -- 14,252 17,720 -- 60.6 55.0
RT + NF + HR 15.0 14.7 15,573 15,120 17,748 57.5 59.9 54.5
RT + F + HR 15.0 14.6 14,937 15,015 18,785 57.2 60.0 53.4
                 
CT + NF + LR 14.5 14.7 -- 14,071 16,676 -- 60.4 56.4
CT + F + LR 15.4 14.5 -- 14,322 16,372 -- 60.0 55.9
CT + NF + HR 15.2 14.9 15,764 14,668 16,149 57.5 59.1 56.1
CT + F + HR 14.9 14.8 15,277 15,799 16,235 57.6 59.4 56.2
                 
Tillage System (TS) NS ** NS NS ** NS * *
Fungicide Treatment (FT) NS NS * NS NS NS NS NS
TS x FT NS   NS NS NS NS NS NS
Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate (NFR) NS *** --   NS -- * NS
TS x NFR NS * -- NS NS -- NS NS
FT x NFR NS NS -- NS NS -- NS NS
TS x FT x NFR   NS -- NS NS -- NS NS
=P<0.10 level of significance

Previous crop: HRSW; Soil test results: varied by treatment and plot; Fertilizer applied: Sufficient N and P to support a yield goal of 20 bu/acre (LR) or 40 bu/acre (HR) at a grain protein content of 14%; Planted with Stoa HRSW at 1,000,000 Pure Live Seed per acre on April 26; Applied Dakota TP (0.5 pt Fenoxyprop + 1 pt MCPA) + 2 oz Banvel per acre on May 31; Applied 1 lb Mancozeb on June 14 when wheat plants at the 5-leaf stage (Haun 6.0); Harvested on September 1.

 

HRSW CULTIVAR X N FERTILITY TRIAL --- DICKINSON
    Days to Heading Leaf Spotting
Treatment Type 1994 1995 1994 1995
  acre days %
N rate (N)          
50 lbs N -- 53 -- 13 45
75 lbs N -- 54 -- 13 30
100 lbs N -- 54 -- 15 28
125 lbs N -- 54 -- 15 21
Cultivar (C)          
Amidon Medium 54 -- 10 13
Grandin Semidwarf 55 -- 10 23
Gus Semidwarf 54 -- 10 19
Kulm Medium 52 -- 26 36
Norm Semidwarf 55 -- 9 29
2375 Semidwarf 53 -- 19 66
             
Mean     53.7 -- 14 31
CV(%)     2.2 -- 57.4 48.0
LSD.05     0.8 -- 5.7 15.5
             
N     NS -- NS NS
C     *** -- *** ***
N x C     NS -- NS NS

 

  Grain Yield Kernel Weight Test Weight
Treatment 1994 1995 1994 1995 1994 1995
  bu/acre kernels/lb lbs/bu
             
N rate (N)            
50 lbs N 44.9 42.4 12,896 14,213 62.5 57.7
75 lbs N 46.4 46.5 13,092 14,977 62.4 57.0
100 lbs N 43.7 47.2 13,638 15,095 62.3 56.9
125 lbs N 52.4 57.0 13,880 14,522 61.7 56.8
             
Cultivar (C)            
Amidon 47.4 54.6 13,976 14,673 61.9 57.2
Grandin 46.7 47.1 13,120 14,128 62.2 57.2
Gus 44.8 48.5 13,542 16,198 61.9 55.9
Kulm 47.0 47.4 14,671 14,524 63.2 59.1
Norm 47.9 46.9 12,300 14,096 62.1 56.2
2375 47.1 45.1 12,652 14,591 62.2 57.1
             
Mean 46.9 48.3 13,377 14,702 62.2 57.1
CV(%) 7.8 7.9 4.8 6.2 0.9 1.0
LSD.05 NS 2.7 455 645 0.4 0.4
             
N * *** * NS ** *
C NS *** *** *** *** ***
N x C NS NS NS NS NS NS

 

HRSW CULTIVAR X N FERTILITY TRIAL --- DICKINSON
  Protein Returns
Treatment 1994 1995 1994 1995
  - % $/acre
N rate (N)        
50 lbs N 14.4 12.2 -- 185.77
75 lbs N 14.5 13.1 -- 202.21
100 lbs N 15.0 13.5 -- 207.40
125 lbs N 15.6 13.8 -- 252.98
         
Cultivar (C)        
Amidon 14.6 12.7 -- 238.13
Grandin 14.6 13.3 -- 209.65
Gus 15.2 13.8 -- 210.27
Kulm 15.0 13.5 -- 220.10
Norm 14.7 12.9 -- 198.33
2375 15.0 12.6 -- 196.04
         
Mean 14.9 13.1 -- 212.09
CV(%) 7.8 3.7 -- 8.4
LSD.05 NS 0.3 -- 12.59
         
N *** *** -- NS
C NS *** -- ***
N x C NS NS -- NS
Previous crop: oat: Soil test results: 13 lbs N, 4 ppm P; applied 77 lbs 0-45-0 per acre, sufficient N as 34-0-0 to achieve 20, 30, 40, and 50 bu/acre HRSW at a grain protein content of 14%; Seeded at 1.2 million Pure Live Seed per acre on May 15; Applied 2 pt Hoelon + 1 pt Buctril per acre on June 5; Harvested on August 31.

 

HRSW CULTIVAR X CROPPING SEQUENCE TRIAL --- DICKINSON
    Days to Heading Plant Height
Treatment Type 1994 1995 1994 1995
  acre ----- days ----- ----- inches -----
Cropping Sequence (CS)          
Wheat-corn -- 47 52 32 32
Wheat-fallow -- 48 52 33 31
Wheat-wheat -- 49 53 32 31
Cultivar (C)          
Conventional          
AC Minto Medium 50 56 39 34
Amidon Medium 49 53 35 35
Butte 86 Medium 47 50 32 31
Sharp Medium 47 50 32 32
Stoa Medium 48 53 34 34
Mean   48 52 34 33
Semidwarf          
Bergen Semidwarf 47 52 28 27
Grandin Semidwarf 48 53 31 29
HiLine Semidwarf 47 52 30 27
Norm Semidwarf 48 53 29 28
2371 Semidwarf 50 55 36 36
Mean     48 53 31 29
             
CS     *** NS NS NS
C     *** *** *** ***
CS x C     NS NS NS NS
             

 

HRSW CULTIVAR X CROPPING SEQUENCE TRIAL --- DICKINSON
  Grain yield    
  Grain yield Percent of fallow Test weight
Treatment 1994 1995 1994 1995 1994 1995
  bu/acre % lbs/bu
Cropping Sequence (CS)            
Wheat-corn 50.7 56.0 101 103 60.8 56.7
Wheat-fallow 50.2 54.3 100 100 61.2 56.8
Wheat-wheat 47.8 54.1 95 100 60.4 56.7
             
Cultivar (C)            
Conventional            
AC Minto 46.2 47.5 -- -- 60.0 55.7
Amidon 51.1 60.2 -- -- 61.3 57.1
Butte 86 47.3 57.4 -- -- 61.3 57.4
Sharp 50.2 55.9 -- -- 62.7 58.6
Stoa 51.6 54.3 -- -- 60.6 56.0
Mean 49.3 55.1 -- -- 61.2 57.0
             
Semidwarf            
Bergen 54.4 61.3 -- -- 61.2 56.1
Grandin 47.4 54.5 -- -- 60.7 56.8
HiLine 51.4 50.6 -- -- 60.5 57.2
Norm 50.8 56.2 -- -- 61.0 56.0
2371 44.9 50.1 -- -- 59.0 56.1
Mean 49.8 54.5 -- -- 60.5 56.4
             
CS NS NS -- -- * NS
C *** *** -- -- *** ***
CS x C ** NS -- -- ** NS

 

HRSW CULTIVAR X CROPPING SEQUENCE TRIAL --- DICKINSON
  -- Grain protein -- -- Kernel weight -- --- Returns --
Treatment 1994 1995 1994 1995 1994 1995
  - % - - kernels/lb - - $/acre -
Cropping Sequence (CS)            
Wheat-corn 16.2 14.8 13,289 14,807 259.12 256.00
Wheat-fallow 16.2 14.7 12,953 14,811 256.68 249.49
Wheat-wheat 15.5 14.7 13,155 15,008 239.16 247.08
             
Cultivar (C)            
Conventional height            
AC Minto 16.6 15.4 13,337 15,167 238.51 217.40
Amidon 15.7 14.7 13,490 15,056 258.30 276.73
Butte 86 16.1 14.9 12,730 13,857 241.93 270.07
Sharp 15.7 14.4 13,189 13,777 253.77 265.00
Stoa 15.6 14.8 13,886 16,336 260.77 243.65
Mean 15.9 14.8 13,326 14,839 250.66 254.57
             
Semidwarf            
Bergen 15.2 14.1 12,253 13,809 271.58 268.69
Grandin 16.3 15.1 13,142 14,515 243.16 256.72
HiLine 15.7 14.1 13,412 15,837 260.09 230.38
Norm 15.8 14.2 12,055 14,303 257.28 246.94
2371 17.0 15.5 13,830 16,096 231.15 232.95
Mean 16.0 14.6 12,938 14,912 252.65 247.14
             
CS ** NS NS NS NS NS
C *** *** *** *** *** ***
CS x C NS NS NS NS ** NS

 

HRSW CULTIVAR X CROPPING SEQUENCE TRIAL --- DICKINSON
  Grain yield
  Wheat-corn Wheat-fallow Wheat-wheat
Treatment 1994 1995 1994 1995 1994 1995
  bu/acre
             
Cultivar (C)            
Conventional height            
AC Minto 45.6 48.7 48.2 47.6 44.8 46.0
Amidon 50.6 61.7 54.0 60.2 48.6 58.6
Butte 86 46.5 59.6 49.9 56.1 45.5 56.7
Sharp 50.3 56.1 53.1 55.9 47.2 55.7
Stoa 50.1 56.2 54.4 53.9 50.3 52.8
Mean 48.6 56.5 51.9 54.7 47.3 54.0
             
Semidwarf            
Bergen 57.8 66.1 51.0 59.2 54.3 58.7
Grandin 52.2 53.6 44.4 53.9 45.7 56.1
HiLine 54.3 50.9 51.7 50.1 48.3 50.9
Norm 53.4 56.4 50.2 55.4 48.8 56.8
2371 45.9 50.9 44.8 50.2 44.0 49.2
Mean 52.7 55.6 48.4 53.8 48.2 54.3

 

1995 BUCKWHEAT - RECROP --- DICKINSON

          Grain Yield
  Plant Days to   Test       --- Averages ---
Variety Height flower Seeds weight 1995 1994 1992 3-year 2-year
  inches June lbs lbs/bu lbs/ac
85624 28 35 14,454 36.6 1158.8 1541.7 1260.0 1320.2 1350.3
Common 26 34 24,699 41.8 1176.2 1617.4 1650.0 1481.2 1396.8
G. American 30 37 18,628 37.3 944.3 1555.3 1178.0 1225.9 1249.8
Japanese 1 32 35 18,372 39.1 775.1 -- -- -- --
Mancan 29 35 18,604 40.4 1070.2 1618.6 1094.0 1260.9 1344.4
Manor 31 35 18,802 39.0 1064.2 1395.8 1137.0 1199.0 1230.0
                   
Mean 29.4 35.1 18,927 39.0 1031.5        
CV(%) 3.0 1.3 8.5 1.9 11.7        
LSD.05 1.3 0.67 2430 1.1 182.3        

Previous crop: barley; Soil test results: 13 lbs N, 4 ppm P - no fertilizer applied; Sown at 670,000 Pure Live Seed per acre on April 15; Applied 1 pt Poast + 1 pt Scoil per acre on June 9; Harvested on August 29.

 

BUCKWHEAT/WHEAT N X FERTILITY TRIAL --- DICKINSON
    Yield Test Seed  
Treatment Height 1994 Weight Weight Protein
  inches lbs/acre lbs/bu Seed/lb %
Crop (C)          
Wheat 30 2,435.0 57.8 13,317 12.3
Buckwheat 33 999.3 40.1 16,385 --
Fertilizer Treatment (FT)          
Wheat (W)          
29 lbs 34-0-0 30 39.8 58.0 13,213 12.5
29 lbs 34-0-0 + 10 lbs S 30 41.3 57.6 13,200 12.6
60 lbs 34-0-0 30 43.1 57.6 13,211 11.8
60 lbs 34-0-0 + 20 lbs S 31 43.1 58.0 13,205 12.0
40 lbs 24-0-0-24 29 39.5 57.9 13,662 12.4
80 lbs 24-0-0-24 30 41.1 58.0 13,271 12.4
Check 30 36.2 57.8 13,453 12.3
           
Mean 30 40.6 57.8 13,317 12.3
CV(%) 3.0 5.6 0.9 3.3 4.0
LSD.05 NS 3.4 NS NS NS
           
Buckwheat          
29 lbs 34-0-0 33 20.8 39.9 16,015 --
29 lbs 34-0-0 + 10 lbs S 33 20.5 40.1 16,729 --
60 lbs 34-0-0 34 20.1 40.1 16,558 --
60 lbs 34-0-0 + 20 lbs S 33 20.2 40.1 16,836 --
40 lbs 24-0-0-24 32 21.1 40.2 16,337 --
80 lbs 24-0-0-24 34 22.1 39.9 16,176 --
Check 31 20.1 40.1 16,046 --
           
Mean 33 20.8 40.1 16,385 --
CV(%) 3.3 9.4 1.2 4.0 --
LSD.05 1.6 NS NS NS --
           
C * * *** **  
FT * * NS NS  
C x FT NS ** NS NS  
Previous crop: barley; Soil test results: 13 lbs N, 4 ppm P - no fertilizer applied; Sown at 670,000 Pure Live Seed per acre on April 15; Applied 1 pt Poast + 1 pt Scoil per acre on June 9; Harvested on August 29.

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