ANNUAL REPORT OF LIVESTOCK INVESTIGATIONS

BY LARKIN H. LANGFORD

Since 1958, all cows have been wintered together as one herd, but divided into three groups during the breeding season. One bull was used with each group, and a young bull was placed with yearling heifers in a fourth pasture. All cows were weighed monthly, calves were weighed and marked at birth, and weaning weights were averaged by sire groups. Some sires were used for four successive years. One or two bull calves were purchased from a purebred herd each fall for limited use the following summer.

A record of the calves from three sire groups of 1962, and the average for all calves from each sire is presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Calf Birth Weights and Weaning Weights by Sire, Excluding Calves from 2-Year Old Heifers.
Bull #4 Bull #6 Bull 38
1962 4-Yr. Av. 1962 4-Yr. Av. 1962 2-Yr. Av.
No. of Calves 19 26.5 22 15.5 23 25.5
Av. Birth Wt. 75 72.8 68 67.5 73 73
Av. Weaning Wt. 393 363.5 366 359.5 390 374
Av. Age in Days 184 187 182 188 182 181
Wt. Per Day of Age 2.14 1.95 2.01 1.92 2.14 2.07
Bull #4 - Zato Heir 9, bred by A. W. Powell. Sisseton, South Dakota
Bull # 6 - TTT Silver Lad, bred by Thor Tagestad, Towner, North Dakota
Bull #8 - DGH Rupert Aster, bred by Don Hoag, Harwood, North Dakota

Bulls number 4 and 6 were sold after the 1961 breeding season. Bull number 8 will not be used after the 1962 season. Two other Powell bulls, number 5 and 10, were used during the 1962 season, and a yearling Tagestad bull, number 11, saw some service in 1962.

From 98 cows which started the winter, November 1, 1961, we weaned 84 calves October 15, 1962. Six cows were sold during the year, five died, two lost calves, and one was dry.

Feed Prices Used In This Report
Corn Silage 7.20 per ton
Barley .80 per bushel
Alfalfa Hay 18.00 per ton
Oats .56 per bushel
Soybean Meal 80.00 per ton
Pelleted Beet Pulp 40.00 per ton
Steamed Bonemeal 130.00 per ton
Trace Mineral Salt 54.00 per ton
Grinding or Dry Rolling 2.00 per ton (at home)
Steam Rolling 4.00 per ton
Grazing Yearlings 1.50 per month

CREEP FEEDING OF CALVES

A creep-feeding experiment was started in 1961 and continued in 1962. All cow-calf pairs were divided into three groups as equally as possible on June 22, 1961, and June 21, 1962. Age and weight of cows, age and sex of calves, sire of calves and previous records of cows were considered in making the allotments. Each year, one of the three groups of calves had access to a creep feeder filled with whole oats after July 1. The creep was placed in a different pasture each year.

Calves were slow to use the creep in 1962, but oats consumption rose very rapidly in late September and October. It was discovered at weaning time that at least one cow had been eating from the creep, so the record of oats consumption was not usable for cost comparison. The results of the first two years' creep feeding are reported in Table 2. The date of weaning was October 30, 1961, and October 15, 1962.

Table 2. Effect of Creep Feeding on Weaning Weights, Two Seasons
East Park West Park Home Pasture
1961 1962 1961 1962 1961 1962
Creep Creep
No. Cows 29 26 30 25 30 22
Av. Wt. Cows, June 21 978 1089 956 1098 990 1095
Av. Wt. Cows, Weaning 1032 1082 1031 1085 1021 1150
Summer Gain/Hd., Cows 55 -7 75 -13 31 55
No. Steer Calves Weaned 17 14 16 14 16 11
No. Heifer Calves Weaned 12 12 14 11 14 11
Av. Birth Wt., All 70.6 70.8 69.1 72.3 70.3 70.8
Av. Weaning Wt., All 348.6 351.3 346.2 391.4 383.7 379.1
Total Oats Fed, Lbs. 5,000 5,133
Av. Oats Per Calf* 179 179
Av. Additional Wt. Per Calf 26 36

*Oats record inaccurate for 1962, because cows got into feeder. There were three additional calves in each lot in 1962, not included in this summary. In East Park one crossbred calf and two late calves for which birth weight was not recorded were omitted. In West Park two calves died late in the summer and one had no recorded birth weight. In Home Pasture there were three calves for which the birth weight was not recorded.

CREEP-FED CALVES VS NON-CREEP-FED CALVES IN THE FEED LOT

Calves from three groups of cows were divided more or less evenly among the several experimental feeding lots at weaning in 1961. At the close of the summer feeding period the gain data for creep-fed calves were compared with data for the non-creep-fed calves. As seen in Table 3, the creep-fed calves as a group, gained less rapidly in the feed lot than did the non-creep-fed calves.

Table 3. Feed Lot Record of Creep-Fed and Non-Creep-Fed Calves, 1962.
Summer
Lot
No.
No.
of Calves
Weaning Wt. Final Wt. Days on Feed Av.
D.
Gain
Total Feed-Lot Gain
Steers
Creep-fed 7 to 12 6 443 1083 297 2.15 640
Not creep-fed 7 to 12 9 412 1070 297 2.21 658
Creep-fed 13 to 15 6 372 1033 362 1.83 661
Not creep-fed 13 to 15 12 360 1017 362 1.82 657
Creep-fed 16 & 18 3 312 917 314 1.93 605
Not creep-fed 16 & 18 7 278 921 314 2.05 643
Heifers
Creep-fed 3 to 6 5 334 828 314 1.57 494
Not creep-fed 3 to 6 15 336 860 314 1.67 524
Creep-fed (Replacements) 7 416 812 350 1.03 396
Not creep-fed (Replacements) 8 382 793 350 1.17 411

In all comparisons except one, the creep-fed calves gained less rapidly than the non-creep-fed calves. In only one comparison, (replacements) was a maintenance ration used, and in no lot was a full-feed of grain fed from weaning to market.

GRAIN FOR STEERS ON GOOD SPRING PASTURE

Beef cattle make their most economical gains on good pasture. While it is unquestioned that supplements fed to cattle on poor pasture will increase gains, it is not generally recognized that the supplementation of good spring pasture with grain is a paying practice. This experiment has compared grain vs. grass alone for yearling steers in three successive years. In two of the years a third lot of similar steers was fed in dry lot. All pasture steers were placed in dry lot when the spring pasture failed to support continued high gain.

Both the grazing and finishing phases of the three trials are summarized in Table 4.

Table 4. Spring Grazing, With and Without Grain, vs. Dry-Lot Feeding, Followed by Dry-Lot Finishing.
  4 Lb. Barley On Grass Grass Alone
1960 1961 1962 3-Yr.
Av.
1960 1961 1962 3-Yr.
Av.
No. of Steers 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Wt. to Grass 478 486 434 466 477 487 435 466
Wt. off Grass 677 658 596 644 635 629 584 616
Days of Grazing 73 67 72 71 73 67 72 71
Daily Gain on Grass 2.73 2.57 2.24 2.51 2.17 2.13 2.07 2.12
Daily Gain, Dry Lot 1.79 2.09 1.95 1.94 1.89 2.10 1.90 1.96
Final Weight 952 884 903 913 927 865 885 889
Daily Gain, All Summer 2.09 2.27 2.04 2.13 1.98 2.11 1.96 2.02
Daily Ration: Dry Lot
Days in Dry Lot 154 108 158 140 154 108 158 140
Corn Silage 41 44 44 43 41 44 44 43
Ground Barley 4 4 4 4 3.9 4 3.8 3.9
Alfalfa Hay 1.9 2.5 2.5 2.3 1.9 2.5 2.5 2.3
Soybean Meal 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.3
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2
Feed/100 Lb. Gain, Dry Lot
Corn Silage 2306 2105 2269 2227 2149 2088 2301 2179
Ground Barley 222 191 205 206 205 192 202 200
Alfalfa Hay 105 120 128 118 99 119 130 116
Soybean Meal 83 72 51 69 77 72 51 67
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 11 10 9 10 10 10 9 10
Feed Cost/100, dry lot $17.10 $15.47 $15.48 $16.03 $15.89 $15.41 $15.56 $15.63
Feed Cost/100, all gain 11.78 10.82 11.99 11.53 11.12 10.39 11.21 10.91
Selling Price/100 25.10 22.50 24.56 24.05 24.75 22.40 24.24 23.80
Carcass Grade --- --- 3 G.

3 Ch.

--- --- --- 3 G

3 Ch.

---
Dressing % --- --- 58.06 --- --- --- 57.38 ---
 
  Dry Lot, All Summer  
1961 1962 2 Yr. Av.
No. of Steers 6 6 6  
Initial Weight 486 435 461
Wt. at Close of Grazing Period 662 645 654
Daily Gain, First Phase 2.63 2.92 2.78
Daily Gain, Final Phase 1.74 1.72 1.73
Final Weight 850 917 884
Daily Gain, All Summer 2.08 2.09 2.09
Days in First Phase 67 72 70
Days in Final Phase 108 158 133
Daily Ration:
Corn Silage 37 38 38
Ground Barley 4 4 4
Alfalfa Hay 2.5 2.5 2.5
Soybean Meal 1.5 1.0 1.3
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 .2 .2 .2
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:
Corn Silage 1759 1815 1787
Ground Barley 192 191 192
Alfalfa Hay 120 119 120
Soybean Meal 72 48 60
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 10 9 10
Feed Cost/100 Gain $14.24 $13.41 $13.83
Selling Price/100 22.70 24.14 23.42
Carcass Grade --- 4 Ch.
2 G.
---
Dressing % --- 56.76 ---

TWO LEVELS OF WINTERING STEER CALVES FOLLOWED BY

DIRECT OR DEFERRED FINISHING

Each winter for four successive years, two equal lots of 16 steer calves each, were wintered on a 'normal' and a 'low' ration. Beginning about May 1 each year, one-half of the steers from each winter lot were turned on pasture and brought back for dry-lot finishing the following winter. The other half of the steers from each winter lot were fed out in summer dry-lot.

All steers were implanted with 24 mg. of stilbestrol when placed in dry-lot for finishing.

Table 5 summarizes the wintering phase of the four years' work. Table 6 reports the results of the summer dry-lot feeding immediately following the wintering phase. Table 7 concerns the summer grazing and winter finishing which followed.

Table 5. Wintering Steer Calves, 2 Rations, 4 Years
Normal Ration
57-58 58-59 59-60 60-61 4-Year Av.
Steers/lot 16 14 16 16 15.5
Weaning Wt. 360.0 380.4 346.2 349.4 359.0
Spring Wt. 606.6 607.9 571.6 582.5 592.2
Days in lot 181 189 181 184 184
Av. daily gain 1.36 1.20 1.24 1.27 1.27
Daily Ration:
Corn silage 25 24 23 22 23.5
Cr. wht. grass hay 4 3.9 4 3.9 4.0
Whole Oats 2 2 2 2 2
Feed Cost/100 Lb. G $12.00 $12.89 $12.27 $11.78 $12.24
Winter Feed Cost/Hd. 29.59 29.32 27.66 27.46 28.51
Low Ration
57-58 58-59 59-60 60-61 4-Year Av.
Steers/lot 16 14 16 16 15.5
Weaning Wt. 360.3 388.9 346.2 349.0 361.1
Spring Wt. 511.3 506.4 475.3 491.3 496.1
Days in lot 181 189 181 184 184
Av. daily gain .83 .62 .90 .77 .78
Daily Ration:
Corn silage 20 20 20 19 20
Cr. wht. grass hay 4 4 4 3.9 4
Feed Cost/100 Lb. G $13.27 $17.24 $15.01 $13.64 $14.79
Winter Feed Cost/Hd. 20.04 20.26 19.38 19.41 19.77

Table 6. Summer Finishing of Steers From Two Winter Ration Groups
Normal 1st Winter Group
1958 1959 1960 1961 4-Yr. Av.
No. steers/lot 8 5 8 8 7.25
Initial wt. 605.6 633.0 571.9 583.1 598.40
Final wt. 1053.8 1125.0 933.1 999.4 1027.83
Days on feed 182 174 178 175 177.25
Av. daily gain 2.46 2.83 2.03 2.38 2.43
Daily Ration
Corn Silage 48 54 37 41 45.0
Soybean meal 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Alfalfa hay 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Ground barley 4.7 4.7 4.0 4.0 4.35
St. bonemeal & salt, 3:1 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2
Feed/100 Lb. Gain
Corn silage 1964 1937 1810 1705 1854
Soybean meal 61 53.4 74 62.5 62.72
Alfalfa hay 102 88 122 104.5 104.13
Ground barley 190 166 197 166 179.75
St. bonemeal & salt, 3:1 8.2 7.1 9.9 8.4 8.4
Feed Cost Per 100 Lb. Gain, Summer Only $13.82 $12.86 $14.17 $12.62 $13.37
Selling Price/100 $25.50 $23.00 $22.35 $22.40 $23.31
Feed cost Per Hd., Weaning to Market $91.53 $92.59 $78.84 $80.00 $85.74

Low 1st Winter Group

No. steers/lot 8 8 8 8 8
Initial wt. 507.5 503.8 475.6 491.9 494.7
Final wt. 946.9 1014.4 895.6 923.1 945.0
Days on feed 182 174 178 175 177.25
Av. daily gain 2.41 2.93 2.36 2.46 2.54
Daily Ration
Corn Silage 45 48 36 41 42.5
Daily feed of soybean meal, alfalfa hay, barley and minerals are same as for lots above.
Feed/100 Lb. Gain
Corn silage 1867 1646 1536 1674 1681
Soybean meal 62.5 51.4 64 60.3 59.55
Alfalfa hay 104 80 105 101 97.50
Ground barley 194 160 170 160 171.0
St. bonemeal & salt, 3:1 8.4 6.8 8.5 8.0 7.93
Feed cost/100 Lb. Gain, Summer Only $13.63 $11.55 $12.14 $12.28 $12.40
Selling Price/100 $25.15 $23.10 $22.50 $22.75 $23.38
Feed Cost/Hd., Weaning to Market $79.93 $79.23 $70.37 $72.36 $75.47

Table 7. Summer Grazing and Winter Finishing of Steers
Steers From 'N' Ration 1st Winter
58-59 59-60 60-61 61-62 4-Yr. Av.
No. steers/lot 8 8 8 8 8
Wt. to grass 606.9 607.5 571.3 581.9 591.9
Wt. off grass 858.1 830.6 731.3 761.2 795.3
Days of grazing 152 136 149 144 145.2
Daily pasture gain 1.65 1.64 1.07 1.25 1.40
Final wt. 1111.9 1190.6 1113.1 1063.8 1119.9
Daily dry lot gain 1.47 2.22 2.36 1.77 1.955
Daily Ration: Dry Lot
Corn silage 58 52 56 48 53.5
Soybean meal 1.68 1.69 1.66 1.72 1.69
Alfalfa hay 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
Ground barley 4.05 3.41 2.49 2.61 3.14
St. bonemeal & salt, 3:1 .27 .27 .27 .27 .27
Feed/100 Lb. Gain
Corn silage 3953 2336 2390 2730 2852
Soybean meal 115 76 71 97 89.75
Alfalfa hay 170 112 106 141 132
Ground barley 276 153 106 147 170.5
St. bonemeal & salt, 3:1 18 12 11 16 14.2
Feed Cost/100 Lb. Dry-Lot G $25.63 $15.49 $14.65 $18.14 $18.47
Selling Price/Cwt $24.80 $24.40 $22.50 $23.10 $23.70
Feed Cost Per Hd., Weaning to Market $102.24 $91.88 $91.04 $89.55 $93.68
Steers From 'L' Ration 1st Winter
No. steers/lot 8 8 8 7 8
Wt. to grass 510.6 503.1 475.0 491.4 495.0
Wt. off grass 800.6 761.3 676.9 722.9 740.4
Days of grazing 152 136 149 144 145.2
Daily pasture gain 1.91 1.90 1.36 1.61 1.70
Final wt. 1084.4 1081.3 1053.8 1034.3 1063.45
Daily dry-lot gain 1.64 1.99 2.33 1.82 1.945
Daily Ration: Dry Lot
Corn silage 58 53 56 50 54.3
Daily feed of soybean meal, alfalfa hay, barley and minerals are same as for lots above.
Feed /100 Lb. Gain
Corn silage 3559 2663 2420 2772 2953
Soybean meal 103 85 72 95 88.75
Alfalfa hay 152 125 107 141 131
Ground barley 247 170 107 143 166.8
St. bonemeal & salt , 3:1 16 13 11 15 13.7
Feed Cost/100 Lb. Dry-lot gain $23.91 $17.46 $14.82 $18.09 $18.34
Selling Price/Cwt $25.35 $25.00 $22.95 $23.00 $24.07
Feed Cost/Hd., Weaning to Market $95.50 $82.93 $82.69 $82.94 $86.02

In summary, Table 5 showed that better wintered calves gained 98 pounds per head more at a feed cost of $8.74 per head more than the low-wintered calves. Table 6 showed that although the low-wintered calves gained faster and at lower feed cost in summer dry-lot, they still were 83 pounds lighter when marketed at about 18 months of age than the calves which had been better fed during the first winter. In Table 7, it is seen that the low-wintered calves gained .3 pound per day more on summer pasture than the better-wintered calves; yet gained no faster in winter finishing lot. When steers were sold at 24 months of age, the animals which had been fed a limited ration the first winter were still 57 pounds lighter than those calves which had received a normal-growing ration the first winter.

The difference in profit per head above feed costs, weaning to market, was not great but favored the calves which had gained 1.27 pounds per day the first winter, over the calves which had gained only .78 pound per day in the first winter.

Feed prices used in computing tables 6 and 7 were different from the prices used in all other tables in this report, in that ground barley was priced at $1.55 per cwt. for tables 6 and 7, but at $1.77 per cwt. in all other tables.

SILAGE FROM 120-DAY CORN AND 85-DAY CORN COMPARED
IN FEEDING HEIFER CALVES

One silo was filled with silage made from 120-day corn and another was filled with silage made from 85-day corn. Two lots of heifer calves were designated to receive silage from each silo for the entire feeding period of 284 days. All lots were supplemented with limited amounts of alfalfa hay, ground barley, soybean meal and minerals. One lot on each type of silage was supplemented with 30,000 units of Vitamin A palmitate per day. A summary of results is presented in Table 8.

Table 8.
120-Day Corn Vit. A 120-Day Corn
No 'A'
85-Day Corn
Vit. A
85-Day Corn
No. 'A'
No. of heifers per lot 7 7 6* 7
Initial wt. Nov. 29 382 391 385 396
Final wt. Sept. 9 832 867 878 884
Av. Daily gain 1.58 1.68 1.74 1.72
Daily Ration
Corn Silage 33.8 33.9 35.4 35.0
Alfalfa hay 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4
Ground barley 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4
Soybean meal 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Bonemeal & salt, 3:1 .20 .20 .20 .20
Vitamin A 30,000 units 0 30,000 units 0
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain
Corn Silage 2136 2023 2039 2038
Alfalfa hay 90 85 82 83
Ground barley 217 205 198 200
Soybean meal 63 59 58 58
Bonemeal & salt, 3:1 13 12 12 12
Vitamin A (Thousands of units) 1,893 0 1,728 0
Feed Cost/100 Lb. Gain $15.86 $14.63 $14.80 $14.52
Live Wt. Selling Price $23.48(All sold together)
Carcass Price $41.65
Dressing Percent (Based on home wts.) 56.4%
U. S. Grades 10 choice, 15 Good, 2 Standard
*One heifer was lame and fell behind others in rate of gain, so was removed.

Combining the two lots on 120-day corn silage and comparing them with the two lots on 85-day corn silage, we have the results shown on Table 8-A.

Table 8-A. Silage from 120-Day Corn vs. Silage from 85-Day Corn for Fattening Heifers
120-Day Corn 85-Day Corn
No. of heifers 14 13
Initial wt. 386.5 390.5
Final wt. 849.5 881.0
Av. Daily gain 1.63 1.73
Average Daily Ration
Corn silage 33.85 35.2
Alfalfa hay 1.4 1.4
Ground barley 3.4 3.4
Soybean meal 1.0 1.0
Bonemeal & salt, 3:1 .2 .2
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain
Corn silage 2080 2039
Alfalfa hay 88 83
Ground barley 211 199
Soybean meal 61 58
Bonemeal & salt, 3:1 13 12
Feed Cost Per 100 Lb. Gain $15.25 $14.66

The heifers on the 85-day corn silage appeared to have slightly better appetites and made .10 pound greater daily gain than then heifers on the silage made from 120-day corn.

When we combine the two lots which received supplemental Vitamin A and compare them with the non-supplemented lots, we have the story told by Table 8-B.

Table 8-B. Supplemental Vitamin A in a High Silage Ration for Fattening Heifers
Vitamin A No 'A'
No. of animals 13 14
Initial wt. 383.5 393.5
Final wt. 855.0 875.5
Av. daily gain 1.66 1.70
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain
Corn silage 2088 2031
Alfalfa hay 86 84
Ground barley 208 203
Soybean meal 61 59
Bonemeal & salt, 3:1 13 12
Vitamin A 1,810,000 units 0
Feed Cost Per 100 Lb. Gain $15.33 $14.58

No benefit appears to have been derived from the supplemental Vitamin A fed in this experiment.

STILBESTROL IMPLANTS FOR HEIFERS

The same heifers which were used in the silage comparison reported in Table 8 were implanted across lots at weaning time, one month before the silage feeding trial started. Sixteen of the 27 head completing the experiment were implanted with 1-12 mg. stilbestrol pellet at weaning, and again six months later. Since the treatment was across all four lots and the cattle were sold as a unit, there was no feed or carcass information.

Table 8-C. Stilbestrol Implants for Fattening Heifers
12 Mg. Stilbestrol Twice,
at 6 Mo. Interval
No Stilbestrol
No. of heifers 16 11
Initial wt. 342 335
Final wt. 891 828
Av. daily gain, 313 days 1.75 1.57
Additional gain per head 56

As a further supplement to Table 8-A comparing silage from 85-day corn with silage from 120-day corn, the following 3-year record of yield and protein content of silage made from corn of 3 maturity ranges is presented.

SILAGE PRODUCTION OF CORN HYBRIDS IN EARLY, MEDIUM,
AND LATE RELATIVE MATURITY RANGES

Relative Maturity Range Average Yield, tons @ 70% Moisture Average Protein, %
1960 1961 1962 3-Yr. Av. 1960 1961 1962 3-Yr. Av.
80-89 days 3.2 3.3 6.9 4.5 3.37 3.30 3.00 3.22
93-102 days 4.1 3.6 8.0 5.2 2.17 3.50 3.30 3.00
105-120 days 4.6 3.5 9.5 5.9 2.33 3.60 3.30 3.08

COMPARING OATS, BARLEY, BEET PULP FOR WINTERING STEER CALVES

This steer wintering experiment was conducted for three successive winters. The purpose of the trial was to determine whether oats, barley, oats and barley, or oats, barley and pelleted beet pulp combined constituted the best grain supplement for steer calves on a high silage ration. Table 9 presents the 1961-62 winter results and the three-year summary:

Table 9. Oats and Barley, alone or combined, with and without Beet Pulp for wintering steer calves
  3-Lb. Ground Oats 3-Lb. Ground Barley 3-Lb. Ground Oats
& 3-Lb. Bly.
2 oats, 2 barley,
2 beet-pulp
61-62 3-yr. av. 61-62 3-yr. av. 61-62 3-yr. av. 61-62 3-yr. av.
No. steer per lot 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
Initial wt. 427 411 426 409 426 410 426 410
Final wt. 751 765 761 759 748 776 779 783
Av. daily gain 1.82 1.97 1.88 1.95 1.80 2.03 1.98 2.07
Days on feed 178 180 178 180 178 180 178 180
Av. Daily Ration
Corn silage 29 31 30 31 26 27 27 27
Alfalfa hay 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Soybean meal 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 .5 .5 .5 .5
Grain 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 5.7 5.9 5.7 5.9
Bonemeal & salt, 3:1 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2
Feed/100 Lb. G
Corn silage 1573 1570 1587 1616 1466 1342 1345 1314
Alfalfa hay 83 77 80 76 83 74 75.7 73
Soybean meal 54 50 53 51 26 24 24 23
Grain 163 151 158 152 314 288 287 281
Bonemeal & salt, 3:1 11 10 10 10 11 10 10 10
Feed Cost/100 Lb. G. $12.19 $11.69 $11.90 $11.78 $13.34 $12.22 $12.37 $12.12
The results obtained with these four rations were so nearly alike that it is impossible to say that one ration was better than another. Average daily gains for three years ranged from a low of 1.95 pounds per day in the lot which was fed 3 pounds of barley, to a high of 2.07 pounds in the lot receiving oats, barley, and beet pulp in combination.

STILBESTROL IMPLANTS

The steers reported on in Table 9 were implanted at weaning with 0, 12, and 24 mg. of stilbestrol across lots. At the close of the winter feeding period, all steers were implanted, regardless of winter treatment. Spring implants were 24 mg. per head in 1960 and 1961, but 36 mg. in 1962. A summary of average weight gains for the three years is presented in Table 10.

Table 10. Stilbestrol Implants for Steer Calves at Weaning, and again as Yearlings
  24 mg. at Weaning 12 mg. at Weaning None at Weaning
1959 1960 1961 3-Yr. Av. 1959 1960 1961 3-Yr. Av. 1959 1960 1961 3-Yr. Av.
Weaning wt. 401 400 430 410 406 397 426 410 407 399 427 411
Spring wt. 777 810 774 787 777 786 768 777 744 756 740 747
Winter gain/day 2.12 2.23 1.94 2.10 2.09 2.11 1.92 2.04 1.91 1.94 1.76 1.87
Winter gain/head 376 410 344 377 371 389 342 367 337 357 313 336
Spring Implant 24 mg. 24 mg. 36 mg.   24 mg. 24 mg. 36 mg.   24 mg. 24 mg. 36 mg.  
Final wt. 1046 1101 1083 1077 1039 1066 1098 1068 993 1034 1065 1031
Summer gain/day 2.28 2.55 2.62 2.48 2.22 2.46 2.79 2.49 2.11 2.44 2.75 2.43
Summer gain/head 269 291 309 290 262 280 330 291 249 278 325 284
Total gain/head 645 701 653 667 633 669 672 658 586 635 638 620

No other single treatment or nutrient has paid so well in relation to its cost as has the use of stilbestrol.

STEAM ROLLED, DRY ROLLED, OR TEMPERED AND ROLLED BARLEY
FOR YEARLING STEERS

An experiment to compare three types of rolled barley was conducted in 1961 and repeated with modifications in 1962. Steam rolling was done by a commercial mill; dry rolling, and tempering and rolling were done at the farm. In tempering, the barley was elevated to an overhead bin by a 4-inch auger into which water was metered to bring the moisture content of the barley to about 18% at rolling time. The dampened grain stood in the bin 24 hours before being rolled.

Duplicate lots of five head each were fed each year. All lots were hand-fed in 1961, but one lot on each type of barley was self-fed in 1962. Table 11 shows the results of the 1962 trials.

Table 11. Steam Rolled, Dry Rolled, and Tempered Barley for Steers - 1962
Dry-Rolled Steam-Rolled Tempered
Self-fed Limited Self-fed Limited Self-fed Limited
Hand-fed Hand-fed Hand-fed
Initial wt. 765 764 766 765 765 765
Final wt. 1077 1043 1090 1081 1131 1090
Av. daily gain 2.64 2.36 2.75 2.68 3.10 2.75
Days on feed 118 118 118 118 118 118
Daily Ration
Corn silage 12 40 12 40 12 40
Rolled barley 14.2 8.8 16.0 8.8 16.7 8.8
Supplement 1 1 1 1 1 1
Feed Per 100 Lb. G
Corn silage 452 1679 442 1500 391 1467
Rolled barley 537 371 582 328 537 319
Supplement 38 42 36 37 32 36
Feed Cost Per 100 Lb. G. $12.27 $13.89 $13.56 $12.65 $11.87 $12.01
Carcass Price/100 $41.00 $39.85 $41.00 $38.70 $41.00 $38.80
Carcass Grades all good 4 good all good 3 good all good 3 good
Dressing % (on home wt.) 60.0 58.3 59.2 58.0 58.9 57.7
Carcass Grades (cont.) 1 std. 2 std. 2 std.

The supplement used in these lots was made as follows: Ground alfalfa hay 40 lb., soybean meal 25 lb., wheat bran 15 lb., Di-Calcium phosphate 6 lb., Ground limestone 5 lb., Trace mineral salt 8 lb., Vitamin A 1 million units, Vitamin D 100,000 units. The steers were charged $3.00 per 100 pounds for this supplement.

Self-feeding produced faster gains and a higher grading carcass in each of the three comparisons with limited hand-feeding. The two lots on tempered barley outperformed those on dry or steam-rolled barley in 1962.

For a closer look at the relative merits of dry, steam, and tempered barley, the results of both the 1961 and 1962 trials are combined in Table 12.

Table 12. Dry Rolled, Steam Rolled, or Tempered and Rolled Barley for Steers
2-Year Averages
Dry Roll Steam Roll Tempered Roll
No. of steers 20 20 20
Initial wt. 776 776 777
Final wt. 1074 1073 1089
Av. daily gain 2.56 2.56 2.69
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain
Corn silage 1316 1281 1284
Rolled barley 407 423 405
Supplement 39 39 38
Feed Cost Per 100 Gain $13.11 $13.69 $12.92
Carcass Selling Price/100 $38.27 $37.92 $37.96
*Carcass Grade 9.2 9.1 9.1
Dressing %, on home wt. 58.68 58.20 58.25
*A score of 10 means US. Choice, 9 Good, and 8 Standard.

There appears to be no clear advantage for one method of rolling over the other methods. The lots on tempered did very well in the second trial, therefore, showed the most profit in the averages.

CORN SILAGE OR BEET PULP FOR STEERS

It was shown in Table 9 that beet pulp mixed with barley and oats in equal parts made a very satisfactory grain mixture for steer calves wintered on a high silage ration.

The purpose of this trial was to compare dried beet pulp with corn silage as roughages for the entire feeding period. Light weight steer calves were fed ground barley at a moderate level, with alfalfa, soybean meal, minerals and vitamins. In one lot, corn silage made up, 40% of the total dry matter in the ration, and in one lot, pelleted beet pulp made up about 40% of the dry matter in the ration. The experiment was conducted twice with the results shown in Table 13.

Table 13. Corn Silage vs. Beet Pulp for Growing, Fattening Steer Calves
Beet Pulp
61-62
Corn Silage
61-62
Beet Pulp
2-yr. av.
Corn Silage
2-yr. av.
No. of steers 5* 8 5.5 7.5
Initial wt. 301 298 296 298
Final wt. 930 932 967 917
Av. daily gain 2.01 2.02 2.20 2.03
Days on feed 313 313 306 306
Daily Ration
Corn silage 0 27.00 0 25
Pelleted beet pulp 6.38 0 6.19 0
Ground barley 6.35 6.00 6.53 6.25
Alfalfa hay 1.56 1.50 1.48 1.55
Soybean meal .97 .92 .94 .90
Bonemeal & salt, 3:1 .16 .17 .16 .16
Vitamin A, units 10,140 9,780 7,570 7,290
Vitamin D, units 1,014 978 1,007 989
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain
Corn silage 0 1332 0 1237
Pelleted beet pulp 317 0 285 0
Ground barley 316 296 298 309
Alfalfa hay 77.5 73.8 68 76
Soybean meal 48.3 45.6 43 44
Bonemeal & salt, 3:1 8.0 8.4 7 8
Vitamin A, (thousands of units) 504 483 357 365
Vitamin D, (thousands of units) 50 48 46 49
Feed Cost Per 100 Lb. Gain $15.11 $13.09 $13.76 $12.88
Carcass Selling Price $43.27 $43.27 $39.71 $39.65
**Carcass Grade 9.46 9.46 9.48 9.43
Dressing % (on home wt.) 56.35 56.35 57.03 58.08
*Eight calves started the trial, one died of enterotoxemia, one died on coccidiosis, and one died of undetermined causes.

** A score of 10 means a grade of Choice, 9 means Good, 8 means Standard. Both lots were sold together in 1962, so no differences in price or dressing % were obtained.

FATTENING STEERS WITH AND WITHOUT GRAIN

Three lots of steer calves were started on a 12-month feeding period to compare rate and cost of gain and corn silage and commercial supplement, corn silage and home-made supplement, and corn silage plus grain and soymeal. The purpose was to seek an answer to the claim that steers can be fattened as economically on corn silage and a protein supplement, as on the conventional ration of corn silage, grain, and supplements.

The home-mixed supplement used was mixed as follows:

Linseed meal 100
Soybean meal 100
Wheat bran 80
Di-Calcium Phosphate 10
Trace Mineral Salt 8
Zinc Bacitracin 15 gms.
Penicillin 5 gms.
Vitamin A 4.5 million units
Vitamin D 250,000 units

The cost of ingredients plus mixing was determined to be $4.60 per hundred weight. The commercial supplement cost $7.00 per 100 pounds.

The three lots of cattle were sold on grade and yield to get accurate carcass information. Table 14 shows the results of the experiment.

Table 14. Commercial Supplement, Home-Made Supplement, or Grain and Soymeal with Corn Silage
Commercial Supp. Home-Made Supp. Grain & Soy
No. steers per lot 8 8 8
Initial wt. 369 369 368
Final wt. 998 1027 1093
Av. daily gain 1.74 1.82 2.01
Days on feed 361 361 361
Daily Ration:
Corn silage 45.8 44.4 30.4
Alfalfa hay 0 1.5 1.5
Ground barley 0 0 6.7
Supplement 1.5 1.5 0
Soymeal 0 0 .7
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 0 0 .2
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain
Corn silage 2626 2436 1515
Alfalfa hay 0 82.3 74.7
Ground barley 0 0 333
Supplement 86.0 82.3 0
Soymeal 0 0 35.7
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 0 0 9.5
Feed Cost Per 100 Lb. G $15.47 $13.29 $14.08
Carcass Value Per 100 Lb. $43.35 $43.56 $43.96
Live Wt. Value Per 100 Lb. $23.50 $23.76 $25.55
Dressing %, on home wts. 54.2 54.6 58.1
Carcass Grades 2 Choice

6 Good

3 Choice

5 Good

5 Choice

3 Good

There was not a significant difference in gains between the steers fed Home Supplement and those fed Commercial Supplement, but the Home Supplement allowed considerably more profit above feed costs. The faster-gaining grain-fed steers dressed and graded higher than either of the other lots; therefore, sold higher and returned substantially more profit than either of the other two lots.

HOG FEEDING 1961-1962

Four rations were fed to six lots of fall pigs weaned in November, 1961. All rations were fed in meal form. They were formulated as follows:

Table 15. Rations for Fattening Pigs, Winter, 1961-1962.
Soybean Meal Soybean Meal
+ Bacitracin
High
Soybean Meal
Buttermilk & Soybean Meal
Barley 1240 1240 1180 1140
Oats 620 618 580 560
Soybean meal 100 100 200 100
Dried buttermilk 0 0 0 160
Steamed bonemeal 20 20 20 20
Ground limestone 10 10 10 10
Trace mineral salt 10 10 10 10
ZN Bacitracin & Penicillin 0 20 grams 0 0
Calculated Protein % 14.3 14.3 15.9 15.7

Two lots of late fall pigs were allotted November 20 and self-fed the high soybean meal ration against the buttermilk and soybean meal ration. After 120 days, the protein supplements were cut 50% in each lot.

Table 16. Soybean Meal vs. Buttermilk and Soybean Meal for Light-Weight Pigs
High
Soybean Meal
Buttermilk and
Soybean Meal
Initial wt. 25.2 25.8
Final wt. 160.8 216.8
Av. daily gain .87 1.23
Days on test 155 155
Feed/100 Lbs. Gain 474 424
Feed Cost/100 Lb. Gain $9.66 $10.30
Selling Price/100 Lbs. $14.60 $15.50
Feed Cost/Head $13.10 $19.67
Sale Price Per Head $23.47 $33.60
Gross Profit Per Head $10.37 $13.93

Although the pigs in the second lot were charged 9 cents per pound for the dried buttermilk, they paid all feed bills and returned about $3.50 per head more profit than the pigs which did not receive the animal protein. Soybean meal is usually our cheapest source of protein, but it cannot take the place of milk and its by products in the diet of young animals.

Six other lots of fall pigs were fed in pairs, each pair consisting of one lot of 47-pound pigs and one lot of 32-pound pigs. All lots were weighed off and the trial was terminated February 27, 1962, when the heavier pigs were ready for market. The gain data are summarized in Table 17.

Table 17. Three Rations for Fall Pigs, Winter, 1961-1962.
Soybean Meal High Soybean Meal
For 72 Days, Then Soybean Meal
Soybean Meal
and Bacitracin
1 2 3 4 5 6
Initial wt. 32 47 32 47 32 47
Final wt. 167 199 142 177 162 188
Av. daily gain 1.22 1.37 .99 1.17 1.17 1.27
Days on feed 111 111 111 111 111 111
Feed/100 Lb. Gain 387 435 462 485 414 492
Feed Cost/100 Lb. G. $7.62 $8.57 $9.39 $9.87 $8.57 $10.18

The pigs in lots 3 and did not perform well on the high soybean meal ration. Lowering the soybean meal level did not result in a boost in gains, however, so the cause of the low rate of gain was probably not in the soybean meal. The antibiotic in the ration of lots 5 and 6 gave no boost in gains.

HOG FEEDING - SUMMER - 1962

In the summer of 1962, 14 lots of spring pigs were fattened, 8 lots on concrete, and 6 lots on winter wheat pasture. The 8 lots on concrete were set up to compare grinding, dry rolling, steam rolling, and pelleting of barley, with the same supplement in all lots. The six lots of pigs on pasture were fed supplement in all lots. The six lots of pigs on pasture were fed unsupplemented barley prepared by each of the four methods above, and these were checked against standard rations with protein and mineral supplements. Table 18 shows gain and feed cost data for the pigs on concrete. Table 19 gives the results of the lots fed on pasture. The ration used in all lots on concrete was mixed as follows: Barley 1855 lbs., soybean meal 100 lbs., steamed bonemeal 20 lbs., ground limestone 10 lbs., trace mineral salt 12 lbs., plus Vitamins B, D, and A.

Table 18. Barley Prepared by Grinding, Steam Rolling, Dry-Rolling, or Pelleting for Pigs on Concrete - 1962
1-C 2-C 7-C 3-C 8-C 4-C 5-C
Ground Bly. Steam Rolled Bly. Dry Roll Bly. Pelleted Bly.
No. of pigs 10 10 0 10 10 10 9
Initial wt. 47 47 36 47 36 47 36
Final wt. 183 171 182 166 174 199 211
Av. daily gain 1.21 1.11 1.16 1.07 1.09 1.36 1.39
Days on feed 112 112 126 112 126 112 126
Feed/100 Lbs. G 402 426 377 412 385 366 333
Feed Cost/100 Lbs. G. $8.04 $8.95 $7.92 $8.24 $7.70 $8.78 $7.99

Table 19. Barley Prepared by Grinding, Steam Rolling, Dry Rolling, or Pelleting for Pigs on Pasture - 1962
  1-P 2-P 3-P 4-P 5-P 6-P
  Ground Bly.
No Supp.
Steam-roll
Bly. No. Supp.
Dry-Roll Bly.
No Supp.
Pelleted Bly.
No Supp.
Steam-Roll Bly. w/supp. Ground Bly. With Supp.
No. of pigs 10 9 10 9 10 10
Initial wt. 47 48 47 47 36 36
Final wt. 199 182 167 201 201 200
Av. daily gain 1.14 1.01 .90 1.16 1.31 1.31
Days on feed 133 133 133 133 126 126
Feed 100 Lb. G. 391 410 423 392 343 399
Feed Cost/100 Lb. G. $6.96 $7.71 $7.53 $8.55 $7.20 $8.14

In Table 18, the lots fed pelleted barley with supplement gained faster and more efficiently than those pigs fed ground or rolled barley with supplement. Neither method of rolling was quite equal to grinding in this table. In Table 19 the pellets made without a supplement were no better than ground feed in producing pork. The two lots of smaller pigs which were fed a ration of barley with protein, mineral and Vitamin supplements on pasture outgained the unsupplemented lots.

PUBLIC MEETINGS 1962

Date Meeting and Subject Attendance
January 8-11 Annual Branch Station Meeting  
February 7 Stark County Livestock Tour, Dickinson 125
February 8 Golden Valley County Livestock Tour, Beach 100
February 13 Hettinger Station Annual Sheep Day, Hettinger 150
February 16 McKenzie County Livestock Tour, Charlson 100
February 21 Slope County Crops and Livestock Meeting, Amidon 60
February 23 Farm Bureau Stockmens' Meeting, Dickinson, "Diseases" 50
March 14 President Albrecht, Directors Hazen and Schulz visited Station briefly  
April 27 Dr. William Dinusson spent day discussing our summer feeding trials  
May No Meetings  
June 13 Attended Grassland Field Day, Mandan  
June 12 Attended North Dakota Stockmen's Convention, Bismarck  
June 15 4-H Judging work-out at Station  
July 11-13 Attended section meeting of American Society Range Mgt., Havre, Montana 55
July 18 Annual Crops Day, Dickinson Experiment Station 150
July 19 Spoke to the General Agriculture Class of DSTC 15
July 27 Dean Hazen and family stopped at Station  
August No Meetings  
September 11 Dr. Dinusson visited Station, Discussed trials  
September 15 Richardton 4-H Festival - Judged livestock  
September 21 Stark-Billings 4-H Roundup - Judged Livestock  
September 26 Extension Livestock meeting at Dickinson  
October 1 Western North Dakota Hereford Tour 250
October 6 Chapter Meeting of Northern Great Plains Sec., A.S.R.M., Mandan 30
November 7 Attended Rotary-Farmers Meeting, Dickinson 100
November 21 Attended O'Bach's production sale at Schnell's  
December 5 Livestock Research Roundup 1100
December 6 and 20 Rural Areas Development meetings, Dickinson  
December 8 Farmer's and Feeder's meeting, Hebron 30
December 10-14 State Extension Conference, Fargo  

RADIO PROGRAMS, 1962

Date Subject
January 18, 1962 Economical Feeding and Management
February 8, 1962 Feed and Water for Calves in Feed Lot
March 1, 1962 Heritability Estimates in Beef Cattle
March 22, 1962 Four Months' Progress Report, Beef Cattle Feeding
April 12, 1962 Two-Year Old Steers Sold March 15
May 3, 1962 Some Results of Winter Feeding
May 24, 1962 Feed Yearlings on Grass for More Beef
June 21, 1962 Hog Feeding
July 26, 1962 Cattle Feeding Work
August 16, 1962 Summer Hog Feeding
September 20, 1962 Creep Feeding Calves
October 11, 1962 Summer Hog Feeding Trials
November 1, 1962 Stilbestrol Implants
December 12, 1962 Finishing Steers on Barley
December 13, 1962 Break-Even Prices on Calves

PUBLICATIONS

North Dakota Farm Research, "Effect of First Winter Feed on Later Gains" - November-December, 1962, by Raymond J. Douglas, Larkin H. Langford, M. L. Buchanan