1962 ANNUAL REPORT
BY RAYMOND J. DOUGLAS, SUPERINTENDENT
The importance of the work at the Dickinson Experiment Station is ever increasing. Despite the good crop in 1962 the need for a good income again in 1963 is exceedingly important because of the back log of debits and the increased cost of production. Our efforts in pointing the way towards a balanced agriculture are becoming more important each year, because only with a balanced operation will we have a steady income each year. This type of operation even in a year when precipitation is below normal will give us a good income.
Not only do we need to use the best methods and practices in the handling of the operating unit, but the planning of the North Dakota farmer or rancher must be such that each enterprise developed will be organized to live permanently with the conditions and circumstances under which we operate. This thinking and organization must carry through our Conservation practices, crops and livestock enterprises. There is no substitute for using the best methods and practices adapted to each individual farm or ranch. This means that the best Conservation practices, varieties of grain and livestock selection and handling should be with an eye to the needs of each farm or ranch.
Feeding out cattle and hogs for market must be built around homegrown feeds adapted to the unit, properly supplemented. Economy of operation should never be overlooked; every dollar saved is the same as having earned an extra dollar, and the days of earning the easy dollar in Agriculture are gone, perhaps forever.
Our job at the Dickinson Experiment Station is to improve the farm income by recommending the best methods, practices, varieties of grain, breeds and types of livestock for the job that is to be done. If a well-established practice or variety has been proved to be the best, we should stay with that as a recommendation, with changes only being recommended when we know that the proper switch will excel those now being used, in a manner that will enhance our farm or ranch income.
Our greatest consideration should be directed towards improvement in the following:
1. Soil conservation.
2. Cropping practices and rotations.
3. Best yielding varieties of small grain.
4. New crops and crop varieties.
5. Grass and legumes varieties of maximum productive value to the area.
6. A program using the best methods of feeding out calves and hogs to slaughter condition.
7. Economy of operation in every phase of a balanced agriculture.
In a changing agriculture our Station must be kept up to date, and having the appearance of a well-kept unit. This requires expansion and improvements in many phases of our plant.
The items listed in paragraphs I to V will give a general over-all picture of our needs as we look into the future.
The new Highway 94 will be constructed during 1963. This will take about 60-70 acres of our best land out of production. This land should be replaced since our acreage is small even for our operation as it is at the present time, before these acres are removed. The attached map shows where the new Highway will be located according to the latest information - this is subject to change at any time up until the concrete has actually been poured. This expansion of the Highway across the Dickinson Experiment Sation is a bad situation, but progress which to us, is an evil we must live with. We are being given a cattle pass, where the red check is, on the City Spur road. This installation, will connect the division being made in our pasture by the City Spur.
We have a projected plan for increasing the size of Pyramid Park to give us additional grazing acreage in the Badlands. Most of this land must be secured from the Forest Service, and we hope will be realized in the not too distant future.
We hope that this can be worked out, through a cooperative project with the Forest Service, with the Station receiving the land when the project has been completed. There is one piece of privately-owned land that would fit into our grazing area if it could be purchased. We need approximately three quarters or 480 acres in addition to our present grazing area. This increase in acreage is essential for the management of our herd in the Badlands under range conditions. While at the present time, we are grazing one-third of our cow herd at the Dickinson Experiment Station headquarters each summer, it would be desirable to graze the whole herd, in the Badlands from about June 15 to October 15 in three separate pastures. Our present summer range in the Badlands has only sufficient acreage for grazing two-thirds of our herd in two separate pastures.
During 1962 we completed the following projects:
Improvements to be made in 1963.
IV. MODEL PROJECTS
Our poultry flock with the new facilities completed in 1961 was more easily handled in 1962. It is our opinion that the project is in line with the size of flock and facilities a farmer or rancher should have if he keeps a flock of chickens.
The model garden was reduced in size and better handled in 1962 than in previous years. This is a worthwhile project and can still be improved.
Our program is developed more each year to acquaint farmers and ranchers with the work we are doing at the Dickinson Experiment Station. The best information we have is released in news articles, publications, tours, classes, field days, and meetings.
Completed projects are published in the North Dakota Farm Research monthly bulletin. Seventeen hundred copies of the Livestock Research Report were prepared with about 1600 being distributed at the Roundup on December 5, 1962.
WEATHER RECORDS AT THE
DICKINSON EXPERIMENT STATION INCLUDE:
|Month||1962||Accum.||1892 - 1962||Accumulative Average||Last 10 Years|
Average Precipitation = 15.55
71-Year Average Precipitation, April-July = 9.13
*Total Precipitation in inches per month for 71 years
**Greatest of Record
***Least of Record
1962 - Greatest 24-hour Precipitation, July 3, 1.30 inches
|Latest Killing Frost in Spring||Earliest Killing Frost in Fall|
|1915||June 16||30o F||1917||Aug. 9||30o F|
|1962||May 1||26o F||1962||Sept. 10
|Frost-Free Season||Shortest of Record||Longest of Record|
|Lowest of Record||Highest of Record|
|1936||Feb. 16||-47o F||1936||July 6||114o F|
|1962||Feb. 28||-42o F||1962||Aug. 22||96o F|
VI. BEEF CATTLE PROGRAM
Improving the Beef Breeding Herd.
a. AP Zato Heir 64 Number 10,620,922; Calved February 1, 1959; Bred by A. W. Powell, Sisseton, South Dakota
b. TTT Lodge Heir 3 Number 11,643,726; Calved April 3, 1961; Bred by Thor Tagestad, Towner, North Dakota
c. TTT Anxiety Number 11,643,725; Calved April 3, 1961; Bred by Thor Tagestad, Towner, North Dakota
d. AP Zato Heir 18 Number 9,359,270; Calved May 22, 1956; Calves bred by A. W. Powell, Sisseton, South Dakota
e. DGH Rupert Aster Number 10,148,644; Calved October 13, 1957; Calves bred by Turner Ranch, Sulphur, Oklahoma
f. Husky Pioneer 263 Number 12,332,508; Calved April 3,1962; Bred by Tony Stroh, Killdeer, North Dakota
The bulls should improve the gaining ability, type, quality, conformation and thickness of the replacement heifers and the feeder calves used in our trials.
b. Defects; lump jaw, cancer eye, bad feet, etc.
d. Weight of calf at weaning
e. Dry cows
We have added a Husky Pioneer bull to our herd this fall-it is hoped that he will aid in getting heavier calves at weaning, of improved type and with better gaining ability than we have had up to the present time. Husky Pioneer 263 was calved April 3, 1961 and on December 1 at weaning weighed 525 pounds, is thick of excellent type. We are striving for herd improvement along the lines indicated, which, by improving our herd sires, we believe can be accomplished.
Feeding Trials. Our program is geared to develop a feeding program in North Dakota that will live over the years and be a stable enterprise. To do this, the ration must be built around home-grown feed properly supplemented. Probably the best ration for the majority of our feeders will be a roughage ration with grain added in the amount desired by each feeder. Each feeder should aim towards marketing his animals whenever marketing best fits his program of work and will give him the greatest possible income. Feeding beef cattle has the greatest potential of any Agricultural enterprise presently being developed in North Dakota.
Our experimental work is built around getting sound answers to the following problems:
a. Dry lot fattening following the wintering period.
b. Spring and summer grazing following winter feeding period with finishing in dry lot starting in early fall.
a. Value of stilbestrol implants in steers and heifers.
b. Rations to give maximum gains at lowest possible cost until animals are ready for slaughter.
c. High roughage rations for calves with:
1. Creep feeding of calves.
2. Limited grain through entire feeding period.
3. Grain being increased after animals weigh from 450-500 to such rations as 50 per cent roughage and 50 per cent grain; 80 per cent grain and 20 per cent roughage; 90 per cent grain and 10 per cent roughage.
4. Testing new additives showing promise.
5. Varying amounts of stilbestrol for implants.
6. Full feeding grain.
7. Self-feeding grain.
8. Adding vitamins to ration.
9. Late maturing corn with corn varieties such as 85-87 day which recommend for the area.
VII. SWINE PROGRAM
Crosses for Increasing Gains and Short Finishing Periods.
a. DDTO Toastmaster 297; Farrowed March 6, 1960; Bred by Donald Trapp, Claremont, Minnesota
b. Sunny Crest Model 301; Farrowed April 18, 1962; Sire: CJP1 Coopersdale, M Image 12 304696 CL PR CMS; Dam: Sunnycrest Bess 35N 233644 PR; Pigs born - 14, Weaned - 12; Bred by Keith Thurston, Madelia, Minnesota
c. Sunny Crest Field Marshall 341; Farrowed April 28, 1962; Born - 14, Raised - 11; Sire: Oakvale Field Marshall 61N 218075; Dam: KWTO Sunny Crest Bess 3 278620; Bred by Keith Thurston, Madelia, Minnesota
d. Hampshire Boar; Farrowed April, 1963; Bred by Gietzen Brothers, Glen Ullin, North Dak.
VIII. GRASS AND LEGUME INVESTIGATIONS
Grasses and legumes for both Hay and Pasture
a. Grasses alone.
b. Grass mixtures.
c. Grass and legume mixtures.
d. Fertilization of grasses.
e. Renovation of grasses and legumes.
f. Protein content of :
aa. Grass alone
bb. Grass fertilized
cc. Grass and legume mixtures
dd. Nitrate content of fertilized and unfertilized grasses
IX. AGRONOMY PROGRAM
a. Spring Plowing
b. Fall plowing and
other types of fall tillage
c. One-waying or double
disking in the spring
d. Disking and mold
board plowing of corn land for small grain
Crop Rotations Most Effective
for Western North Dakota
Below is a list of the small
grain, of which different varieties are being compared for the area:
D. Miscellaneous Crop Varieties
Being Tested for the Area
E. Roughage Crops Being
Tested for the Area
F. Spring moisture in the
soil determined on small grain acreage of the previous year handled by one of
the following methods:
Due to the fact that
we have the information needed presently for this trial, it is not being
continued in 1963.
Small grain nursery using
new varieties just developed or those new to the area when only limited amounts
of seed are available.
Wheat Breeding Program
c. Test weight
d. Resistance to rust
e. Resistance to disease
f. Comparing, maturity date, strength of straw, ease of shattering, etc.
Use of Fertilizer
b. Corn land
c. Stubble land
d. Residual effect year following application of fertilizer
a. Proper placement
at time of planting
b. Different methods of application before and following planting.
c. Residual effect on crop planted the following year
Weed Control. This
is one of our greatest problems and the search is constantly on for new and
better methods of weed control which include:
X. GENERAL FARMING OPERATIONS
|Feed on hand December 31, 1962:|
|450 tons of hay @ $20.00||$9,000.00|
|100 tons of straw @ $7.00||700.00|
|3000 tons of silage @ $7.24||21,720.00|
|9000 bushels of barley @ $.70||6,750.00|
|4000 bushels of oats @ $.50||2,000.00|
1 - John Deere D. Tractor 1939 Model
1 - Howard Rotovator and Gear Reducer for Cub Tractor
1 - Fertilizer Spreader
1 - 350-gallon used Butane tank
1 - used furnace
1 - 4 ft. S & H PTO Shaft complete
14 - garbage cans
1 - Motor for pressure pump
1 - 24-ft. ball muffer elevator
1 - Mist green file cabinet No. 104
1 - Everhot fan
1 - 3L - 3" open discharge pump
2 - #14 John Deere Rotary hoe sections
1 - 12 ft. John Deere pull-type windrower
1 - #851 John Deere Rake w/hand lift crank w/hose support bundle w/pipe center
1 - John Deere rotary hoe w/hitch, w/pipe center
1 - R-12-73 bolder 2-horse single phase electric motor
1 - Chicken brooder
1 - Air compressor
1 - 1950 John Deere Model
500 - White Plymouth Rock Special Mated Straight Run Chickens
20 - Light yearling steers and heifers
25 - Head of steer and heifer calves
1 - Purebred Hampshire Boar
2 - Purebred Yorkshire Boars
1 - Hereford Bull Calf
|Jan. 8-11||Annual Experiment Station Conference|
|Jan. 17||Turtle Lake area farmers and P.T.A. "Russian Agriculture"||225|
|Jan. 24||Emmons Co. Agric. Imp. Ass'n. "Improving our Agriculture"||152|
|Jan. 24||Streeter Agric. Imp. Ass'n. "Wintering Beef Cows"||175|
|Feb. 8||Golden Valley Co. Feeder Tour "Hog Production in Western ND."||125|
|Feb. 13||Hettinger Branch Station Sheep Day|
|Feb. 20||Bottineau Co. Agric. Imp. Ass'n. "Raising Beef Cattle in N.D."||200|
|March 1||Wing, North Dakota "Improved Grazing and Forage Production"||125|
|March 2||Wing, North Dakota "Factors Affecting Gainability of Feeding Cattle"||200|
|March 14||President Albrecht, Tour of Station|
|March 14||Directors, Hazen and Schulz, Tour of Station|
|March 16||Ward Co. Agric. Improvement Ass'n. "Improved Grazing and Feeding"||150|
|March 16||Kenmare Farmer's Institute "Improved Grazing and Feeding"||250|
|March 19||Stutsman Co. Agric. Improvement Ass'n. "Better Pastures and Roughage"||125|
|March 24||New England FFA "Russian Agriculture"||130|
|April 9||Devils Lake "Improving Our Livestock"||150|
|April 27||Dr. William E. Dinusson, Visited Station to help plan spring trials|
|May 25||Dr. Shermister, Mint trials started|
|June 12||North Dakota Stockmen's Convention, Bismarck|
|June 13||Grassland Field Day, Mandan|
|June 15||District Judging work-out||72|
|June 17||REA Picnic and Tour to Microclimate Project||46|
|June 26||Lions Club, Tour of Station||61|
|July 18||Annual Crops Field Day||150|
|July 18||Irish Wheat Trade Team||6|
|July 23||DSTC Class in Agriculture||16|
|July 24||Herford Breeders Stark and Dunn Counties||21|
|July 25||SW District 4-H Judging Contest||60|
|July 27||Dean Hazen visited Station|
|Sept. 5||Chamber of Commerce, Soil Judging Contest||10|
|Sept. 11||Belfield 4-H Show, Judge Livestock||200|
|Sept. 11||Dr. Dinnusson, Discussed livestock projects|
|Sept. 26||Extension Livestock Meeting, Panel discussion||200|
|Oct. 1||Hereford Tour, Stark and Dunn Counties||150|
|Oct. 17||SCS District Meeting, Southwest area||75|
|Oct. 25||State Mill and Elevator "Fertilizer"||20|
|Oct. 25||Decker Implement Co., Haapala Corn Meeting||98|
|Oct. 27||SCS Meeting, Awards Banquet||78|
|Oct. 30||Gro-Green Meeting "Fertilizer"||6|
|Oct. 31||Slope Seed and Grain Meeting "Seed and Fertilizer"||120|
|Oct. 31||Chamber of Commerce Meeting, Agriculture Committee||8|
|Nov. 7||Farmers Rotary Program "New Developments in Agriculture"||131|
|Nov. 17||4-H Achievement Banquet "Award for Station"||500|
|Nov. 19||Lyle Witham Sale "Place of Beef Cattle in North Dakota"||300|
|Nov. 27||Chamber of Commerce Meeting "Livestock Research Roundup"||14|
|Nov. 30||Dow Chemical Co. Representative|
|Dec. 3||Greater North Dakota Ass'n. "Developing Our Agriculture"||25|
|Dec. 5||Thirteenth Annual Livestock Research Roundup||1100|
|Dec. 10-14||Branch Station Conference|
|January 4, 1962||Our Weather During 1961|
|January 25, 1962||Best Use of Grass|
|February 15, 1962||Plan your Roughage Crops Early|
|March 8, 1962||Pastures and Grazing|
|March 29, 1962||Seeding for Early Spring Grazing|
|April 19,1962||Pasturing or Grazing Cattle to be Marketed|
|May 10, 1962||Growing Out Spring Pigs|
|May 31, 1962||1962 Grazing Trials|
|July 5, 1962||Dickinson Experiment Station Crops Day|
|August 2, 1962||Prepare for Corn Harvest|
|August 30, 1962||Start Fall Feeding Early|
|September 6, 1962||Feeding of Sorghum and Sudan|
|October 18, 1962||Fall Tillage|
|November 8, 1962||Livestock Research Roundup|
|November 29, 1962||Program for the Livestock Research Roundup|
|December 20, 1962||Stilbestrol as Implants for Steers and Market Heifers|
November-December, 1962, North Dakota Farm Research Vol. 22 No. 8, Effect of First Winter Feed on Later Gains, Raymond J. Douglas, Larkin H. Langford, M. L. Buchanan
|Farm Visits||No. Tours||Attendance
At Meetings and Tours
|Meetings Attended||Station Calls||Radio Talks||News Articles|