1961 REPORT OF LIVESTOCK INVESTIGATIONS

BY LARKIN H. LANGFORD

THE BEEF BREEDING HERD

During the breeding seasons, about June 20 to July 31, of 1958, 1959, and 1960, the cow herd has been divided into three groups. One bull has been placed with each group, and a fourth bull has run with yearling heifers. For the late season clean-up, cows have been combined into two herds with one bull per herd. This system of management, combined with recorded birth weight and weaning weights, has given us enough data on the reproductive performance of each bull to form a basis for evaluation. Bulls which sire calves of inferior weight or quality can be eliminated from the herd. The bulls that have been used are:

Sire 4 - Zato Heir 9, bred by A. W. Powell, Sisseton, South Dakota

Sire 5 - Zato Heir 18, bred by A. W. Powell, Sisseton, South Dakota

Sire 6 - TTT Silver Lad, bred by Thor Tagestad, Towner, North Dakota

Sire 8 - DGH Rupert Aster, bred by Don Hoag, Harwood, North Dakota

Table 1. Weaning Weights and Ages of Calves by 4 Sires, 3 Seasons. Does Not Include Calves From 2-Year Old Heifers.
Sire 4 Sire 5 Sire 6 Sire 8
1959 1960 1961 1959 1960 1959 1960 1961 1960 1961
No. calves 40 23 24 17 22 6 17 17 11 28
Weaning Wt. 333 344 384 369 333 346 351 375 326 358
Age in Days 172 194 197 177 176 185 191 193 163 179
Wt/Day of Age 1.94 1.78 1.95 2.08 1.89 1.87 1.84 1.94 2.00 2.00

Bulls No. 4 and 6 were sold in the Fall of 1961. Weights are taken on all breeding animals regularly. Table 2. Summarizes the breeding herd record for three years. Two-year olds and their calves were not included.

Table 2. Cow Weights and Calf Production for 1959, 1960, 1961
1959 1960 1961
No. Cows, 3 yrs. and older 81 82 77
Wt. at weaning, fall before 1057 1012 1068
Wt. March 30, before calving 1094 1081 1127
Wt. at weaning, current year 1036 1106 1059
Cow Ration, Preceding Winter:
Corn Silage, Lb. 25 12-3 mo., 0-3 mo. 0
Crested and Brome Hay, Lb. 12 12-3 mo., 17-3 mo. 12-4 mo., 19-2 mo.
Straw, Lb. 0 5 7-4 mo, -mo.
Ground Barley 0 0 2-2 mo.
Calf Production:
No. Born Alive 75 71* 72*
No. Weaned 71 71 72
No. Dry Cows 6 1 0
Av. Birth Wt. 71.7 73.6 70.8
Av. Weaning Wt. 344.1 338.5 371.9
Av. Weaning Age, Da. 175 182 189
Av. Wt. Per Da. of Age 1.97 1.86 1.96
*Not included in data were 9 late calves in 1960 and 3 late ones in 1961. Also, one was born dead in 1960, and two died young in 1961.

CREEP FEEDING OF CALVES

On June 22, 1961, the 91 cows which comprised the breeding herd were divided into three groups. This allotment was made across previous lot lines taking into account the age and weight of cows, weight and sex of calves, and over-all quality of the cows. The purpose was to begin a study in creep feeding whole oats to the calves of one group, while grazing the other cow and calf pairs in the usual manner without a creep feeder. Since the three pastures are not equal in every respect, this study will have to be repeated, using a different pasture for the creep feeding each' year until weaning weights have been taken on each pasture, with and without a creep feeder. Creep feeding was begun July 1 and continued until weaning, October 30.


Table 3. Creep-Feeding Whole Oats to Calves - 1961
East Park West Park Home Pasture
No Creep No Creep Creep Feeder
No. Cows 29 30 30*
Av. Wt. Cows, June 22 978 956 990
Av. Wt. Cows, Oct. 30 1032 1031 1021
Summer Gain/Hd., Cows 54 75 31
No. Steer Calves Weaned 17 16 16
No. Heifer Calves Weaned 12 14 14
Birth Wt. All Calves 70.6 69.1 70.3
Weaning Wt. All Calves 348.6 346.2 383.7
Total Wt. Oats Fed, Lbs. 5,133
Av. Wt. Oats Fed/Calf 171
Av. Additional Wt./Calf 36
Value of Oats/Bu. Using 28 Per Lb. Average Calf Price $1.88
*Two cows lost calves before the grazing season; were removed from averages.

TWO LEVELS OF WINTERING STEERS FOLLOWED BY DIRECT OR
DEFERRED FINISHING. 4-YEARS' RESULTS

This report covers the fourth and final year of a steer calf wintering experiment begun in the fall of 1957. Each winter, two equal lots of 16 steer calves were wintered on a 'normal' and a 'low' ration. On May 1 both lots were divided into two groups, one group from each lot was summer grazed and finished the following winter, while the other group from each lot was finished in summer dry lot.

All steers were implanted with 24 mg. of stilbestrol when placed in dry lot for finishing.

The purpose of this experiment was to compare costs and profits between the two wintering rations and follow each group of steers through dry lot finishing, whether summer grazed or fed out immediately following the wintering period.

Table 4 shows results of the wintering phase; Table 5 summarizes the summer dry-lot feeding; and Table 6 combines summer grazing and dry-lot finishing which followed. Feed prices used throughout this report:

Corn Silage 7.20 per ton
Alfalfa Hay 18.00 per ton
Barley .72 per bushel
Oats .56 per bushel
Soybean Meal 80.00 per ton
Steamed Bonemeal 130.00 per ton
Trace Min Salt 54.00 per ton
Pelleted Beet Pulp 40.00 per ton
Grinding Grain 1.00 per ton when done at home
Grazing Yearlings 1.50 per hd. per month


Table 4. Wintering Steer Calves, 2 Rations, 4 Winters
Normal Ration Low Ration
1960-61 4-Yr. Av. 1960-61 4-Yr. Av.
Fall Weaning Wt. 349 359 349 360
Spring Wt. 583 592 491 496
Av. Daily Gain 1.27 1.27 .77 .78
Daily Feed:
Corn Silage 22 23 19 20
Cr. Wht. Grass Hay 4 4 4 4
Whole Oats 2 2 0 0
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:
Corn Silage 1735 1849 2522 2733
Cr. Wht. Grass Hay 309 313 507 550
Whole Oats 157 158 0 0
Feed Cost/100 Lb. Gain $11.78 $12.24 $13.64 $14.79


Table 5. Summer Dry-Lot Finishing of One-Half the Steers In Wintering Lots
From Normal Winter Lot From Low Winter Lot
1961 4-Yr. Av. 1961 4-Yr. Av.
Initial Wt. (About May 1) 583 595 492 495
Final Wt. (about Oct. 30) 999 1018 923 945
Av. Daily Gain 2.38 2.39 2.46 2.54
Daily Feed:
Corn Silage 40.60 45.00 41.30 42.50
Alfalfa Hay 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
Soybean Meal 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50
Ground Barley 3.95 1.34 3.95 4.34
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 .20 .20 .20 .20
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:
Corn Silage 1705 1857 1674 1681
Alfalfa Hay 105 104 101 97
Soybean Meal 62.6 63 60.3 59
Ground Barley 166 181 160 171
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 8.4 8.4 8.0 8.0
Feed Cost Per 100 Lb. Gain $12.62 $13.38 $12.28 $12.35
Selling Price Per 100 Lb. $22.40 $23.34 $22.75 $23.39
Return Per Hd. Above Feed From Weaning to Market $64.87 $68.00 $58.06 $61.17

Tables 4 and 5 show that it was $6.83 per head more profitable to winter steer calves well (1.27 lbs. per day) than to winter them light, (.78 lb. per day) when all were fed out in dry lot immediately after the wintering period. Table 6 gives a three-year summary which indicates that the well-wintered calves returned $4.00 per head more gross profit than the lighter calves, when the first winter was followed by summer grazing and dry-lot finishing in the following winter. One more trial in this series is in progress.

Table 6. Steers Summer Grazed And Fed Out In Winter to Sell as Two-Yr. Olds
Steers From Normal
Winter Lots
3-Yr. Av.
Steers From Low
Winter Lots
3-Yr. Av.
No. Steers 8 8
Wt. to grass 595 496
Wt. off grass 807 746
Days of grazing 146 146
Daily pasture gain 1.45 1.72
Days in Dry Lot 166 166
Daily Dry-Lot Gain 2.02 1.99
Finished Wt. 1139 1073
Daily Ration, Dry Lot:
Corn Silage 55 56
Ground Barley 3.32 3.32
Soybean Meal 1.68 1.68
Alfalfa Hay 2.50 2.50
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 .27 .27
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:
Corn Silage 2893 2881
Ground Barley 178 175
Soybean Meal 87 87
Alfalfa Hay 129 128
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 14 14
Feed Cost/100 Lb. Dry Lot Gain $18.55 $18.39
Selling Price Per cwt. $23.90 $24.43
Return Per Hd. Above Feed, Weaning to Market $90.62 $86.62

In the dry-lot feeding of long yearlings, Table 6, it has been the practice to start them in September with only corn silage, 2 lbs. soybean meal, 2.5 lbs. alfalfa hay, bonemeal, and salt for the first 60 days. After 60 days, soybean meal was reduced to 1.5 lbs., and 4 lbs. of ground barley was added. In the first two winters, the barley allowance was raised to 8 lbs. per day for the final month of feeding. All feeding was done once daily, in the morning.

WINTERING STEER CALVES ON CORN SILAGE WITH OATS,
BARLEY, AND DRY BEET PULP

In each of the last two winters, four lots of steer calves have been fed corn silage with 3 to 6 pounds of grain to compare to oats, barley, and pelleted beet pulp in wintering rations. All lots received 1.5 pounds of alfalfa hay, .15 pound of steamed bonemeal, .05 pound of salt, and either .5 or 1 pound of soybean meal, depending upon the level of grain fed.

There has been little difference in gains or costs of the four rations. In the first winter, 3 pounds each of oats and barley produced the highest daily gain (2.21 lb.); and in the second winter, the best gaining steers (2.20 lb.) were fed 2 pounds each of oats, barley, and beet pulp. Feed costs per 100 Lb. gain have ranged from a low of $10.81 for 3 pounds each of oats and barley to a high of $11.85 for 2 pounds each of oats, barley and beet pulp. The experiment is being run a third time in 1961-62. Results for the first two winters are summarized in Table 7.

Table 7. Comparing Oats, Barley, Beet Pulp for Wintering Calves
Oats Barley Oats & Bly. Oats, Bly., &
Beet Pulp
59-60 60-61 59-60 60-61 59-60 60-61 59-60 60-61
No. Steers Per Lot 8 8 8 7 8 8 8 8
Initial Wt. 406 399 403 398 404 399 405 399
Final Wt. 758 785 756 759 796 784 764 805
Av. Daily Gain 1.99 2.10 2.00 1.96 2.21 2.09 2.03 2.20
Days on Feed 177 184 177 184 177 184 177 184
Av. Daily Ration:
Corn Silage 31 33 31 33 27 28 26 29
Alfalfa Hay 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Soybean Meal 1 1 1 1 .5 .5 .5 .5
Ground Oats 2.9 3 0 0 3 3 2 2
Ground Barley 0 0 2.9 3 3 3 2 2
Pelleted Beet Pulp 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:
Corn Silage 1568 1568 1562 1698 1223 1337 1279 1319
Alfalfa Hay 76 72 75 74 68 72 74 68
Soybean Meal 49 47 49 51 22 23 27 22
Ground Oats 148 142 0 0 135 140 96 89
Ground Barley 0 0 148 151 135 140 96 89
Pelleted Beet Pulp 0 0 0 0 0 0 96 89
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 10 10 10 10 9 9 10 9
Feed Cost Per 100 Lb. G $11.39 $11.16 $11.07 $11.67 $10.81 $11.50 $11.85 $11.41

BARLEY, STEAM ROLLED, DRY ROLLED, OR TEMPERED AND ROLLED
FOR YEARLING STEERS, WITH CORN SILAGE AND SUPPLEMENT

There has been much controversy over the relative merits of steam rolling, dry rolling, and rolling of tempered barley for beef cattle. All three methods of preparation are being used successfully by cattle feeders. Perhaps the know-how of the individual feeder is of greater importance than the method of feed preparation. Six lots, two on each type of feed, were fed for 114 days to compare the three methods of rolling barley. Steam rolling was by a commercial mill. Dry rolling was done at the farm, as was the rolling of tempered barley. In tempering, the barley was elevated to an overhead bin by a 4-inch auger into which water was metered to bring the moisture content of the barley up to about 18 per cent at rolling time, 24 hours after mixing with water. This toughened the grain so that the dry roller did a better job of rolling than with dry grain. It was found that when the moisture content ran much above 20 per cent, grain stuck to the roller. Tempered and rolled barley lost most of the added moisture within a few days without causing heating or molding. Fresh feed was prepared about every week to ten days by each of the three methods. All cattle were sold on grade and yield at the close of the trial. The results are shown in Table 8.

Table 8. Steam Rolled, Dry Rolled, and Tempered Barley for Steers
Steam Rolled Dry Rolled Tempered
No. Steers 10 10 10
Initial Wt. May 4, 1961 787 788 788
Final Wt. Aug. 26, 1961 1060 1087 1068
Daily Gain 2.40 2.62 2.45
Daily Ration:
Corn Silage 38.2 41.1 40.2
Rolled Barley 9.4 9.4 9.4
Supplement 1.0 1.0 1.0
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:
Corn Silage 1591 1566 1639
Rolled Barley 390 359 382
Supplement 42 38 41
Feed Cost Per 100 Lb. Gain $13.45 $12.19 $12.88
Carcass Selling Price Per 100 $35.99 $36.12 $36.01
Grade (9=G 10=Ch.) 9.4 9.5 9.4
Dressing %, on home wt. 57.8% 58.2% 58.2%
Both dry-rolled and tempered-rolled barley priced at $31.00 ton; Steam Rolled @ $34.00 ton; Supplement at $52.00 ton; mixed as follows: 24% ground alf. hay, 15% wheat bran, 11% soybean meal, 9% steamed bonemeal, 6% salt, 5% feeding limestone. 800,000 units Vitamin A, 200,000 units Vitamin D

CORN SILAGE OR BEET PULP FOR STEERS

Two lots of 297-pound steer calves were fed ten months on ground barley, alfalfa hay, soybean meal, bonemeal and salt, vitamins A and D, and either pelleted beet pulp or corn silage. One steer in the beet pulp lot was a chronic bloater, yet after he was removed to a ration of corn silage, barley and supplements, the bloating stopped. The remaining steers in the beet pulp lot consistently outgained the silage-fed steers and returned about $5.00 per head more profit, but dressed about 2 per cent lower. Table 9 summarizes the trial.

Table 9. Corn Silage vs. Beet Pulp in Fattening Steer Calves, 1960-61
Lot 6
Beet Pulp & Barley
Lot 5
Silage & Barley
No. of Steers 6 7
Initial Wt. 291 297
Final Wt. 1003 901
Av. Daily Gain 2.39 2.03
Days on Feed 298 298
Feed Consumed Per Day:
Corn Silage 0 23.1
Beet Pulp 6.0 0
Ground Barley 6.7 6.5
Alfalfa Hay 1.4 1.6
Soymeal .90 .88
Bonemeal .11 .11
Trace Mineral Salt .04 .04
Vitamin A 5,000 5,000
Vitamin D 1,000 1,000
Feed Per 100 Gain:
Corn Silage --- 1141
Beet Pulp 252 ---
Ground Barley 280 321
Alfalfa Hay 57.5 78.0
Soymeal 37.6 43.2
Bonemeal 4.6 5.0
Trace Mineral Salt 1.6 2.0
Feed Cost Per 100 Lb. Gain $11.78 $11.94
Carcass Selling Price/100 $36.15 $36.03
Grade (9=G 10=C) 9.5 9.4
Dressing %, on home wt. 57.7% 59.8%
Return Above Feed Cost/hd., Figuring Steer Calves @ $26.20 $49.09 $44.20


HEIFERS FATTENED ON STEAM-ROLLED BARLEY,
WITH & WITHOUT CORN SILAGE

Last year, we reported that heifers self-fed steam-rolled barley gained more (2.07 lbs. per day) than heifers receiving 4 or 10 pounds per day of crested wheatgrass hay, with steam-rolled barley (1.74 & 1.60 lbs.). Other work, the most recent being that in the November-December, 1961 issue of 'North Dakota Farm Research' from the State University in Fargo, has indicated that a small amount of roughage with heavy barley feeding may give better results than no roughage. This report concerns three lots of heifer calves fed for nine months on steam-rolled barley, steam-rolled barley plus 7 pounds of corn silage, and steam-rolled barley plus 13 pounds of corn silage. Table 10 shows the results.

Table 10. Heifers Fattened On Steam-Rolled Barley, With and Without Silage
Lot 1
Hand Fed
Lot 2
Hand Fed
Lot 3
Self Fed
No. of Heifers 9 9 9
Initial Wt. 294 295 295
Final Wt. 789 823 801
Av. Daily Gain 1.83 1.96 1.87
Days on Feed 270 270 270
Av. Daily Ration:
Corn Silage 13.4 7.1 0
Alfalfa Hay 1.3 1.3 0
Steam-Rolled Barley 8.2 10.5 12.7
Supplement .87 .93 .93
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:
Corn Silage 729 362 0
Alfalfa Hay 68 64 11 (grass hay)
Steam-Rolled Barley 446 540 677
Supplement 47 47 50
Feed Cost/100 lb. Gain $12.53 $12.76 $13.39
Carcass Selling Price/100 $34.65 $34.95 $34.95
Grade (9=G 10=Ch) 9.7 9.9 9.9
Dressing %, on home wt. 57.0% 58.3% 60.1%
Return Above Feed Cost/Hd.

(Calves @ $23.65)

$24.27 $30.55 $30.73

Although the self-fed heifers (Lot 3) returned as much profit as the hand-fed heifers with limited roughage (Lot 2), there were several stiff animals in Lot 3 which would have sold lower under some market conditions.

CRACKED WHEAT VS. STEAM-ROLLED BARLEY FOR FATTENING STEERS

Cracked wheat is sometimes available at elevators and seed houses as a by-product of the cleaning process. The price is usually competitive with other feed grain prices, and the cracked wheat is often used in swine and poultry rations. Since there is little information available as to the value of cracked wheat in beef cattle rations, it was decided to run a test comparing it with steam-rolled barley. It should be recognized that the usual recommendation is to mix wheat with about equal parts of another grain in feeding cattle. No difficulty was experienced in keeping cattle on feed in this trial, probably because corn silage made up about 40 per cent of the dry matter in the ration. It was observed that the cattle did not appear to like wheat as well as rolled barley. The wheat lot always required more time to clean up their grain than the barley lot. The cracked wheat was dry-rolled to insure uniform small particle size. The wheat contained a noticeable amount of small black weeds seeds, mostly wild buckwheat and mustard, but the heifers rook this mixture as readily as they took clean cracked wheat, which was fed several times as a check on their appetite. Table 11 summarizes this trial. Cracked wheat was priced at $30.00 per ton.

Table 11. Cracked Wheat vs. Steam-Rolled Barley for Yearling Heifers
Cracked Wheat
Dry Rolled
Steam-Rolled Bly.
Initial Wt. 474 474
Final Wt. 828 845
Average Daily Gain 2.02 2.12
Average Ration:
Cracked Wheat 8.34 ---
Steam-Rolled Barley --- 8.37
Corn Silage 23.6 26.3
Protein Supplement 1.0 1.0
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:
Cracked Wheat 412 ---
Steam-Rolled Barley --- 395
Corn Silage 1166 1243
Protein Supplement 49 47
Feed Cost/100 Lb. G $11.86 $12.41
Selling Price/100 lb. $21.30 $22.40
Return Above Feed/Hd.
(Yearlings @ $23.00)
$25.36 $34.22

GRAIN FOR STEERS ON GOOD SPRING PASTURE

A preliminary trial in the spring of 1959 showed little additional gain on yearling steers which were fed 4 pounds of ground barley and oats while grazing good crested wheatgrass and alfalfa pasture. Average daily gains for 66 days of grazing were 3.06 pounds with grain, and 2.95 pounds without grain. In 1960, steers receiving 4 pounds per day of ground barley on grass averaged 2.73 pounds gain, while unsupplemented grass produced 2.17 pounds gain. Again, in 1961, 4 pounds of ground barley on grass produced 2.57 pounds daily gain, while grass alone produced only 2.13 pounds daily gain. The steers used in 1959 were reallotted after spring grazing for another experiment. All steers used in this grazing trial during 1960 and 1961 were placed in dry lot for immediate finishing. Table 12 shows how the steers performed on grass and in dry lot, and includes a third lot of similar steers which were kept in dry lot the entire summer of 1961 for comparison:

Table 12. Spring Grazing, With & Without Grain, Followed by Dry-Lot Feeding
4 Lb. Bly. On Grass Grass Alone Dry Lot
1960 1961 1960 1961 1961
No. Steers 6 6 6 6 6
Wt. to Grass, 5/2/60, 5/4/61 478 486 477 487 486
Wt. off Grass, 7/14/60, 7/10/61 677 658 635 629 662
Av. Daily Gain on Grass 2.73 2.57 2.17 2.13 2.63
Initial Wt., Dry Lot 677 658 635 629 662
Final Wt. 952 884 927 856 850
Av. Daily Gain, Dry Lot 1.79 2.09 1.89 2.10 1.74
Av. Daily Gain, all summer 2.09 2.27 1.98 2.11 2.08
Av. Daily Ration, Dry Lot:
Days in Dry Lot 154 108 154 108 175
Corn Silage 41 44 41 44 37
Ground Barley 4 4 3.9 4 4
Alfalfa Hay 1.9 2.5 1.9 2.5 2.5
Soybean Meal 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:
Corn Silage 2306 2105 2149 2088 1759
Ground Barley 222 191 205 192 192
Alfalfa Hay 105 120 99 119 120
Soybean Meal 83 72 77 72 72
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 11 10 10 10 10
Feed Cost/100 Lb. Gain, Dry lot $16.58 $15.02 $15.41 $14.96 $13.79
Cost/100 Lb. Inc. Grazing 11.37 10.39 10.81 10.09 13.79
Selling Price/100 Lb. 25.10 22.50 24.75 22.40 22.70
Return/Hd., Yearlings @ 25 65.56 36.05 61.53 32.76 21.25
Value of crested wheatgrass and Alfalfa Pasture Per Steer/Acre $19.00 $16.27


STILBESTROL IMPLANTS

Stilbestrol implants have consistently given increased gains in steers at the Dickinson Experiment Station. Steer calves were implanted with 0, 12, or 24 mg. pellets at weaning time for four consecutive winters. The rations fed were all based on a heavy allowance of corn silage and 3 to 6 pounds of grain, plus a protein supplement, bonemeal and salt. Since the treatments were across lots, only rate of gain data could be secured. Response to the implants in the four winters was as follows:

Table 13. Stilbestrol Implants for Steer Calves on Wintering Rations
  Implanted 12 mg. Implanted 24 mg. Not Implanted
1959-60 1960-61 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61
No. Steers 12 11 7 7 12 12 7 7 8 8
Initial Wt. 401 399 396 451 406 400 397 451 407 399
Final Wt. 777 777 747 799 777 810 701 788 744 756
Av. Daily Gain 2.12 2.06 1.97 1.81 2.09 2.23 1.71 1.75 1.91 1.94
Days on Feed 177 184 177 192 177 184 177 192 177 184

Two lots of yearling heifers were implanted across lot lines in the spring of 1961. The heifers were full-fed corn silage and grain with supplement for 175 days with the following results:

Table 14. Stilbestrol Implants for Yearling Steers
12 mg. Implants No Implants
No. Heifers 8 4
Initial Wt. 474 474
Final Wt. 853 805
Av. Daily Gain 2.16 1.89
Days on Feed 175 175


EARLY SPRING GRAZING

Yearling steers have been grazed on crested wheatgrass pastures, and on crested wheatgrass and alfalfa pastures for seven consecutive years. All pastures have been used heavily for about two months in the spring only. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied to one crested wheatgrass pasture at the rate of 50 Lb. N. per acre for three years. For a complete report on this experiment, including forage yield and consumption, see Dr. Warren Whitman's section of this report. A summary of animal gains only is given in Table 15.

Table 15. Steer Gains, Early Spring Pasture, 8-Acre Plots
Year No.
Hd.
Date
In
Wt.
In
Date
off
Wt. Off Daily Gain Gain
Per
Acre
Crested Wht-grass 1955 7 May 4 494 July 5 568 1.44 64
Crested Wht-grass 1956 6 May 17 520 June 30 601 1.79 60
Crested Wht-grass 1957 6 May 4 478 July 3 622 2.44 108
Crested Wht-grass 1958 6 April 29 553 June 30 680 2.02 95
Crested Wht-grass + N. 1959 6 May 8 528 June 29 661 2.50 99
Crested Wht-grass 1959 6 May 8 529 June 29 671 2.67 106
Crested Wht-grass + N. 1960 8 May 2 521 June 29 686 2.27 166
Crested Wht-grass 1960 6 May 2 523 June 29 658 1.86 102
Crested Wht-grass + N. 1961 8 May 4 516 June 21 623 2.23 107
Crested Wht-grass 1961 6 May 4 525 June 21 636 2.31 83
7-Yr. Av. Without N. 6 517 634 2.08 88
3-Yr. Av. With N. 7 521 656 2.32 124
Crested & Alfalfa 1955 7 May 4 494 July 5 600 2.07 92
Crested & Alfalfa 1956 8 May 17 520 June 30 616 2.14 96
Crested & Alfalfa 1957 9 May 4 498 July 3 639 2.36 158
Crested & Alfalfa 1958 8 April 29 550 June 30 683 2.11 133
Crested & Alfalfa 1959 8 May 8 523 June 29 636 2.13 113
Crested & Alfalfa 1960 8 May 2 521 July 14 658 1.88 138
Crested & Alfalfa 1961 8 May 4 515 June 21 608 1.95 94
7-Year Average 8 517 634 2.10 118

HOGS, 1960-61

The three growing-finishing rations used in pig feeding experiments of 1960 and 1961 were mixed as follows:

Soybean Meal Buttermilk &
Soybean Meal
DES Supplement
Ground Barley 1240 1240 1260
Ground Oats 620 620 640
Soybean Meal 100 60 0
Dry Buttermilk 0 60 0
Steamed Bonemeal 30 30 20
Trace Mineral Salt 10 10 10
Dry Blood Meal 0 0 30
Meat & Bonemeal 0 0 30
Ground limestone 0 0 8
A & B Vitamins 0 0 3 1/4

The soybean meal ration was compared with the buttermilk and soybean meal ration on pigs started at 27 pound body weight in the summer of 1960. The latter ration gave faster and cheaper gains than the former (1.18 and .95 pounds daily gain , $8.52 and $8.98 per 100 pounds gain). The same two rations fed to pigs at 56 pounds initial weight showed less difference in gains and costs. The buttermilk and soy combination gave daily gains of 1.39 pounds at a cost of $9.08 per 100 pounds. The soybean meal alone produced gains of 1.23 pounds per day of $8.91.

In our opinion, the simple soymeal ration was satisfactory when pigs were placed on feed at 56 pounds, but when starting 27 pounds pigs, the combination soymeal and buttermilk was superior.

In the fall of 1960, six lots of pigs were started on the three rations listed above. The three rations were fed as pellets in the summer of 1960, but as meal in the winter of 1960-61. Winter feeding results are tabulated in Table 16.

Table 16. Growing-Finishing Fall Pigs, 1960-61
Soybean Meal Buttermilk &
Soybean Meal
DES Supp.
Lot 3 Lot 4 Lot 5 Lot 6 Lot 1 Lot 2
No. Pigs 5 5 4 5 11 5
Initial Wt. 58.0 58.0 57.5 58.0 27.1 58
Final Wt. 185.6 184.2 182.8 190.6 189.4 187.2
Av. Daily Gain 1.25 1.24 1.23 1.30 1.17 1.27
Days on Feed 102 102 102 102 139 102
Feed Per 100 Gain 453 454 457 503 402 503
Feed Cost Per 100 G. $8.20 $8.22 $9.05 $9.96 $7.60 $9.51

In this winter feeding trial, no significant difference between the three rations was evident, except in feed efficiency. The light-weight pigs of Lot 1 were a little more efficient as might be expected. Lots 2 and 6 were low in efficiency, possibly because of waste at the feeder.

SUMMER 1961 HOG FEEDING TRIALS

The Dickinson Experiment Station ration (D.E.S. Sup.) listed above was fed to pigs of 10 lots in the summer of 1961. Concrete dry lot was compared with winter wheat pasture (spring seeded), and two additives were tested, Copper Sulfate and Zinc Bacitracin. All feeders were pelleted and all lots were started on feed May 22. first, in Table 17, we will consider the lots on winter wheat pasture, with and without growth booster additives, CuSO4 and Zn Bacitracin with Penicillin.

Table 17. Growth Boosters, CuSO4 and Zn. Bacitracin in the DES Pig Ration
Lot 2 Lot 3 Lot 4 Lot 5 Lot 6
Check
DES
7.5 gms. Zn. Bac.
2.5 gms. Penicillin Per Ton
2 Lb. Cu SO4
Per Ton
Same As
Lot 3
Same As
Lot 4
Initial Wt. 35 35 35 25 25
Final Wt. 197 152 185 165 170
Av. Daily Gain 1.35 .98 1.25 1.17 1.21
Days on Feed 120 120 120 120 120
Feed/100 Lb. Gain 345 367 343 340 338
Feed Cost/100 Lb. G. $8.07 $8.77 $8.27 $8.13 $8.15

Neither Copper Sulfate nor Zinc Bacitracin and Penicillin appeared to have a beneficial effect upon rate or efficiency of gains in this trial. About 25 per cent of the pigs in the above five lots were found to be affected with Rhinitis; therefore, the trial was closed prematurely to clean up this disease.

At the DES Station other spring pigs were finished in concrete floored pens using the DES ration, DES with Zn. Bacitracin and Penicillin, and the Dry Buttermilk and Soymeal ration listed on the preceding page. Table 18 summarizes this series of trials:

Table 18. Three Rations on Concrete for 2 Weights of Feeder Pigs
Lot 1-C Lot 2-C Lot 3-C Lot 4-C Lot 5-C Lot 6-C
DES B Milk
& Soy
DES &
Zn. Bac.
DES B Milk
& Soy
DES &
Zn. Bac.
Initial Wt. 54 54 52 35 35 34
Final Wt. 172 176 167 159 158 190
Av. Daily Gain 1.28 1.33 1.25 1.03 1.03 1.30
Days on Feed 92 92 92 120 120 120
Feed/100 Lb. Gain 380 359 372 387 360 358
Feed Cost/100 Lb. G. $8.89 $8.83 $8.89 $9.06 $8.86 $8.56

The large (54 Lb.) pigs performed about the same on all three rations in this set of concrete floored pens. The lighter (34 Lb.) pigs gained slower than the larger pigs on the DES and Buttermilk & Soy rations, but gained as well as the larger pigs (1.30 Lb. per day for lites, compared 1.28, 1.33 & 1.25 for heavies) on the ration supplemented with Zinc Bacitracin and Penicillin.

1961 POULTRY FLOCK

The usual 500 day-old white Plymouth Rock chicks were picked up at the Blue Ribbon Hatchery in Mandan, March 30, 1961. They were brooded under two electric brooders in a brooder house that was heated by an oil heater. For three weeks, a commercial starter krumlet was fed, 500 pounds in all; then one ton of custom-made grower pellets was fed. Pullets were moved to an open front range shelter at seven weeks. As the pelleting mill was destroyed by fire, the cockerels were finished on grower mash, home mixed.

The cockerels were sold at twelve weeks of age, averaging more than four pounds per head. No sickness was seen in the flock at any time and mortality was about three per cent. For the first time in several years of straight-run chick raising, pullets outnumbered cockerels. There were only 190 cockerels in 500 chicks.

About 250 of the best pullets were moved from the range house to the laying house September 19. The laying house was remodeled before the pullets were housed.

The month by month laying record for pullets housed August 23, 1960, was as follows:

September 41.6%
October 59.7%
November 59.5%
December 45.8%
January 35.8%
February 24.6%
March 42.4%
April 44.8%
May 48.1%
June 46.7%
July 41.2%
August 38.0%

PUBLIC MEETINGS, 1961


Date Meeting and Subject Attendance
January 10-13 Annual Branch Station Conference, Fargo  
January 14 Sidney Feeders Tour, Sidney, Montana 200
January 26 Hettinger County Cattle Feeders Tour, Mott 200
January 30-February 4 American Society of Range Management, Salt Lake City 875
February 7 Annual Sheep Day, Hettinger Experiment Station 225
February 9 Dunn County Feeder Tour and meeting, Killdeer 75
February 10 North Dakota State University Cattle Feeder's Day, Fargo  
February 15 Golden Valley County Feeder Tour and meeting, Beach 100
February 16 Slope County Crops and Livestock Meeting, Amidon 70
February 25 McKenzie County Feeder Tour and meeting, Watford City 100
March 6-7 Valley City Winter Show, Valley City  
March 13 Baron's Club, Dickinson, "Beef Production" 25
May 12 Dr. Whitman's Range Management Class visited Station 16
May 29 Farm Group from Wishek toured Station 30
July 10 Baron's Club, Dickinson, Picnic and tour 30
July 10 Prof. Murphy's Agriculture Class, 1 hour lecture 27
July 12 Annual Crops Day, Tour of Feed Lots 225
July 13-15 American Society of Range Management, Maple Creek, Sask. 70
July 19 Rotary Picnic and tour of Station 60
July 21 4-H District Livestock Judging Contest 70
August 14 Baron's Club toured cattle feed lots 15
September 2 Richardton 4-H Festival  
September 12-15 National Barrow Show, Austin, Minnesota  
October 7 Land Judging Contest, Dickinson 75
October 24 Rotary Farmer's Night, Dickinson 70
October 25 Morton Burleigh County Agricultural Improvement Association, Bismarck 40
December 6 Twelfth Annual Livestock Research Roundup 1350
December 21 Adams County Livestock Improvement Association, Hettinger 25

RADIO PROGRAMS, 1961

Date Subject
January 19, 1961 Barley, Supplements, and Rates of Feeding
February 9, 1961 Calf Feeding
March 2, 1961 Rolled Barley and Supplements for Cattle
March 23, 1961 Results of Winter-Feeding of Big Steers
April 13, 1961 Five Months' Progress Report on Feeding
May 4, 1961 Summer Feeding Trials Planned
June 1, 1961 Summer Cattle Feeding Progress
June 29, 1961 Creep Feeding Calves
July 27, 1961 Cattle Feeding Work in Progress
August 24, 1961 Sale of Finished Heifers, July 31
September 21, 1961 Recently Marketed Fat Steers
October 12, 1961 Value of Spring Pasture for Cattle
November 2, 1961 The Year's Cattle-Feeding Experiments
November 23, 1961 Abstracts of Research Roundup
December 14, 1961 Summary of 4-Years' Calf Wintering Trials