North Dakota State University * Dickinson Research Extension Center
1089 State Avenue, Dickinson, ND 58601-4642 Voice: (701) 483-2348 FAX: (701) 483-2005


ALTERNATIVE CROPS AND CROPPING SYSTEMS IN SOUTHWESTERN NORTH DAKOTA

P. Carr, Associate Agronomist, Adjunct Assistant Professor
G. Martin, Research Specialist II
B. Melchior, Agricultural Technician II

OBJECTIVES

  1. Evaluate cereals, pulses, and alfalfa alone and/or in mixtures with one another for feed and forage in southwestern North Dakota.

  2. Investigate several plant species as oilseed crops.

  3. Explore weed control strategies among alternative crops.

SUMMARY

Crop production systems in southwestern North Dakota have mostly been limited to small grains. Producers have begun to expand cropping choices as a way to enhance the economics of crop production. Besides enhancing market opportunities, crop diversity can improve pest control, increase soil organic matter levels, and enhance the cycling of nutrients in the soil. In North Dakota, development of crambe, lentil, and pea point to the benefits which biological diversity in cropping systems can offer. Crambe is naturally resistant to many small grain pests and can be used to break small grain disease cycles in rotations, as can lentil and pea. The seed of these crops are highly valued when sold in certain markets. Both lentil and pea are legumes and can biologically-fix over 100 pounds of nitrogen per acre under ideal conditions.

This project is directed at quantifying the potential which several alternative crops have in southwestern North Dakota. The project encompasses adaptation trials of field pea, lentil, and other pulse crops; canola, mustard, and other oilseed crops; and cereal cultivars and cereal-pea mixtures developed primarily for forage. New methods of establishing alfalfa and other forages in the southwest are being evaluated, as are weed management strategies when growing these crops. This project is collecting and publishing information on the performance of cereal forage crops and alternative crops and crop management strategies in southwestern North Dakota.

This publication will be made available in alternative formats upon request.

North Dakota State University is an equal opportunity institution.

INTRODUCTION

Corn is a dependable feed crop in North Dakota. Conlon and Douglas (1957) reported that corn produced larger yields per acre than any other feed crop grown at the Dickinson Experiment Station between 1907-57. In summarizing earlier research, Conlon and Douglas (1953) concluded that a corn-wheat-oat rotation generated considerably greater returns than a fallow-wheat-oat rotation on diversified crop-livestock farm operations. The corn produced on the farm was marketed through livestock.

Successful southwestern livestock producers have continued to find that corn is a dependable and excellent forage (Nelson and Landblom, 1991). Corn is perhaps the most versatile cultivated forage grown in the southwest. Ensiled corn with small amounts of soybean meal and alfalfa hay can produce rapid and economical gains in cattle without digestive problems. Other silage crops like forage sorghum have been unable to match the yields produced by corn (Nelson and Landblom, 1991).

Corn grown as silage is an excellent forage crop, but it is deficient in certain essential amino acids. Soybean meal generally is added to correct the protein deficiencies (Goodrich and Meiske, 1976). Unfortunately, soybean is not adapted to local growing conditions in the southwest, so the soybean meal added to the feed ration is an off-farm cost to producers. Adaptation screening trials suggest that lupin, which could be substituted for soybean meal in livestock rations, may successfully be grown in western North Dakota (Carr et al., 1992, 1993, 1994).

An alternative to blending ensiled corn with soybean meal to increase protein content is to grow corn and soybean together. Soybean is not adapted to growing conditions in the southwest, however, and corn-soybean mixtures have performed poorly when grown (Carr, unpub. data). Other pulses may be adapted to growing conditions and might perform well if intercropped with cereal crops.

Research suggests that barley-pea and oat-pea mixtures can successfully be grown in the southwest for grain or forage (Carr et al., 1994). Little is known, however, on how to best manage barley-pea and oat-pea mixtures in a climate like that in the southwest. Several trials have been started at the Dickinson Research Extension Center to determine how barley-pea and oat-pea mixtures can be managed for optimal grain and/or forage production.

Barley and oat are popular feed crops in the southwest. Past work indicates that barley and oat produce less total digestible nutrients than corn grown for either grain or silage (Smith and Stoa, 1944; Wiidakas, 1967). However, barley and oat are sometimes preferred over corn by producers because of equipment constraints, crop rotation considerations, and weed control options. This project will compare several barley and oat cultivars, some of which have been developed for forage production, as haylage and hay crops.

Work by Meyer and others (Meyer et al., 1990; Meyer and Helm, 1994) supports clear seeding alfalfa in a no-till seedbed rather than establishing alfalfa with an oat companion crop. However, much of this work was conducted in eastern North Dakota. It is unknown if establishing alfalfa in a no-till seedbed is preferred over sowing alfalfa with oat in western North Dakota. This project will compare alfalfa yield and quality among contrasting establishment methods at Dickinson.

Canola, mustard, and other crops have been identified as promising oilseed crops adapted to growing conditions in the southwest (Carr et al., 1994). Adaptation trials involving these crops have been limited to only a few of the most common cultivars. To better determine the agronomic potential of these oilseed crops, this project will screen several Argentine and Polish canola cultivars, and several brown, oriental, and yellow mustard cultivars, to determine which cultivars are best adapted to southwest growing conditions.

Flax and lentil are adapted to growing conditions in the southwest, but weed problems can be encountered when growing these two crops. Both are poor competitors with weeds, particularly early in the growing season (Martin et al., 1976). Weed control problems encountered when growing these crops are an obstacle to their wider adoption by producers in the southwestern region of the state.

Limited work in the southwest suggests that harrowing may be effective in reducing stands of common lambsquarters, foxtail, kochia, pigweed, and other small seeded weeds in flax (Carr et al., 1994). More work is needed to determine how effective mechanical and other tools are in controlling weeds in flax and lentil, as well as in hard red spring wheat and other widely-grown crops in the southwest.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Objective 1

Cultivar Adaptation Trials. Lupin, field pea, and lentil were evaluated in cultivar comparison trials at Dickinson. A corn cultivar trial also was conducted, as was a cool season and warm season forage trial, a forage barley and oat trial, and a cereal-pea cutting date trial. Seed of 7 lupin, 9 field pea, and 7 lentil cultivars were provided by the Carrington and North Central Research Extension Centers. Corn seed was solicited from private seed companies. Seed of the 7 entries in the cool season forage trial was provided by the North Central Research Extension Center, as was the seed of the 4 entries in the warm season forage trial. Seed of the 12 barley, oat, or cereal-pea mixtures in the forage barley and oat trial were obtained from several sources, as were the 10 entries in the cereal pea cutting date trial.

Cultural practices including tillage and seeding, fertilization, herbicide application, and harvesting followed currently acceptable agronomic procedure in implementing and maintaining cultivar comparison trials.

Cultivars were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Individual plot dimensions were 28 by 6 ft, except for corn plots, which were 50 by 6 ft. Variables measured on each plot depended on the trial. Days to flower, flower duration, days to maturity, lodging score, plant height, grain yield and test weight, and seed weight, were recorded for lupin, field pea, and lentil trials. In the corn hybrid trial, silage yield and moisture content were determined. Plant height, harvest moisture, hay yield, and quality were determined for entries in the cool season forage trial. Plant height, harvest moisture and hay yield were determined for the forage barley and oat trial, the cereal-pea cutting date trial, and the warm season forage trial.

Alfalfa was established in no-till and conventionally-tilled environments in plots measuring 10 by 250 ft using a John Deere 750 no-till planter. Plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Plant counts and hay yield were determined for each plot.

Data collected from each trial were analyzed by computer using a statistical software program.

Objective 2

Cultivar Adaptation Trials. Six mustard and nine canola varieties were evaluated in cultivar comparison trials at Dickinson. Seed of both crops was provided by the Langdon Research Center. Cultural practices including tillage and seeding, fertilization, herbicide application, and harvesting followed currently acceptable agronomic procedure in implementing and maintaining cultivar comparison trials.

Cultivars were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Individual plot dimensions were 28 by 6 ft. Variables measured on each plot included days to flower, flower duration, days to maturity, lodging score, plant height, grain yield, test weight, and seed weight. Seed oil content was determined by Jim Hanzel in the Plant Sciences Department at North Dakota State University located at Fargo.

Objective 3

Mechanical Weed Control Trial. A field experiment was conducted under dryland conditions. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in a split-plot arrangement with four replicates. Crop species comprised main plots and included flax, lentil, and hard red spring wheat.

Weed control treatments comprised subplots. These were oriented at right angles to main plots and included: (1) rotary hoeing at three to five days after seeding; (2) rotary hoeing at three to five days after seeding and again when plants were 2-5 in. tall; (3) harrowing with a spring tooth harrow at three to five days after seeding; (4) harrowing at three days after seeding and again when seedlings were 2-5 in tall; (5) rotary hoeing at three to five days after seeding plus herbicides; (6) harrowing at three to five days after seeding plus herbicides; and (7) herbicides alone. Herbicide treatments included a postemergent application of 0.25 lb a.i./ac Buctril for flax when rotary hoed or harrowed and 0.4 lb a.i./ac Poast plus 0.25 lb a.i./ac Buctril when not hoed or harrowed; a postemergent application of 0.38 lb a.i./ac Sencor for lentil when rotary hoed or harrowed and 0.4 lb a.i./ac Poast plus 0.38 lb a.i./ac Sencor when not hoed or harrowed; and a postemergent application of 0.25 lb a.i./ac Buctril for wheat when rotary hoed or harrowed and 0.9 lb a.i./ac Hoelon plus 0.25 lb a.i./ac Buctril when not hoed or harrowed. A check (no weed control) treatment was included in each replicate.

Variables measured on each plot included: plant population at establishment or approximately 2 days after the last tillage pass, whichever was later, dry matter production of grass and broadleaf weeds, and seed yield of each crop. Weed control within each plot was visually rated as percent control compared to the check subplot.

Data were analyzed as a split-plot by computer using a statistical software program. Subplots also were analyzed individually.

Poast/Treflan Comparison in Flax Trial. Flax was sown at two dates in plots in which no herbicide was applied; in plots in which 1 pt of Treflan per acre was applied prior to sowing and 1 pt Buctril after flax plants had emerged; and in plots in which 2 pt Poast plus 2 pt Scoil plus 1 pt Buctril were applied after flax had emerged.

Plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design in a split-plot arrangement. Planting dates comprised the main plots and weed control treatments comprised subplots. Variables measured on each plot included: plant stand; visual weed control; weed biomass; and flax seed yield.

Data were analyzed as a split-plot by computer using a statistical software program.

RESULTS

Objective 1

Corn

Average yield of corn silage was 5.5 tons of dry matter per acre among the 10 commercial hybrids and one public variety evaluated in 1995. Significant differences were observed among the entries for silage yield; highest yields were produced by Dekalb DK 385, Cenex 555 and 289, Pioneer 3921and 3905. Birds destroyed grain before it could be harvested and the grain yield determined.

Cool Season Forage Trial

Azure barley produced significantly more hay than oat, triticale, oat- and triticale-pea mixtures in a recropped environment. Hay quality (crude protein content, acid- and neutral detergent fiber content) tended to be less for Azure barley than the other entries, suggesting a trade-off between the higher yield with the lower crude protein content of the barley. However, signficant differences were not observed between entries for any hay quality parameter.

Hay yield was significantly less for Frank triticale and Whitestone oat when it was intercropped with Trapper pea compared to growing the cereal alone. We speculate that the low rate at which the cereal component was sown in intercrops may explain the lower yield of the mixtures; Carr and others (1994) suggested that monocropped yield levels could be maintained by mixtures if the cereal component was sown at or above the sole-crop rate. Hay yield sometimes was reduced if the cereal was sown at half the sole-crop rate. Crude protein content of oat-pea mixtures tended to be higher (16%) than that of sole oat (14%), although a significant difference was not detected.

Forage Barley and Oat Trial

An average of 3.4 tons of hay was produced by the barley, oat, and oat-pea mixtures in the trial. Haybet barley, a forage-type barley recommended for irrigated environments in Montana, produced the most hay, although B 7518 and Stark barley produced comparable amounts. Lowest yield was produced by a mixture of Dumont oat and Trapper pea when each crop wassown at half the sole-crop rate. Sowing Dumont oat at the sole-crop rate with pea at 3/2 of the sole-crop rate produced comparable amounts of hay to that produced by B 7518 and Stark barley.

Data collected in 1995 suggest that Stark barley can produce as much or more hay than other barley and oat cultivars developed and grown for forage in the southwest, including Mammoth oat and Horsford barley. However, this trial must be continued to determine if yield trends observed among the entries in 1995 are consistent across more years. Hay quality must also be determined before any conclusions about the suitability of the barley and oat cultivars, and oat-pea mixtures, included in this trial for hay production can be made for the southwest.

Cereal-Pea Cutting Date Trial

Sowing Dumont oat alone, or sowing both Dumont oat and Trapper pea at 3/2 the sole-crop rate in a mixture, produced as much or more hay than any other treatment in 1995. Hay yield averaged 2.7 tons per acre across all treatments when cut on July 18 (app. milk stage); yield averaged 3.2 tons per acre if cutting was delayed until July 24 (early soft dough). This trial will be continued and expanded in 1996 to include 4 cutting dates, corresponding to cereal early boot, milky kernel, soft dough kernel, and hard dough kernel growth stages. Hay quality data will also be generated for 1995 and 1996 samples.

Warm Season Forage Trial

Average yield for the entries harvested for hay in this trial was 3.6 tons per acre; data was not collected for a hybrid pearl millet entry because of poor stand establishment. German millet and a Sorghum x Sudan cross produced the most hay, with yields over 4 tons per acre. Siberian millet and Piper Sudangrass produced around 3 tons of hay per acre.

Alfalfa Establishment Method Trial

Clear seeding alfalfa in a no-till seedbed produced less hay than sowing alfalfa in a conventionally-prepared seedbed with an oat nurse crop in 1995 at the P=0.053 level of signficance. Differences in alfalfa yield between the two establishment methods were not observed between plots established in 1994; however, average alfalfa hay yield tended to be greater for the clear seeding method than the conventional + companion crop method for both the first cutting (P=0.28) and the second cutting

(P=0.56). More subsamples will be collected in 1996 to improve our ability to detect differences between treatments at the P<0.05 level.

Field Pea

The field pea trial was expanded from six varieties in 1994 to nine varieties in 1995. Average grain yield for the nine pea varieties was over 2200 lbs per acre in a field where barley was sown in 1994. Assuming a feed pea price of $0.06, average gross returns would have been $132. Gross returns have been reported to be more than twice as much in 1995 by some producers selling peas in higher-valued markets. No problems were encountered in establishing pea. Carneval and Majoret were rated as the easiest varieties to harvest (refer to lodging score). Seed yield across pea varieties evaluated in a continuously-cropped environment at Dickinson has averaged well over 1500 lbs per acre in the last three years the trial has been conducted.

Lentil

Lentil yield ranged from 1395 lbs per acre for Spanish Brown to 2108 lbs per acre for CDC Richlea in 1995. Assuming a contract price of $0.15 per pound, gross returns for CDC Richlea would have been $316 per acre.

Crimson, a variety of lentil developed by USDA-ARS scientists located at Pullman, Washington, for semiarid regions, continued to yield well. Of the varieties evaluated over the past three years, Crimson has consistently been among the highest yielding. It tends to mature earlier and be shorter than the dominant varieties grown.

Lentil is short compared to wheat and other crops that most growers are familiar with. Distance from the top of plants to the soil surface averaged only 12 inches for the lentil varieties evaluated at Dickinson in 1995, and 11 inches in 1994. However, we observed on farms in Golden Valley county that rolling lentils after they were established increased lentil height in 1995. Care should be taken to roll plants when they are somewhat wilted and mechanical injury to the plants can be minimized. Even with rolling, lentil production seems best suited to level fields that are free of rocks. Reduced- and no-till seedbeds are probably better suited than conventionally-tilled seedbeds for lentil, since the plants will be supported by standing stubble and may stand more upright.

Lupin

Grain yield averaged only 645 lbs per acre among the lupin varieties evaluated at Dickinson in 1995. This low yield does not reflect problems in establishing the lupin trial, but rather a disease problem that dessimated the lupin stand. Similar problems were encountered in 1994. The high variability in yield (indicated by the high CV[%]) across plots for a single variety has made yield comparisons between varieties difficult over the past three years, as well as drawing conclusions about the adaptability of lupin in low- and medium- pH soils in the southwest.

Objective 2

Mustard

Yield across entries in the mustard trial averaged around 2000 lbs seed per acre in 1995. Yield ranged from 1700 to 2500 lbs seed per acre; oriental Cutlass was the highest yielding cultivar (2491 lbs per acre) and yellow Ochre the lowest (1695 lbs per acre). Assuming a contract price for yellow mustard seed of $0.13 per pound, gross returns from Ochre would have been $220 per acre.

Canola

Seed yield across the canola varieties was comparable to yield across the mustard varieties evaluated in 1995; canola yield ranged from 1400 lbs seed per acre for Tobin to 2500 lbs seed per acre for Hyola 401. Assuming a contract price of $0.11 per pound, gross returns from Hyola 401 would have been $275 per acre.

These trials will be continued, and possibly expanded, and a crambe trial begun, in 1996.

Objective 3

Mechanical Weed Control Trial

Most effective control of weeds resulted when herbicides were used alone or in combination with either the harrow or rotary hoe. Without herbicides, single or multiple cultivations using a harrow or rotary hoe generally failed to control weeds as effectively as any control treatment including herbicides. Both the harrow and rotary hoe generally reduced weeds compared to the check (no control) treatment across years, but not at a level that we feel most producers would be willing to accept.

In some instances, seed yield was comparable between plots in which weeds were mechanically controlled and plots in which only herbicides were used to control weeds, regardless of which crop was grown. Greatest amounts of seed sometimes were produced when a preemergent mechanical cultivation was combined with a postemergent application of herbicide, though yield generally was not significantly greater than that for the treatment including only herbicides. One exception occurred with flax in 1994, where yield was significantly greater for the harrow + herbicide treatment than the herbicide treatment.

Crop stand tended to be reduced by both pre- and postemergent cultivation with either the harrow or rotary hoe, although there were several exceptions. Of the crops evaluated, flax stand was reduced most dramatically.

Poast/Treflan Comparison Trial in Flax

Treflan and Poast both controlled grassy weeds compared to not applying any herbicide for grassy weed control; however, differences in weed production were not detected between herbicide treatments. Flax seed yield was reduced when herbicides were not used. Flax yield was less in plots where Poast was applied than in plots where Treflan was applied in 1994, and more (P=0.099) in 1995. Stand establishment problems resulted from soil crusting probems in 1994 and may partially explain why plots in which Poast was applied also contained less flax seed than plots in which Treflan was applied (flax seed yield CV%==42). Stand establishment problems were not encountered in 1995 (flax seed yield CV%=12.7).

We observed no reduction in flax plant stand in plots where Treflan was applied rather than Poast. However, flax plants were stunted and lighter in color in plots where Treflan was applied until flowering.

LITERATURE CITED

Carr, P., E. Eriksmoen, G. Martin, B. Melchior, R. Olson, and M. Hinrichs. 1992. Ninth annual western dakota crops day research report. Dickinson and Hettinger Res. Ctrs., Dickinson, ND. 71 p.

Carr, P., E. Eriksmoen, G. Martin, B. Melchior, R. Olson, and M. Hinrichs. 1993. Tenth annual western dakota crops day research report. Dickinson and Hettinger Res. Ctrs., Dickinson, ND. 77 p.

Carr, P., E. Eriksmoen, G. Martin, B. Melchior, and R. Olson. 1994. Eleventh annual western dakota crops day research report. Hettinger and Dickinson Res. Ext. Ctrs., Dickinson, ND. 74 p.

Conlon, T.J., and R.J. Douglas. 1957. Corn for silage. North Dak. Farm Res. 19(4): 107-114.

Conlon, T.J., and R.J. Douglas. 1953. Rotation and tillage investigations at the Dickinson Experiment Station. North Dak. Agric. Exp. Stat. Bul. No. 383. 126 p.

Goodrich, R.D., and J.C. Meiske. 1976. High-energy silage. p. 569-580. In M.E. Heath, D.S. Metcalfe, and R.F. Barnes (eds.) Forages: the science of grassland agriculture. The Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, IA.

Martin, J.H., W.H. Leonard, and D.L. Stamp.1976. Principles of field crop production. Third Ed. Macmillan Pub. Co., New York, NY. 1118 p.

Meyer, D.W., J.L. Helm, D.L. Dodds, and K.Sedivec. 1990. Forage establishment. ND State Univ. Ext. Serv. Circ. R-563 (Rev.) 8p.

Meyer, D.W., and J. Helm. 1994. Alfalfa management in North Dakota. ND State Univ. Est. Serv. Circ. R-571 (Rev.).

Nelson, J.L., and D.G. Landblom. 1991.Contributions of the Dickinson Research Center in western North Dakota. North Dak. Farm Res. 49(1):3-9.

Smith, R.W., and T.E. Stoa. 1944. A comparison of different grains for feed production in North Dakota. North Dak. Agric. Exp. Stat. Bimon. Bul. 6(4): 13-17.

Wiidakas, W. 1967. Adapted corn hybrids are more dependable. North Dak. Agric. Exp. Stat. Bimonthly Bull. Farm Res. 25(1): 13-15.

1995 HYBRID CORN TRIAL - RECROP - DICKINSON
Brand Hybrid RM
days
Harvest
Moisture
%
Silage Yield
70% DM basis
Moisture 1995 1994 1993 3-Year 2-Year
tons/ac
Cenex 176 80 57 17.7 5.3 -- -- -- --
Cenex 289 90 63 19.7 5.9 -- -- -- --
Cenex 555 115 71 20.0 6.0 -- -- -- --
Dekalb DK 343 84 56 18.2 5.5 3.6 3.1 4.1 4.6
Dekalb DK 385 88 59 21.5 6.5 -- -- -- --
Public MN-13 Open1 55 16.3 4.9 -- -- -- --
Pioneer 3905 87 54 19.2 5.8 4.1 -- -- 5.0
Pioneer 3921 86 57 19.7 5.9 3.1 -- -- 4.5
Pioneer 3951 80 56 15.3 4.6 -- -- -- --
Pioneer 3963 79 55 19.0 5.7 3.7 3.3 4.2 4.7
Pioneer 3984 75 54 13.7 4.1 -- -- -- --
                   
Mean     58 18.2 5.5        
CV(%)     6.6 10.9 10.9        
LSD .05     5.5 2.9 0.9        
1Open = open pollinated
Previous crop: Black lentil (plow down); Soil test results: 107 lbs N, 18 ppm P; applied 225 lbs urea per acre; planted at 22,000 seed per acre on May 22; Applied 0.67 oz Accent + 0.60 lbs Atrazine + 1.5 pt Scoil per acre on June 16; Harvested on September 20.

 

COOL SEASON ANNUAL FORAGES - RECROP - DICKINSON
Crop Variety Cereal
Height
inches
Harvest
Moisture
%
Hay Yield
12% DM basis
Moisture 1995 1994 2-Year
tons/ac
barley Azure 86 66 4.9 4.4 -- --
triticale Frank 98 67 3.7 3.2 -- --
triticale/pea Frank/Trapper 91 73 3.0 2.7 -- --
triticale/pea 'Sprint' 92 74 3.3 2.9 -- --
oat/pea 'Tripper' 113 71 3.7 3.2 -- --
oat Whitestone 84 73 3.8 3.3 -- --
oat/pea Whitestone/Trapper 79 77 3.0 2.6 -- --
               
Mean   91.8 72 3.6 3.2    
CV(%)   4.6 2.9 11.0 11.0    
LSD.05   6.3 3.1 0.6 0.5    
Previous crop: Black lentil (plow down); Soil test results: 66 lbs N, 17 ppm P; no fertilizer applied; planted at 100 lbs (Azure), 75 lbs (Frank), 95 lbs (Frank [35] + Trapper [60]), 65 lbs (Whitestone), 95 lbs (Whitestone [35] + Trapper [60]), and 120 lbs (Tripper and Sprint) seed per acre on May 17; No herbicide applied; Harvested on July 19.

 

COOL SEASON ANNUAL FORAGES - RECROP - DICKINSON
Crop Variety Crude
Protein
Acid
Detergent
Fiber
Neutral
Detergent
Fiber
Relative
Feed
Value
%
barley Azure 14.5 32.5 52.5 113.5
triticale Frank 16.0 33.5 54.0 108.6
triticale/pea Frank/Trapper 16.5 37.0 54.5 103.6
triticale/pea 'Sprint' 14.5 37.0 56.5 98.8
oat/pea 'Tripper' 15.5 42.5 60.5 86.6
oat Whitestone 14.0 37.0 58.5 95.3
oat/pea Whitestone/Trapper 16.0 37.0 55.0 101.3
           
Mean   15.3 36.6 55.9 101.1
CV(%)   5.9 8.0 5.0 8.2
LSD.05   NS NS NS NS
Previous crop: Black lentil (plow down); Soil test results: 66 lbs N, 17 ppm P; no fertilizer applied; planted at 100 lbs (Azure), 75 lbs (Frank), 95 lbs (Frank [35] + Trapper [60]), 65 lbs (Whitestone), 95 lbs (Whitestone [35] + Trapper [60]), and 120 lbs (Tripper and Sprint) seed per acre on May 17; No herbicide applied; Harvested on July 19.

 

FORAGE BARLEY AND OAT - RECROP - DICKINSON
Crop Variety Height
inches
Harvest
Moisture
%
Hay Yield
12%
Moisture
DM basis
1995 1994 1993 3-Year 2-Year
tons/ac
barley B 7518 68 69 4.3 3.8 -- -- -- --
oat Bay 81 72 3.8 3.3 -- -- -- --
barley Chopper 86 64 3.8 3.4 -- -- -- --
oat Dumont 92 73 3.6 3.2 2.4 2.9 2.8 2.8
oat/pea Dumont/Trapper1 85 75 3.8 3.4 2.5 3.3 3.1 3.0
oat/pea Dumont/Trapper2 97 74 3.3 2.9 2.2 2.9 2.7 2.6
barley Haybet 74 64 4.5 4.0 -- -- -- --
barley Horsford 83 67 3.6 3.2 4.6 2.7 3.5 3.9
barley I 92-615-2 76 62 3.1 2.7 -- -- -- --
oat Mammoth 102 73 3.9 3.4 -- -- -- --
barley Stark 87 65 4.3 3.7 -- -- -- --
barley Weal 75 65 3.7 3.3 -- -- -- --
                   
Mean   84 69 3.8 3.4        
CV(%)   5.0 2.6 9.7 9.7        
LSD.05   6.0 2.6 0.5 0.5        
Previous crop: Black lentil (plow down); Soil test results: 66 lbs N, 17 ppm P; no fertilizer applied; planted at 800,000 Pure Live Seed (PLS) per acre on May 17, except for oat-pea mixtures which were sown at 750,000 oat plus 487,500 pea PLS per acre (1) and 375,000 oat plus 162,500 PLS per acre (2); No herbicide applied; Harvested on July 19.

 

CEREAL/PEA CUTTING DATE TRIAL - RECROP - DICKINSON
Crop Variety Seeding Rate Height Harvest Moisture
Cereal Pea Cereal Pea 1 cut 2 cut
seeds/acre inches %
oat/pea 'Tripper'     31 36 75 73
oat Dumont 750,000 0 37 -- 73 72
barley Horsford 750,000 0 30 -- 77 68
triticale/pea 'Sprint' 1 1 44 32 70 70
barley/pea Horsford/Trapper 1,125,000 487,000 28 20 76 71
barley/pea Horsford/Trapper 375,000 162,500 28 23 76 71
barley/pea Horsford/Trapper 750,000 325,000 29 24 76 73
oat/pea Dumont/Trapper 1,125,000 487,000 35 33 74 73
oat/pea Dumont/Trapper 375,000 162,500 36 34 75 75
oat/pea Dumont/Trapper 750,000 325,000 36 30 73 76
               
Mean       33.7 29.3 74.5 72.3
CV(%)       4.6 13.4 2.0 2.7

 

Variety Seeding Rate Harvested Yield Dry Weight
Cereal Pea 1 cut 2 cut 1 cut 2 cut 1-2
seeds/acre tons/acre
Tripper     11.0 12.5 2.8 b 3.3 b 0.5
Dumont 750,000 0 11.3 12.5 3.0 ab 3.5 a 0.5
Horsford 750,000 0 9.8 9.2 2.2 c 2.9 c 0.7
'Sprint' 1 1 10.4 10.5 3.1 ab 3.1 b 0.0
Horsford/Trapper 1,125,000 487,00 9.7 11.0 2.3 c 3.2 b 0.9
Horsford/Trapper 375,000 162,50 8.6 10.8 2.1 c 3.1 b 1.0
Horsford/Trapper 750,000 325,00 9.5 11.0 2.2 c 3.0 b 0.8
Dumont/Trapper 1,125,000 487,00 12.2 12.7 3.2 a 3.4 ab 0.2
Dumont/Trapper 375,000 162,50 11.5 12.5 2.8 b 3.2 b 0.4
Dumont/Trapper 750,000 325,00 11.6 12.9 3.1 ab 3.1 b 0.0
               
Mean     10.6 11.6 2.7 3.2  
CV(%)     8.4 6.5 10.5 9.4  
Previous crop: Black lentil (plow down); Soil test results: 66 lbs N, 17 ppm P; no fertilizer applied; planted at 800,000 Pure Live Seed per acre, or 80 lbs oat and 40 lbs pea for 'Sprint' [1] on May 17; No herbicide applied;Harvested first cutting on July 14 (Horsford) and July 18 (other entries); second cutting made on July 21.

 

WARM SEASON ANNUAL FORAGES - RECROP - DICKINSON
Crop Variety Days to
Heading
days
Harvest
Moisture
%
Hay Yield
12%
Moisture
DM basis  
1995 1994 1992 3-Year 2-Year
tons/ac
Millet German 86 60 4.9 4.3 -- 4.7 -- 4.5
Sudangrass Piper 79 57 3.3 2.9 -- -- -- --
Millet Siberian 79 54 3.2 2.9 -- 4.3 -- 3.6
Sorghum x Sudan Sudax 86 64 4.7 4.2 -- -- -- --
                   
Mean     0.6 4.0 3.6        
CV(%)     3.2 10.9 10.9        
LSD.05     3 0.7 0.6        
Previous crop: Black lentil (plow down); Soil test results: 43 lbs N, 17 ppm P; no fertilizer applied; planted at 20 lbs (millets) and 25 lbs (Sudangrass and Sorghum x Sudan cross) on May 22; Applied 0.75 pt Buctril per acre on June 17; Harvested Sudangrass and Siberian millet on August 9 and other entries on August 16.

 

ESTABLISHMENT METHOD TRIAL - ALFALFA - DICKINSON
Year Establishment method Plant Count Hay Yield (0% moisture)
oat alfalfa 1st cut 2nd cut
plants/acre tons/acre
1 Clear seeded into notill -- 1,303,315 1.8 2.5
  With an oat nurse crop -- 1,843,459 1.2 2.1
Mean -- 1,573,387 1.5 2.3
CV(%) -- 18.5 39.8 32.3
LSD.05 -- NS NS NS
         
2 Clear seeded into notill -- 1,658,765 2.7 --
  with an oat nurse crop 566,280 1,901,830 4.8 --
Mean -- 1,780,297 3.7 --
CV(%) -- 27.4 25.6 --
LSD.05 -- NS NS --
Previous crop: barley; Soil test results: 47 lbs N, 9 ppm P; Applied 100 lbs 0-45-0; Planted alfalfa at 10 lbs Live Seed/acre on April 24 with a John Deere 750 drill; Harvested on June 20 (1st cut, year 1 alfalfa), July 24 (2nd cut, 1st year), and July 28 (1st cut, year 2 alfalfa).

 

DRYLAND FIELD PEA - RECROP - DICKINSON
Variety Maturity Cotyledon
Color
Vine
Length
Days to Flower Days to Lodging
Flower Duration Maturity Score1
days
Carneval Medium Yellow Short-M 48 19 83 3
Century Late Yellow Long 50 25 88 5
Columbian Early Green Long 35 24 82 8
Express Medium Yellow Short 47 24 83 6
Majoret Early Yellow Short-M 46 16 83 3
MIKO Medium Yellow Short 49 13 84 5
Profi Early Yellow Short 46 18 83 5
Radley Early Green Medium 45 17 83 8
Trapper Late Yellow Long 50 25 87 5
               
Mean       46 20 84 5.2
CV(%)       2.8 7.1 1.6 11.4
LSD.05       1.8 2.1 1.9 0.9

 

Variety 1995   Grain Yield
Seeds
lb
Test
weight
lbs/bu
Height
inches
  ----- Averages-----
1995 1994 1992 3-Year 2-Year
lbs/ac
Carneval 1879 63.2 23 2816.8 -- -- -- --
Century 1994 63.0 25 2719.4 1678.1 2152.2 2183.2 2198.8
Columbian 1904 61.7 9 1273.5 -- -- -- --
Express 1959 62.1 19 2586.4 1611.1 -- -- 2098.8
Majoret 1763 63.5 21 2619.7 -- -- -- --
Miko 1596 61.9 20 2489.1 -- -- -- --
Profi 1660 62.2 17 2646.8 1699.0 -- -- 2172.9
Radley 2225 63.2 12 1607.6 -- -- -- --
Trapper 3471 62.8 23 2214.8 1429.8 3208.0 2284.2 1822.3
                 
Mean 2015 62.6 18.5 2237.7        
CV(%) 4.3 0.7 11.3 9.7        
LSD.05 124.6 0.6 3.0 282        
10 = no lodging; 9 = completely flat

Previous crop: Barley; Soil test results: 64 lbs N, 17 ppm P - no fertilizer applied (but pea seed inoculated with N-fixing bacteria); Applied 2.75 pt Sonalan per acre on April 24 (seed was used for experimental purposes none was sold or fed to livestock); Planted at 300,000 Pure Live Seed on May 15; Harvested on August 14 (except for Century and Trapper pea, which were harvested on August 18).

 

DRYLAND LENTIL - RECROP - DICKINSON
Variety Type Days to
Flower
Length of
Flower Period
Days to
Harvest
Height
inches
days
Brewer Grain 42 33 101 10
CDC Richlea Grain 49 27 100 12
Crimson Grain 51 22 94 10
Eston Grain 46 27 100 11
Indian Head Forage 56 28 100 15
Laird Grain 53 25 104 13
Spanish Brown Grain 44 29 100 8
           
Mean   48.8 27.2 100 11.6
CV(%)   1.4 6.1 1.6 10
LSD.05   1.0 2.5 2.3 1.7

 

Variety   Grain Yield
Seeds
lb
Test
weight
lbs/bu
  ----- Averages-----
1995 1994 1993 3-Year 2-Year
lbs/ac
Brewer 7,369 59.5 1448.0 652.0 2503.0 1534.3 1050.0
CDC Richlea 9,261 61.4 2108.2 846.0 -- -- 1477.1
Crimson 12,426 63.1 2009.2 1106.0 3255.0 2123.4 1557.6
Eston 13,512 63.1 1826.6 701.0 2647.0 1724.9 1263.8
Indian Head 20,630 64.8 1657.5 -- -- -- --
Laird 6,782 58.9 1693.2 545.0 -- -- 1119.1
Spanish Brown 11,786 63.2 1395.0 784.0 -- -- 1089.5
               
Mean 11,681 62.0 1734.0        
CV(%) 5.1 1.1 11.1        
LSD.05 886 1.0 285.8        
Previous crop: Barley; Soil test results: 64 lbs N, 17 ppm P - no fertilizer applied (but pea seed inoculated N-fixing bacteria); Applied 2.75 pt Sonalan per acre on April 24 (seed was used for experimental purposes none was sold or fed to livestock); Planted on May 15; Harvested: August 17 (Crimson); August 23 (CDC Richlea, Eston, Indian Head, and Spanish Brown); August 24 (Brewer); August 27 (Laird).

 

DRYLAND LUPIN - RECROP - DICKINSON
Variety Type Days to
Flower
Length of
Flower Period
Days to
Harvest
Height
inches
days
Gungurru Blue 45 36 94 13
Juno Yellow 44 34 94 17
Lupro 101 White 45 36 104 18
Lupro 208 White 48 33 110 18
Merrit Blue 44 35 89 11
Primorski White 43 38 105 22
Progress White 45 36 107 21
           
Mean   46.6 35.6 100.3 17.2
CV(%)   2.1 3.8 4.9 7.5
LSD.05   1.4 2.0 7.3 1.9

 

Variety   Grain Yield
Seeds
lb
Test
weight
lbs/bu
  ----- Averages-----
1995 1994 1993 3-Year 2-Year
lbs/ac
Gungurru -- 55.7 841.1 1012.6 1756.8 1203.5 926.9
Juno -- 55.6 271.0 596.7 1438.1 768.6 433.9
Lupro 101 -- 52.2 741.1 -- -- -- --
Lupro 208 -- 51.6 379.4 -- -- -- --
Merrit -- 55.4 675.7 1150.2 1449.3 1091.7 913.0
Primorski -- 56.5 897.3 1415.5 1455.8 1256.2 1156.4
Progress -- 55.4 711.8 831.8 2007.0 1183.5 771.8
               
Mean   54.6 645.4        
CV(%)   10.3 38.6        
LSD.05   NS NS        
Previous crop: Barley; Soil test results: 64 lbs N, 17 ppm P - no fertilizer applied (but pea seed inoculated with N-fixing bacteria); Applied 2.75 pt Sonalan per acre on April 24 (seed was used for experimental purposes only; none was sold or fed to livestock); Planted at 250,000 Pure Live Seed on May 15; Applied 6 oz Asana XL per acre on June 5; Harvested from 89 to 110 days after planting, depending on the variety sown.

 

DRYLAND MUSTARD - GREEN FALLOW - DICKINSON
Type Variety Days to
Flower
Length of
Flower Period
Days to
Harvest
Height
inches
Lodging
Score1
Brown Common 41 28 98 38 2
Oriental Cutlass 40 28 100 37 3
Yellow Gisilba 39 28 98 34 2
Oriental Lethbridge 22A 40 30 99 39 4
Yellow Ochre 40 29 98 40 3
Yellow Tilney 40 28 98 40 2
             
Mean   40.0 28.5 98.5 38.0  
CV(%)   1.2 2.8 1.5 4.8  
LSD.05   0.7 1.2 2.3 2.6

 

Type Variety Seeds
lb
Test
Weight
lbs/bu
  Average
Oil
%
1995 1992 2-Year
-- lbs/ac
Brown Common 176,2066 50.1 38.3 2095.1 1568.0 1831.6
Oriental Cutlass 143,844 51.0 40.8 2491.3 1814.0 2152.7
Yellow Gisilba 85,189 53.4 30.0 2222.2 -- --
Oriental Lethbridge 22A 149,601 50.6 39.5 1800.3    
Yellow Ochre 84,971 53.4 30.1 1695.3 -- --
Yellow Tilney 83,881 53.8 28.7 2035.2 1496.0 1765.6
               
Mean   98,175 52.1 -- 2056.6    
CV(%)   7 2.5 -- 9.7    
LSD.05   12,813 2 -- 300.0    

10 = no lodging; 5 = completely flat

Previous crop: Black lentil (burn down); Soil test results: 154 lbs N, 25 ppm P - applied 20 lbs urea per acre; Applied 1 pt Treflan per acre on May 12 and incorporated; planted at 8 lbs (Brown and Oriental) and 15 lbs (Yellow) Pure Live Seed per acre on May 12; Applied 6 oz Asana XL on June 5; Harvested at 98 to 100 days following planting, depending on the variety.

 

DRYLAND CANOLA - GREEN FALLOW - DICKINSON
Variety Stand
%
Days to
Flower
Length of
Flower
Days to to
Maturity
Height
inches
Lodging
Score1
days
Crusher 95 47 31 105 39 1
Cyclone 92 35 43 109 37 2
Hyola 401 401 97 42 23 101 30 2
Hysun 110 110 97 37 24 87 29 3
Legend 100 45 22 101 37 3
OAC Springfield 96 43 22 102 34 3
Reward 87 36 25 87 27 4
Tobin 85 36 26 87 29 3
Trojan 85 46 32 106 39 2
             
Mean 92.9 40.9 27.5 98.4 33.6  
CV(%) 4.9 13.6 20.1 2.1 5.8  
LSD.05 6.6 8.1 8.1 3.1 2.9  

 

Variety   Grain Yield
Seeds
lb
Test
Weight
lbs/bu
  Average
Oil
%
1995 1992 2-Year
lbs/ac
Crusher 156,703 51.5 41.6 1834.1 -- --
Cyclone 154,265 49.2 40.0 1782.7 -- --
Hyola 401 118,904 52.5 41.8 2506.4 -- --
Hysun 110 169,578 51.8 39.5 1772.2 -- --
Legend 147,848 51.0 41.2 1907.5 1218.0 1562.8
OAC Springfield 117,879 51.2 42.3 2081.1 -- --
Reward 190,322 50.8 41.8 1500.1 -- --
Tobin 194,795 50.8 39.6 1392.0 1290.0 1341.0
Trojan 144,620 49.8 41.5 1597.6 -- --
             
Mean 154,990 50.9 -- 1819.3    
CV(%) 7.2 1.8 -- 11.6    
LSD.05 16,309 1.3 -- 309.1    

10 = no lodging; 5 = completely flat

Previous crop: Black lentil (burn down); Soil test results: 154 lbs N, 25 ppm P - applied 20 lbs urea per acre; Applied 1 pt Treflan per acre on May 12 and incorporated; planted at 21 Pure Live Seed per square foot on May 12; Applied 6 oz Asana XL on June 5; Harvested at 87 to 106 days following planting, depending on the variety.

 

MECHANICAL WEED CONTROL - FLAX - DICKINSON
Treatment Plant Stand % of Check
1993 1994 1995 1993 1994 1995
plants/acre %
Check (no control) 386,483 3,697,529 1,300,301      
Harrow + Herbicide 793,201 2,691,265 757,965 205 73 61
Herbicide 726,426 3,293,227 945,822 188 89 75
Harrow x 1 505,868 3,273,624 860,878 131 89 66
Harrow x 2 285,306 2,830,116 646,884 74 77 52
Rotary hoe + Herbicide 475,515 2,491,973 771,850 123 67 60
Rotary hoe x 1 754,755 2,496,873 952,357 195 68 75
Rotary hoe x 2 400,647 1,966,788 1,145,115 104 53 67
             
Mean 541,026 2,484,107 910,792      
CV(%) 47.2 17.1 21.9      
LSD.05 375,400 623,806 291,114      

 

MECHANICAL WEED CONTROL - FLAX - DICKINSON
Treatment Weed Biomass Flax Seed Yield
1993 1994 1995 1993 1994 1995
lbs/acre bu/acre
Check (no control) 4065.1 2112.1 4032.6 5.5 9.6 19.1
Harrow + Herbicide 3209.3 283.2 1393.1 10.9 21.2 26.9
Herbicide 2923.9 159.9 904.6 12.9 15.0 32.2
Harrow x 1 4012.0 1318.5 2806.5 7.5 16.6 25.3
Harrow x 2 4869.4 1352.8 2297.6 9.3 17.8 25.9
Rotary hoe + Herbicide 2635.4 280.3 1377.3 11.2 19.7 27.3
Rotary hoe x 1 3179.8 1735.9 2526.0 12.1 13.1 26.9
Rotary hoe x 2 2975.3 1281.5 3175.4 12.0 16.8 24.6
Mean 3,483.8 1,065.5 2385.1 10.4 16.2 27.1
CV(%) 37.6 40.3 72.0 23.1 21.7 26.7
LSD.05 NS 681.8 NS 3.5 5.2 NS

Previous Crop: Black lentil (burn down)    Planting Date: May 3   Harvest Date: August 21

 

MECHANICAL WEED CONTROL - LENTIL - DICKINSON
Treatment Plant Stand % of Check
1993 1994 1995 1993 1994 1995
plants/acre %
Check (no control) 619,182 310,374 374,082      
Harrow + Herbicide 509,915 305,473 372,448 82 98 100
Herbicide 625,252 330,793 267,901 101 107 72
Harrow x 1 590,854 249,116 422,271 95 80 113
Harrow x 2 588,830 239,314 384,700 95 77 103
Rotary hoe + Herbicide 540,267 248,299 402,669 87 80 108
Rotary hoe x 1 607,041 204,193 384,700 98 66 103
Rotary hoe x 2 524,079 189,491 440,240 85 61 118
             
Mean 575,677 259,632 910,792      
CV(%) 13.3 20.3 21.9      
LSD.05 112,427 77,386 291,114      

 

MECHANICAL WEED CONTROL - LENTIL - DICKINSON
Treatment Weed Biomass Lentil Seed Yield
1993 1994 1995 1993 1994 1995
lbs/acre bu/acre
Check (no control) 4904.0 5274.6 4423.0 6.9 1.0 9.7
Harrow + Herbicide 1476.8 1063.3 1215.6 9.3 13.4 23.4
Herbicide 2215.9 1367.2 2062.0 14.7 9.5 16.9
Harrow x 1 4566.3 3546.5 3999.0 8.0 1.8 9.7
Harrow x 2 1352.2 3304.0 4366.8 9.7 2.8 9.0
Rotary hoe + Herbicide 1195.2 1074.4 946.9 11.9 12.8 24.0
Rotary hoe x 1 1900.2 3469.6 4157.2 10.9 2.6 11.8
Rotary hoe x 2 1915.1 4765.4 4694.2 10.7 3.8 8.2
             
Mean 2,440.7 2,983.1 3233.1 10.3 6.0 15.4
CV(%) 45.6 27.5 42.4 24.2 65.5 30.5
LSD.05 1741.0 1353.5 2014.7 3.6 5.7 6.9

Previous Crop: Black lentil (burn down)
Planting Date: May 3
Harvest Date: August 21

 

MECHANICAL WEED CONTROL - HRSW - DICKINSON
Treatment Plant Stand % of Check
1993 1994 1995 1993 1994 1995
plants/acre %
Check (no control) -- 758,782 420,638 --    
Harrow + Herbicide -- 640,350 345,495 -- 84 82
Herbicide -- 659,952 338,144 -- 87 80
Harrow x 1 -- 624,830 373,265 -- 82 89
Harrow x 2 -- 664,852 319,358 -- 88 76
Rotary hoe + Herbicide -- 618,296 323,442 -- 81 77
Rotary hoe x 1 -- 603,594 402,669 -- 80 96
Rotary hoe x 2 -- 588,076 329,976 -- 78 78
             
Mean   644,842 366,186      
CV(%)   10.4 12.1      
LSD.05   98,647 64,512      

 

MECHANICAL WEED CONTROL - HRSW - DICKINSON
Treatment Weed Biomass Wheat Seed Yield
1993 1994 1995 1993 1994 1995
lbs/acre bu/acre
Check (no control) -- 3084.7 1180.1 -- 17.2 53.7
Harrow + Herbicide -- 670.6 374.6 -- 29.9 55.4
Herbicide -- 244.8 521.9 -- 23.4 53.8
Harrow x 1 -- 1716.4 929.5 -- 17.6 50.6
Harrow x 2 -- 1660.8 577.4 -- 24.5 57.4
Rotary hoe + Herbicide -- 329.6 431.5 -- 30.1 56.6
Rotary hoe x 1 -- 1486.1 645.3 -- 22.2 50.4
Rotary hoe x 2 -- 1511.4 979.5 -- 27.3 50.7
             
Mean   1,338.1 638.8   24.0 53.8
CV(%)   77.2 87.8   22.2 8.5
LSD.05   1518.3 NS   7.8 NS

Previous Crop: Black lentil (burn down)
Planting Date: May 3
Harvest Date: August 21
0=no lodging; 9= completely flat

 

POAST/TREFLAN HERBICIDE TRIAL - FLAX - DICKINSON
Treatment Crop stand Crop height ---- Straw yield ----
1994 1995 1994 1995 1994 1995
plants ft-2 inches lbs/acre
Seeding date (SD)            
Early -- -- -- 19 2160.1 2488.5
Late -- -- -- 28 1508.8 3810.3
             
Grass control (GC)            
None (N) -- 26.0 -- 23 1460.6 2666.3
Poast (P) -- 29.7 -- 24 1602.4 3322.0
Treflan (T) -- 30.7 -- 24 2440.4 3459.8
Mean -- 28.8 -- 24 1834.5 3149.4
CV(%) -- 12.6 -- 1.9 16.6 13.2
             
Analysis of Variance
SD -- -- -- * *** NS
GC -- -- -- NS *** **
SD x GC -- -- -- NS NS NS
Contrasts            
N vs P and T -- -- -- NS *** ***
P vs T -- -- -- NS *** NS

 

Treatment Visual control Yield
Grassy weeds Broadleaf weeds Total weeds
1994 1995 1994 1995 1994 1995
% lbs/acre
Seeding date (SD)            
Early 48 62 37 63 2721.9 482.7
Late 57 62 41 58 3247.7 639.5
             
Grass control (GC)            
None (N) 0 0 0 0 4727.7 1279.9
Poast (P) 98 91 44 91 2324.6 204.8
Treflan (T) 60 95 73 89 1902.1 198.6
Mean 52 62 39 60 2984.8 561.1
CV(%) 39 5 67 9 40.0 66.4
             
  Analysis of Variance
SD NS NS NS NS NS NS
GC *** *** *** *** *** ***
SD x GC NS NS NS ** NS NS
Contrasts            
N vs P and T *** *** *** *** *** ***
P vs T ** * * NS NS NS

 

POAST/TREFLAN HERBICIDE TRIAL - FLAX - DICKINSON
Treatment Yield
Grassy weeds - Broadleaf weeds Flax seed
1994 1995 1994 1995 1994 1995
lbs/acre bu/acre
Seeding date (SD)            
Early 810.5 293.6 1911.4 189.0 9.9 34.4
Late 516.4 380.4 2731.3 259.1 5.7 17.5
             
Grass control (GC)            
None (N) 1145.8 789.6 3580.8 490.3 5.2 23.8
Poast (P) 445.0 41.7 1878.5 163.1 6.6 28.5
Treflan (T) 397.5 179.8 1504.6 18.8 11.5 25.6
Mean 663.4 337.0 2321.3 224.1 7.8 25.9
CV(%) 104.9 78.7 50.5 80.9 42.0 12.7
             
  Analysis of Variance
SD NS NS NS NS NS **
GC NS *** ** *** ** *
SD x GC NS NS NS NS NS NS
Contrasts            
N vs P and T * *** ** *** * *
P vs T NS NS NS NS ** NS

Significant at the 0.10 level (P =0.099).   Previous crop: Weedy fallow; Soil test results: 122 lbs N, 9 ppm P - no fertilizer applied; Applied Treflan at 1 pt/acre to selected plots on May 12; Planted flax at 42 lbs Pure Live Seed per acre on May 15 (early) and May 31 (late); Applied 2 pt Poast + 2 pt Scoil + 1 pt Buctril on June 13 (early) or June 27 (late); Harvested on August 15 (early) and September 5 (late).


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