North Dakota State University * Dickinson Research Extension Center
1133 State Avenue, Dickinson, ND 58601 Voice: (701) 483-2348 FAX: (701) 483-2005
HAY YIELDS FROM GRASS AND GRASS-ALFALFA MIXTURE PLOTS
Crested Wheatgrass Trial:
Hay yields of the crested wheatgrass varieties seeded in 1958 are given in Table 1. The 1965 average yield of all varieties at 1647 pounds per acre was very good, comparing favorably with the 1962 production in the case of most varieties. The 1965 production, however, was not quite as good as the 1962 production, and it was appreciably lower than the record average production of these varieties at 1911 pounds per acre, obtained in 1963. The average of all varieties for the 7 years of the trial is 1397 pounds per acre.
The standard crested wheatgrass derivatives have continued to be the highest producing varieties, including summit, Standard, Nebraska 10, and Nordan. While there have been variations in yields between these varieties from year to year, the overall average yields for the 7-year period can hardly be considered as differing significantly. The production of these four varieties has averaged about 3/4 ton per acre. The Fairway-derived varieties have produced slightly less than the Standard-derived varieties over the period of the trial, but they have produced very well. An exception to this is the Turkish Fairway trial, which has been a consistently low-producer throughout the trial period. The average production of this grass for the period has been only 1028 pounds per acre. It has appeared to be in relatively low vigor at all times during the trial.
Nearly all of the plot stands of the varieties in this trial are still in excellent condition, with the only exception again being the stands on the Turkish Fairway plots. In these plots rather serious stand deterioration has taken place, and weeds and other grasses have invaded. It is possible that some of the production of the last few years on these plots has been from the invading crested wheatgrass varieties which have replaced to some extent the Turkish variety.
|Table 1. Hay Yields From Crested Wheatgrass Varieties Seeded in 1958.|
|Variety||Dry Weight Yield - Pounds per acre||7 Year
|Nebraska 3576 Fairway||1371||1605||905||1680||1846||715||1650||1396|
|South Dakota 15||1164||1546||770||1556||1788||712||1523||1296|
Station Grass and Mixture Trial:
Yields of the mixtures and straight grass seedings in this trial are given in tables 2, 3, and 4. The 1965 yields of the grass-alfalfa mixtures are given in table 2, and the 7-year average yields of the mixtures are given in table 3. Table 4 gives the 7-year average yields of the straight grass seedings in the trial. Overall 1965 production of the grass-alfalfa mixtures at an average of 3,404 pounds per acre was the second highest yield thus far obtained in the trial. The highest average yield of the mixtures in this trial was 4,123 pounds per acre obtained in 1963. The overall 1965 average yield of the straight grass seedings at 2,271 pounds per acre was very good, but the yields of 2,839 pounds obtained in 1960, and 2,443 pounds in 1963, were both appreciably better than the 1965 production.
The data of table 2 shows that alfalfa continues to be an important component of the yield in nearly all of the grass-alfalfa mixtures on the basis of the average production of all plots 46.1 percent of the yield was produced by alfalfa. In the four highest producing mixtures in the 1965 season alfalfa made up 62, 40, 50, and 68 percent of the yields, respectively. The four highest producing mixtures in the 1965 season were 1-Green stipa-Teton alfalfa; 2-Lincoln brome-Ladak alfalfa; 3-Lincoln brome-Teton alfalfa; and 4-Nordan crested-Teton alfalfa. Alfalfa has consistently produced a smaller portion of the total yield in the Russian wildrye-alfalfa mixtures than in other mixtures. In the 1965 season alfalfa produced 22.5 percent of the yield in the Russian wildrye-Ladak alfalfa mixture and only 15.5 percent of the yield from the Russian wildrye-Teton alfalfa mixture.
The grass-alfalfa mixtures produced an average of 50 percent more total yield than did the straight grass seedings in the 1965 season. Over the period of the trial the grass-alfalfa mixtures have produced about 33 percent more than the straight grass seedings. The nordan crested-Teton alfalfa mixture has been the highest producing mixture over the period of the trial, although it was only fourth highest in the 1965 season. Lincoln brome-Ladak alfalfa and Lincoln brome-Teton alfalfa have averaged closest to the nordan-Teton mixture for the trial period.
Production of the nordan crested-Teton alfalfa mixture for the 7-year period has averaged 34.7 percent greater than the production of the straight nordan crested seedings. The average yield of the Lincoln brome-Ladak alfalfa combination has been 31.7 percent greater than the average yield of Lincoln brome alone. The Lincoln brome-Teton mixture has averaged 28.2 percent greater in yield than Lincoln brome alone. The green stipa-alfalfa combinations have produced substantially better than green-stipa alone, with the average for the green stipa-Teton mixture being 65.5 percent greater than for straight green stipa, and the green stipa-Ladak combination averaging 37.7 greater yield than green stipa alone. The Russian wildrye-alfalfa combinations have averaged about 20 percent greater production than straight Russian wildrye (2355) over the period of the trial.
In the straight grass seedings Nebraska 50 intermediate wheatgrass has maintained a very good yield over the period of the trial and by a slight margin continues as the highest-producing variety, although several of the varieties outyielded it in the 1965 season (table 4). The average yield of the Nebraska 50 Intermediate at 2,280 pounds per acre is just slightly better than the average yields of the next four closest varieties. Intermediate, Summit crested, Lincoln brome, nordan crested, and Southland brome all have average yields of over 1 ton per acre for the period of the trial.
Some stand deterioration has taken place in some of the plots, particularly in the grass-alfalfa mixture plots. Where the alfalfa has decreased in the plots, serious invasions of crested wheatgrass have taken place. The extent to which crested wheatgrass has invaded is shown in the data of Table 2. Almost all the grass referred to as "Other Grass" is crested wheatgrass. The slender wheatgrass plots, as would be expected, have now gone almost entirely to crested wheatgrass and are no longer harvested. The green stipa plots have continued to improve in stand density and production, and the western wheatgrass plots showed great improvement in the 1965 season. A fair amount of crested wheatgrass does occur in these latter plots.
|Table 2. Composition of 1965 Hay Yields From Station Grass-Alfalfa Mixture Trial Seeded in 1958.|
|Mixtures||Dry-Weight Yields - Pounds Per Acre||Total Yield|
|Green Stipa - Teton Alfalfa||1338||2950||493||---||4781|
|Lincoln Brome - Ladak Alfalfa||2233||1643||229||---||4150|
|Lincoln Brome - Teton Alfalfa||1817||1989||178||---||3984|
|Nordan Crested - Teton Alfalfa||1249||2692||21||---||3962|
|Green Stipa - Ladak Alfalfa||1497||1385||835||---||3717|
|Intermediate Wheatgrass - Ladak Alfalfa||1262||1370||887||---||3519|
|Lincoln Brome - Nordan Crested - Ladak Alfalfa||1992||1410||8||---||3410|
|Manchar Brome - Ladak Alfalfa||2026||1029||204||---||3259|
|Intermediate Wheatgrass - Teton Alfalfa||665||1813||591||5||2942|
|Russian Wildrye (2355) - Ladak Alfalfa||1590||463||---||5||2058|
|Green Stipa (New) - Ladak Alfalfa||891||1784||242||25||2942|
|Russian Wildrye (2355) - Teton Alfalfa||1694||317||10||20||2041|
|Table 3. Average Hay Yields From Station Grass-Alfalfa Mixture Trial Seeded in 1958.|
|Mixtures||Dry-Weight Yields - Pounds Per Acre||Average Yield|
|Nordan Crested - Teton Alfalfa||2359||3396||1360||2970||3959||1691||3961||2814|
|Lincoln Brome - Ladak Alfalfa||2171||3272||903||2824||4542||1534||4105||2765|
|Lincoln Brome - Teton Alfalfa||2329||2765||943||2682||4441||1698||3984||2692|
|Lincoln Brome-Nordan Crested-Ladak Alf.||2447||3204||1195||2663||3642||1862||3410||2632|
|Intermediate Wheatgrass - Teton Alfalfa||3144||3381||647||2421||4182||1255||3075||2586|
|Manchar Brome - Ladak Alfalfa||2127||2764||692||2237||3654||1315||.3259||2293|
|Intermediate Wheatgrass - Ladak Alfalfa||2818||3258||755||-1||4093||1440||3519||2269|
|Russian Wildrye (2355) - Teton Alfalfa||1449||2307||786||1825||2859||1307||2040||1796|
|Russian Wildrye (2355) - Ladak Alfalfa||1653||1716||711||2201||2526||1220||2058||1726|
|Green Stipa (New) - Ladak Alfalfa||---||---||---||3006||5714||1365||2942||32572|
|Green Stipa - Teton Alfalfa||---||---||642||2684||5579||1678||4781||30733|
|Green Stipa - Ladak Alfalfa||---||---||1035||2344||4290||1406||3717||25583|
|1No harvestable yield in 1962.
2Only 4 years yield data.
3Only 5 years yield data.
|Table 4. Average Hay Yields From Station Grass Trial Seeded in 1958.|
|Grasses||Dry Weight Yields - Pounds Per Acre||7-Year Average Yield|
|Intermediate Wheatgrass (Neb. 50)||2865||3440||743||1855||3167||1450||2439||2280|
|Russian Wildrye (2355)||1368||2086||686||1727||1929||913||1478||1455|
|Russian Wildrye (Com.)||1404||1913||756||1530||1574||1008||1522||1387|
|Green Stipa (New)||---||---||755||2441||3118||1118||2354||(1971)*|
|Green Stipa (Com.)||---||---||608||1916||2912||1237||2613||(1857)*|
|*Not included in average yield of all grasses.|
Dryland Alfalfa Plots:
The 1965 yields from the dryland alfalfa plots seeded in 1960 are given in table 5, and the 5-year average yields for the period of the trial are given in table 6. Two cuttings were made in the 1965 season and excellent yields were obtained because of favorable seasonal moisture conditions. The average yield of all varieties was the highest yet obtained in this trial, with the average of 5378 pounds per acre being just slightly better than the 1962 average yield of 5274 pounds per acre. Most of the plot stands showed appreciable additional recovery from the damage suffered in the winter of 1963-1964. However by the end of the 1965 season it was apparent that the stands of Du Puits had failed entirely, and of the 4 plots of Scandia and the 4 plots of Pfister, only 1 plot of each remained in harvestable condition.
The highest yielding variety in the 1965 season in this trial was South Dakota (H-2157), with a production of 6027 pounds per acre (oven-dry weight). Approximately 74 percent of this yield was produced in the first cutting. Ladak and Rhizoma produced very nearly as much as South Dakota (H-2157) with yields of 5888 and 5792 pounds per acre, respectively, Ladak produced 74 percent of its yield from the first clipping, while Rhizoma produced about 70 percent. As the average for all varieties, 69.5 percent of the yield was produced from the first clipping, and 30.5 percent from the second clipping. This contrasts to the 1964 season, when 46 percent of the total yield was produced from the first clipping and 54 percent from the second clipping. In the 1965 season, all varieties except Pfister, Ranger, and of course Du Puits, produced over 5000 pounds per acre from the two cuttings.
The 5-year average yields given in table 6 show that Ladak, Rambler, Vernal, and South Dakota (H-2157) have been the high producers in the trial, all averaging over 3800 pounds per acre for the period. Rhizoma, Teton, and Grimm have all averaged over 3700 pounds per acre. The range in average yield for all seven of these varieties is only from 3737 pounds per acre for Grimm to 4083 pounds for Ladak, the highest yielder for the trial period.
Table 7 gives the yields from the first harvest of the new alfalfa trial plots seeded in the 1964 season. The average yield of all varieties included in this trial was 3977 pounds per acre (oven-dry weight), with the range from a low of 2843 pounds for Lahontan to the high of 4687 pounds for Culver. Ladak was about at the mid-point of all varieties with a production of 4001 pounds per acre. On the basis of average yield for all varieties about 63 percent of the yield was produced from the first clipping and about 37 percent from the second clipping. Only Lahontan showed greater production from the second clipping than from the first, and here the distribution of yield between clipping periods was about equal. In the case of Culver, the highest yielding variety, 73 percent of the total yield was produced from the first clipping.
The data of table 7 show that there was an appreciable production of weeds from most plots. However, most of the plot stands are very good, and for most varieties all four replications can be considered as being in satisfactory condition. However, Du Puits and Lahontan show some weakness of stands, and with each of these varieties only 3 of the 4 plots seeded were harvested in the 1966 season.
|Table 5. Yields of Alfalfa and Weeds in 1965 Season from Dryland Alfalfa Plots Seeded in 1960.|
|Variety||Dry Weight-Yield-Lbs./Acre||Total Yield Lbs. Per Acre|
|1st Clipping||2nd Clipping|
|S. Dak. (H-2157)||4447||7||1580||4||6027||11|
|Du Puits||No Stand|
|1Yield data from only one plot. No stand left on other three plots.|
|Table 6. Hay Yields from Dryland Alfalfa Plots Seeded in 1960.|
|Variety||Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre||Average Yield Lbs./Acre|
|S. Dak. (H-2157)||900||5008||4302||2910||6027||3829|
|1Yields for 1964 and 1965 do
not include weeds.
21965 yield data for Scandia and Pfister from one plot only. No stand left on other 3 plots of each.
34-year average yield - 1961 - 1964. No stand in 1965.
|Table 7. Hay Yields in 1965 Season From New Alfalfa Trial Seeded in 1964|
|Variety||Dry-Weight Yield - Pounds Per Acre||Total Yield
|1st Clipping||2nd Clipping|