1961 ANNUAL REPORT



RAYMOND J. DOUGLAS, Superintendent

North Dakota should be geared to a balanced Agriculture. Each year points up the importance of this type of farming operation not only for the western part of North Dakota, but that it is also essential for the entire state.



Not only do we need to use the best methods and practices in the handling of the operating unit, but the planning of the North Dakota farmer and rancher must be such that each enterprise developed will be organized to live permanently with the conditions and circumstances under which we operate. This thinking and organization must carry through our Conservation practices, crops and livestock enterprises. There is no substitute for using the best methods and practices adapted to each individual farm or ranch. This means that the best Conservation practices, varieties of grain and livestock selection, and handling should be with an eye to the needs of each farm or ranch.



Feeding out cattle and hogs for market must be built around homegrown feeds adapted to the unit, properly supplemented. Economy of operation should never be overlooked; every dollar saved is the same as having earned an extra dollar, and the days of earning the easy dollar in Agriculture are gone, perhaps forever.



Some examples of the consideration that should be given practices are as listed below:



1. Windstripping should not be used when the proper practice for the land is strip cropping on the contour.



2. The highest yielding variety of oats or feed barley should be planted if feed is desired.



3. Feeding out cattle and hogs should be built around the highest yielding grains and roughages that can be produced on the farm or ranch.



4. Grass should be seeded in place of small grains, when it can be utilized for grazing and return a higher income than from small grains.



5. Economy of operation can be emphasized by using an electric fence in place of the conventional type four-barbed wire fence. There may be cases such as small lots where an electric fence is not desirable in the eyes of the operator and when such a circumstance exists, the conventional type fence can be used; from the standpoint of reducing overhead, the electric fence should be considered.



Our job at the Dickinson Experiment Station is to improve the income for the men and women making their living off the land. This will provide their families and the generations to come with a better way of life. We as a part of the North Dakota State University point our efforts towards improving the Agriculture of our state for this and future generations. Our efforts must be geared to this type of program which requires the following improvements, projects and needs at the Station for the future:



1. LAND



A. In April, 1961, the last payment of $2250.00 and interest was made on the SW 1/4 of Section 32-140-96. The deed has been recorded and the land is now owned by the State for the exclusive use of the Agricultural Experiment Station. This land was purchased without an appropriation with all payments being made from oil-lease payments, and station sales of livestock and grain.



B. In 1962, the first step will be taken in the construction of Highway 94 through the Dickinson Experiment Station just north of the headquarters and across one mile of Station land. The attached map shows where this road will be located in relation to Experiment Station land.



C. We have a projected plan for increasing the size of Pyramid Park to give us an additional grazing acreage in the Badlands. This land must be secured through the Forest Service and we hope will be realized in the not too distant future. We need to add about three quarters or 480 acres to our present grazing, and is essential for the management of our herd under range conditions. While we are grazing one-third of our cow herd at the Dickinson Experiment Station headquarters each summer, it would be desirable to graze the whole herd, in the Badlands each year from about June 15 to October 15 in three separate pastures for grazing two-thirds of our herds in two separate pastures. Our present grazing area in the Badlands has only sufficient acreage for grazing two-thirds of our herd in two separate pastures.



II. IMPROVEMENTS



A. During 1961, the following projects were completed:



1. New office at the Livestock Farm.



2. The garage on the Livestock Farm was moved to a new location so that the site where it was located would be available for the office building in accord with plans for the expansion and improvement of the Dickinson Experiment Station.



3. The poultry house was moved to a new location along with making the following improvements:



a. New foundation and cement floor.

b. The sills were replaced.

c. New insulation added in the walls.

d. Inside walls were sealed up with new lumber.

e. Building was re-shingled with asphalt shingles.

f. Lap siding was purchased to re-side the entire outside of the building.

g. New nests were installed.



4. Most of the hog fence in need of repair at the Livestock Farm was replaced in 1961.



5. Ten new hog houses, 8' x 10' were built in 1961. These houses replace straw sheds previously used.



6. The driveway at the elevator on the Agronomy Farm was improved, leveled out and graveled.



7. An electric hoist was purchased for the grain elevator, and will be installed early in 1962.



8. The old platform scale on the Agronomy Farm was removed.



9. All broad leaf trees were removed from the shelter belt planting north of the farmstead on the Agronomy Farm. This will be fallowed in 1962 and re-planted to trees probably in 1963 unless it should be decided to fallow the acreage a second year. The trees were in such a condition that it was felt the only way to renovate the planting was to remove all but the pines and re-plant the belt.



10. Approximately 80 acres were added to the grazing area at Pyramid Park, which was land owned by the State, but never included in our grazing area. This area added was fenced in with a new three-wire barbed wire fence and steel posts.



11. A new dugout and dam of approximately 3,000 cubic yards was added to Pyramid Park grazing area.



NEW OFFICE BUILDING AT LIVESTOCK FARM



Office building, 18 feet by 14 feet with basement, constructed on the Livestock Farm

at a cost of approximately $1,000.00



NEW TYPE HOG HOUSE BUILT IN 1961



These hog houses, 10 feet by 8 feet are of wood construction with a metal roof. The sills

are 4 inches by 4 inches firmly braced to be used as runners. The cost of each

building was about $80.00.

III. IMPROVEMENTS



A. Improvements to be made in 1962.



1. Paint all buildings if possible on both farms in 1962. This project was delayed because of the other essential jobs in 1961.



2. Replace dead trees especially spruce on both farms. The new planting of evergreens in cooperation with the Extension Service has made excellent progress, but will also need some replacements in 1962.



3. Build a new entrance to the root cellar on the Agronomy Farm.



4. Enlarge the building and put a basement under the drying house which is to be used for drying all samples; these changes are necessary to provide the additional space required. The drying room will be equipped with a new burner to provide adequate drying facilities.



5. Repair fence for one-half mile on the Agronomy Farm along the South side of the SE 1/4 of Section 32.



6. Level and improve rotation and tillage plots on the Agronomy Farm.



7. Build another new machine shed at the Agronomy Farm about the size of the one built in 1960. Funds for this to be derived from Station sales.



8. Work has been started on the renovation of the shelter belt North of the farmstead on the Agronomy Farm. Thus far, the deciduous trees have been removed and the area is to be fallowed in 1962 and not planted to trees before 1963 or 1964. This will serve as a shelter belt and a storage place for machinery when not in use during the summer months.



9. Re-locate the feed shed adjacent to the chicken house at the Livestock Farm.



10. Re-locate fuel tanks on the Livestock Farm.



11. Re-work the shelter belt on the Livestock Farm.



12. Install a leg in the elevator in the feed house at the hog barn. We would also like to increase the feed storage capacity of this elevator from 650 bushels to approximately 1000 bushels.



13. Replace all hog fences at the Livestock Farm not replaced or improved in 1960 or 1961.



14. Construct new doors on the South side of the machine shed at the Livestock Farm.



15. Remove upright silos, if time permits, and construct a bunker-type silo.



16. Level, fertilize, and seed the yard on the Livestock Farm. Re-plant trees that died in summer of 1961 to varieties better adapted to the area.



17. Re-work the fence on the South and East of our grazing land at Pyramid Park to include about ten additional acres presently not enclosed but owned by the State. Remove the old wire and posts previously used but not included in the new fence line.



18. Do the necessary repair work needed on the cabin at the Pyramid Park. This included sealing up the inside of the building with a mouse-proof composition board, repairing the walls and floor.



19. Move the seed house on the Agronomy Farm to a location East of the elevator; put it over a basement and remodel the interior.



20. Construct ten more new hog houses the same as those built in 1961.



IV. MODEL PROJECTS



A. Our poultry house was re-located and improved in 1961. This project should be easier to handle and more profitable in 1962 than it has been in the past. It is our opinion that the size of this project is about in line with the size poultry flock a farmer or rancher should have, provided he keeps a flock of chickens.



B. The model garden needs to be improved, perhaps most important would be moving to a more favorable location to improve soil and moisture conditions.



V. INFORMATION



A. A program is carried out each year acquainting ranchers and farmers with the results of the projects being carried on at the Dickinson Experiment Station. This material is released in publications, news articles, tours, classes, and Field Days. When projects are completed, they are written up and released through the North Dakota Farm Research, Bimonthly Bulletin. Two thousand copies of the Livestock Research Roundup report with 1600 being distributed on the day of the Roundup were prepared.



1961 LIVESTOCK RESEARCH ROUNDUP



Guests began arriving about 8:15 A.M.

The program started at 9:00 A.M.

December 6, 1961



1961 LIVESTOCK RESEARCH ROUNDUP



Visitors inspect cattle on feed at Dickinson Experiment Station



1961 LIVESTOCK RESEARCH ROUNDUP



Tour advances to hospital barn and breeding herd at the Dickinson Experiment Station



1961 LIVESTOCK RESEARCH ROUNDUP



Visitors attending the program at the Community Building in downtown Dickinson



VI. WEATHER RECORDS AT THE DICKINSON EXPERIMENT STATION INCLUDE:



1. Maximum, minimum and 7:00 a.m. temperature reading each day.

2. Wind velocity over each 24-hour period.

3. Free surface evaporation, April 1 to October 1 each year.

4. Daily precipitation.

5. Snow fall and depth of snow on the ground each day.

6. A thermograph record of the daily temperature changes as they occur each day along with the soil temperature at a depth of 8 inches.



Month 1892 - 1961 Last 10 Years
1961 Summary* Average Accumulative Average Year April - July Annual
Jan. .05 30.74 .44 .44 1952 6.07 11.97
Feb. .59 31.03 .43 .87 1953 13.44 19.38
March .50 52.18 .75 1.62 1954 5.59 16.33
April 1.89 87.53 1.25 2.87 1955 10.14 14.65
May 1.44 153.33 2.19 5.06 1956 7.30 12.70
June 2.82 243.83 3.48 8.54 1957 14.76 22.15
July 1.66 151.22 2.16 10.70 1958 8.14 12.18
August 1.68 124.47 1.79 12.49 1959 6.15 13.45
Sept. 3.05 85.29 1.22 13.71 1960 6.22 10.23
Oct. .11 59.31 .85 14.56 1961 7.81 13.90
Nov. T 37.89 .54 15.10 1941** 21.20 31.16
Dec. .11 27.99 .40 15.50 1936*** 2.03 6.72
70-Year Average Precipitation = 15.50

70-Year Average Precipitation, April-July = 9.08

*Total Precipitation in inches per month for 70 years

**Greatest of record

***Least of record

1961 - Greatest 24 hour precipitation, June 30, 1.82 inches



GENERAL INFORMATION



Latest Killing Frost in Spring Earliest Killing Frost in Fall
1915 June 16 30o F 1917 Aug. 9 30o F
1961 May 2 29o F 1961 Sept. 15 29o F
Frost-Free Season Shortest of Record Longest of Record
1961 136 days 69 days - in 1915-1917 164 days - 1952
Temperatures Lowest of Record Highest of Record
1936, Feb. 16, -47oF 1936, July 6, 114oF
1961, Dec. 12, -26oF 1961, Aug. 16, 100oF


VII. LIVESTOCK PROGRAM



A. Improving the cow herd.



1. An effort is being made to improve the productivity of the cow herd. The same ration is fed all animals which this winter is hay and straw/and limited barley. We would rather feed some silage in their ration but have not been feeding any so far this winter in order to save the silage for the animals on feeding trials and for the breeding herd during the last several months of the pregnancy period.



2. We have approximately 100 breeding animals in the cow herd; our winter lots and range will handle this number in a very satisfactory manner.



3. The breeding heifers are put back in the breeding herd each year. In order to be a replacement heifer, a calf must be of average weight or better as compared to all heifers raised in the current calf crop from which the heifers are being selected.



Selection is then made on a basis of thickness, type, quality, and breed character.



4. The cow herd is culled each year to make room for the replacement heifers with the animals being removed on the basis of the following:



a. Defects; lump jaw, cancer eye, bad feet, etc.

b. Age

c. Temperament

d. Dry cows

e. Quality, thickness, type and weights of calf at weaning



5. It is our plan to add at least one bull calf to the herd each year. His gaining ability and quality is observed each year, and if he develops in satisfactory manner, is saved for the breeding herd. Bulls are culled out after being entered in the breeding herd on the following basis:



a. Lacking in ability to sire good gaining calves of the right thickness, type and weight at weaning.



6. To improve our breeding herd and the quality of our feeder calves; the following bulls will be used in 1962:



a. AP Zato Heir 18 Number 9,359,270; May 22, 1956; Calves bred by A.W. Powell, Sisseton, South Dakota



b. AP Zato Heir 64 Number 10,620,922; Calved February 1, 1959; Bred by A.W. Powell, Sisseton, South Dakota



c. DGH Rupert Aster Number 10,148,644; Calved October 13, 1957; Bred by the Turner Ranch, Sulphur, Oklahoma



d. TTT Lodge Heir 3 Number 11,643,726; Calved April 3, 1961; Bred by Thor Tagestad, Towner, North Dakota



e. TTT Anxiety Number 11, 643,725; Calved April 3, 1961; Bred by Thor Tagestad, Towner North Dakota



B. Feeding Trials. Our program is geared to develop a feeding program in North Dakota so that it will live over the years and be a stable enterprise. To do this, the ration must be built around home-grown feed properly supplemented. Probably the best ration for the majority of our feeders will be a roughage ration with grain added in the amount preferred by each feeder. Each feeder is to aim towards marketing his animals whenever the marketing fits his program, and to give him the best possible income. Feeding beef cattle has the greatest potential of the Agricultural enterprises presently being developed in North Dakota.



Our experimental work is built around getting sound answers to the following problems:



1. Roughing calves through the winter followed by one of the following:



a. Dry lot fattening following the wintering period.

b. Spring and summer grazing following the winter feeding period with finishing in dry lot starting in early fall.



2. Feeding steers and heifers in dry lot from weaning until finished to determine the following:



a. Value of stilbestrol implants in steers and heifers

b. Rations to give maximum gains at lowest possible cost until ready for slaughter.

c. High roughage rations with:



1. No grain

2. Limited grain

3. Heavy grain

4. Beet pulp alone and in combination with grain

5. Testing of new additives showing promise

6. Self-feeding grain

7. Pelleting of grain and roughage

8. Adding vitamins to the ration



C. Quality Feeds



1. Late maturing corn, compared to corn recommended for the area as having the best chance of maturing.



D. Swine Program



1. Breeding Program



a. Improve the type, gaining ability and quality by selection of the best gilts, and use of best boar we can obtain. This year we are using the following boars:



1. DDTO Tostmaster 297; Born March 6, 1960; Bred by Donald Trapp, Claremont, Minnesota

2. DTTO Atlas 175; Born March 3, 1960, Bred by Donald Trapp, Claremont, Minnesota

3. KWT9 Special Englishman; Bred by Keith Thurston, Madelia, Minnesota



b. Only gilts with the best type, quality and gaining ability are saved each year.



2. Feeding Trials



a. Presently winter wheat seeded in the spring is used as a temporary pasture crop. Other crops will be tested when available.



b. Dry lot with concrete floors is being compared to pasturing of pigs.



c. Limited feeding is being compared to full feeding on pasture.



d. Winter rations



e. Comparing new rations and new supplements



f. Additives showing promise will be tested



g. Small hog houses, 8 feet by 10 feet, with metal roofs for both winter and summer quarters have been substituted for the straw sheds previously used.



h. New methods of cleaning and disinfecting farrowing quarters are being used.



i. Injectable iron is given all pigs at from three to seven days of age.



j. Efforts are made to reduce the cost of producing 100 pounds of pork.



k. Economy of operation is our goal in all phases of hog production.



l. Farrowing pen construction, litter, and improved handling methods are being studied each year.



VIII. GRASS AND LEGUME INVESTIGATIONS



A. Grasses for Hay



1. New varieties and best methods of handling all varieties for quantity and quality production



2. Winter hardiness



3. Grasses alone



a. Grasses with legumes



b. Grasses fertilized



c. Protein content of grasses and of grass-legume mixtures



d. Renovation of grasses



e. Nitrate content of fertilized grasses



B. Alfalfa



1. Winter hardiness and yield determinations



C. Sweet Clover



1. Hay yields of low-coumarin varieties



D. Pastures



1. For early spring grazing



a. Crested Wheatgrass



b. Crested Wheatgrass with Alfalfa



c. Crested Wheatgrass fertilized



2. Pastures for late spring and summer grazing.



a. Delay grazing of crested wheat and other grass and grass-legume mixture until about June 20 or July 1.



b. Use of the following grasses:



1. Russian Wildrye

2. Russian Wildrye with Alfalfa

3. Lincoln Brome Grass

4. Lincoln Brome and Alfalfa



IX AGRONOMY PROGRAM



A. Tillage practices and crop rotations are being continued as follows:



1. Spring plowing as compared to fall plowing.



2. Comparing different tillage practices on small grain stubble.



a. Before seeding small grain in the spring



b. Fall preparation of land for fallow or small grain the following spring.



c. Disking and mold board plowing of cornland in the spring for small grain crops.



B. Methods of fallowing for most complete weed control, water conservation and the preventing of both wind and water erosion.



1. The implements list being used in this investigation:



a. Moldboard plow

b. One-way disk

c. Victor blade

d. Medium-sized cultivator shovels



C. The following small grain varieties are tested for yield and adaptability to the area:



a. Spring wheat

b. Durum wheat

c. Winter wheat

d. Barley

e. Flax

f. Rye



D. Crop Rotations



1. Most productive for western North Dakota:



a. Continuous cropping

b. Alternate cropping

c. Three-year rotation comparing cornland and fallow

d. Four-year rotation with green manure



E. Fertilizer under following conditions:



1. First year on:



a. Cornland planted to small grain



2. Residual effects in following years.



3. Placement in fertilizing of corn.



F. Comparing the following:



1. Corn with all types of roughage adapted to the area, including:



a. Recommended varieties of 85-87 day corn

b. Late maturing varieties including 120-day corn

c. Sudan

d. Sorghum

e. Cane



2. Corn Spacing Trial



a. For greatest tonnage silage



G. Spring moisture in the soil, on small grain acreage of the previous year.



1. Standing stubble



2. Stubble one-wayed in fall



3. Tillage with victory blade in fall



H. Small grain nurseries using new varieties where only limited amounts of seed are available.



a. To determine adaptability in western North Dakota.



I. Wheat breeding program



1. Making several new crosses each year



2. New varieties tested for:



a. Yield

b. Quality

c. Resistance to disease

d. Comparing maturity date strength of straw, etc.



X. GENERAL FARMING OPERATIONS

Feed on hand November 1, 1961:
175 tons hay @ $20.00 $3,500.00
1500 tons corn silage @ $7.24 $10,860.00
4000 bushels of barley @ $.70 $2,800.00
2000 bushels of oats @ $.55 $1,100.00



XI. EQUIPMENT



1. Model 6 Fords Hydraulic Truck Lift

2. Cub tractor

3. Cultivator for Cub tractor

4. Tool bar for Cub tractor

5. Mower for Cub tractor

6. Shadle Precision Sickle Sharpener

7. Anscomatic Slide Projector

8. 4AS Ritchie Livestock Waterer

9 Allis-Chalmers 6-ton trailers (2)

10. Used Combine Grain Hoppers for grain and feed bins (3)

11. No. 19 New Idea Manure Spreader

12. Water tank

13. 16-inch Power Chain Saw

14. Gas heater for new office on Livestock Farm

15. Air compressor

16. Tub, sink, and Toilet in Superintendent's residence

17. Diesel tractor

18. 25-pound ABC All-Class Fire Extinguisher

19. 5-pound ABC All-Class Fire Extinguisher



XII. LIVESTOCK



1. 2-Hereford bull calves

2. 30-Calves for feeding trials

3. 1-Yorkshire boar

4. 500-Special mated straight-run White Rock Chickens

5. 1-Yearling Hereford bull

6. 2-Purebred Yorkshire gilts

7. 25-head of yearling steers for trials



XIII. MEETINGS AND TOURS



Date Meetings Attendance
Jan. 9 Annual Experiment Station Conference
Jan. 14 Sidney Feeders Tour

"Feeding Silage"

200
Jan. 26 Hettinger County Feeder Tour 200
Jan. 30 Exchange Club

"North Dakota Agriculture"

20
Feb. 2 Bottineau-Renville Agriculture Imp. Ass'n.

"Increasing our Income from Livestock"

200
Feb. 7 Stutsman County Farm Institute

"Foreign Agriculture"

500
Feb. 9 Dunn County Livestock Tour

"Improving Our Roughage and Grazing"

100
March 6-7 Valley City Winter Show
March 13 Stockmen from South Dakota

Tour of Station

6
March 14 FFA Annual Banquet at Watford City

"Russian Agriculture"

10
March 28 Annual Farmers' Night at Watford City

"Our Agriculture"

75
April 27 Sixth Grades from Dickinson

Visited Weather Station

60
May 1 Alfred A. Skrede, Meteorologist

Visited Weather Station

May 3 M. L. Buchanan, T. W. Gildersleeve

Tour of Station

2
May 12 Warren C. Whitman and class

Tour of Station

15
May 12 SCS Luncheon

"Plan for Livestock Research Roundup"

30
May 26 A. E. Mead, Commissioner

Tour of Station

June 7 Grant County Agriculture Ass'n.

"Cattle Feeding"

85
June 12 North Dakota Stockmen's Ass'n.

Annual Meeting

300
June 16 Area 4-H Livestock Judging Contest 50
June 28 Medora Grazing Ass'n.

"Cattle Feeding"

75
July 10 Barons Club

Tour of Station

30
July 12 Crops Field Day

Tour of Projects

225
July 13 Agriculture Class, DSTC

Dickinson Experiment Station

30
July 19 Rotary Club

Tour of Station

60
July 21 Extension 4-H Meeting

Livestock Judging Contest

75
August 8 Redwood Falls, Minnesota Productive Credit Ass'ns. "Livestock in Western North Dakota" 200
September 14-15 Austin Barrow Show
October 11 SCS District Meeting "Remarks" 60
October 13 Chamber of Commerce Agric. Committee 7
October 18 Nelson County Agric. Imp. Ass'n.

"Livestock Production"

75
October 19 Rugby Farmer Businessmen Meeting

"Russian Agriculture"

600
October 23 Mandan Production Credit Ass'n.

"Winter Rations for Beef Cows"

700
October 24 Rotary Farmer's Night 70
October 25 Tri-County Livestock Panel, Dickinson 200
October 25 SCS Administrative Staff

Tour of Station

5
October 26 McLean County Farm Bureau

"Russian Agriculture"

130
November 6 Rolette County Agriculture Imp. Ass'n.

"Livestock Production"

50
November 13 Dickinson Central High School

Career Day

120
November 27 Barnes County Agriculture Imp. Ass'n.

"Livestock Research Roundup"

35
November 28 McLean County Agriculture Imp. Ass'n.

"Livestock Research Roundup"

December 6 Twelfth Annual Livestock Research Roundup 1350
December 12 Bottineau County Agriculture Imp. Ass'n.

"Balanced Farming"

85



XIV. RADIO



Date Programs
January 12, 1961 Getting Ready for the Spring Pig Crop
February 12, 1961 Improving Our Pastures
March 16, 1961 Pastures and Spring Grazing
April 6, 1961 Creep Rations for Pigs
April 27, 1961 Early Spring Pastures
May 18, 1961 Growing Out Spring Pigs
June 22, 1961 Crops Day

A Plastic Cover for the Silo

July 20, 1961 Watch that Feed Supply
August 17, 1961 Fall Tillage
September 7, 1961 Feeding Out Yearlings
October 26, 1961 Livestock Research Roundup

Winter Rations for the Beef Herd

November 9, 1961 Roughage Production Trial for 1961
November 30, 1961 Livestock Research Roundup
December 7, 1961 Wintering the Beef Herd
December 21, 1961 Corn Production

XV. PUBLICATIONS



July - August North Dakota Farm Research Vol. 21, No. 12

Spring Moisture Yields

Thomas J. Conlon, Raymond J. Douglas

July - August North Dakota Farm Research Vol. 21, No. 12

Stubble Tillage Practices

Thomas J. Conlon, Raymond J. Douglas

XVI. GENERAL SUMMARY



Farm Visits No.

Tours

People at Meetings and Tours Meetings Attended Station Calls Radio Talks News Articles
January 11 2 420 4 12 1 0
February 14 1 800 3 14 1 0
March 1 1 91 4 8 1 0
April 2 1 60 0 8 2 0
May 0 3 49 5 14 1 0
June 2 0 510 4 9 1 2
July 3 1 420 5 10 1 1
August 2 0 200 1 9 1 0
September 1 0 1 9 1 0
October 0 0 1847 9 8 1 1
November 0 0 120 1 5 2 7
December 1 1 1435 2 6 2 1
Total 37 10 5952 39 112 15 12



REPORT OF GRASS AND LEGUME INVESTIGATIONS

1961 CROP SEASON



BY WARREN C. WHITMAN, Botanist



HAY YIELDS FROM GRASS PLOTS AND GRASS-ALFALFA MIXTURE PLOTS



1. Intermediate and pubescent wheatgrass plots: The 1961 hay yields from the intermediate-pubescent wheatgrass plots seeded in 1954 are given in Table 1. Table 2 gives the average yields of the intermediate and pubescent wheatgrass varieties in this trial over the 7-year period, 1955-1961. The data given in Table 1 show the composition of the 1961 yields in terms of seeded grass, other grass, and weeds. The "other grass" consists almost entirely of invading crested wheatgrass. As the data of Table 1 show, there have been rather extensive invasions of crested-wheatgrass into the plots. Especially heavy invasions have taken place in the plots of North Dakota pubescent and Ree wheatgrass.



Table 1. Composition of 1961 Forage Yields from Intermediate-Pubescent Wheatgrass Plots Seeded in 1954.
Variety Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre
Grass Other

Grass

Weeds Total

Production

N. Dak. Pubescent Whtgr. 822 247 11 1080
M2-10820 753 96 40 889
Ree Wheatgrass 545 260 35 840
Pubescent Wheatgrass 553 105 10 668
A-12496 535 92 32 659
N. Dak. Intermediate 379 94 85 558
Nebraska 50 326 --- 106 432
Average 559 128 46 733













Table 2. Hay Yields from Intermediate-Pubescent Wheatgrass Plots Seeded in 1954
Variety Oven-Dry Weight - Lbs./Acre 7-Year

Average

Yield -

Lbs/Acre

1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961
Ree Wheatgrass 3419 1484 2332 1815 1511 1513 840 1845
M2-10820 2724 1329 2290 2006 1435 1636 889 1758
N. Dak. Pubescent 2580 1308 1905 1794 1580 1605 1080 1693
Nebraska 50 3299 1296 2200 1879 1348 1320 432 1682
N. Dak. Intermediate 2839 1385 2214 1735 1490 1431 558 1665
Pubescent Whtgr. 3131 1355 1979 1494 1481 1422 668 1647
A-12496 2647 1409 2017 1449 1231 1306 659 1531
Average 2948 1367 2134 1739 1439 1462 733 1689



All intermediate and pubescent stands in the trial show serious stand loss, with none of the varieties showing more than a 50 per cent stand in the 1961 season, and most varieties averaging about a 25-35 per cent stand. The relatively low plot yields obtained in the 1961 season are primarily the result of drought, but stand deterioration has had an important influence in reducing yields. The average yield of 559 pounds per acre of seeded grass for all varieties is the lowest average yield for the 7-year period of the trial.



The average plot yields (Table 2) show that the intermediate wheatgrass and pubescent wheatgrass varieties have yielded remarkably well for the period of the trial. Despite the low yields of the 1961 season, all varieties have averaged over 3/4-ton of hay for the 7-year period. Stand deterioration is now so serious, however, that it is doubtful whether the varieties will continue adequate production to merit retaining the trial. There seems to be little difference in total production between the intermediate and the pubescent wheatgrass varieties.



2. New Intermediate Wheatgrass Plots: The 1961 yields of hay from the new intermediate wheatgrass trial are given in Table 3. As yet the stands show little invasion by other grass, and the proportion of weeds in the stands is not excessively high. However, the stands do show serious deterioration, and only a few of the plots have over a 50 per cent stand on them.



The range in yield of seeded grass on the plots this year was from 690 pounds per acre for Idaho #4 to 357 pounds for Amur (A-13046). It is doubtful whether the differences in yield have any significance as between varieties. More likely they reflect slight differences in soil moisture. The average yield of the varieties in the 1961 season was only about one-third of last year's average yield.



The three-year average yields (1959-1961) are given in Table 4. While generalization from the present data is hardly justified, it does seem that Amur and Greenar have been less productive in this trial than most of the other varieties. However, the range in average yields for the three-year period is only from 983 pounds per acre to 1262 pounds per acre. The three-year average yield for all varieties of a little over one-half ton per acre is relatively low for young stands of intermediate wheatgrass. South Dakota #20 has been consistently among the better producers throughout the period of the trial.



Table 3. Composition of 1961 Forage Yields from Intermediate Wheatgrass Plots Seeded in 1958.
Variety Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre Total

Production-

Lbs/Acre

Grass Other

Grass

Weeds
Idaho #4 690 5 33 728
A-12496 657 --- --- 657
South Dakota #20 642 --- --- 642
N. Dak. Intermediate 460 3 23 486
Idaho #3 410 --- 76 486
Nebraska 50 466 5 8 479
Amur (A-13046) 357 1 91 449
Greenar 397 --- 14 411
Ree Wheatgrass 365 7 3 375
Average 494 2 28 524



Table 4. Hay Yields from Intermediate Wheatgrass Plots Seeded in 1958.
Variety Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre
1959 1960 1961 3-Year

Average

Yield

South Dakota 20 1282 1863 642 1262
Idaho #3 1207 2033 486 1242
Idaho #4 1044 1545 728 1106
Nebraska 50 1151 1639 479 1090
N. Dak. Intermediate 1145 1629 486 1087
Ree Wheatgrass 1269 1522 375 1055
A-12496 860 1560 657 1026
Greenar 1187 1474 411 1024
Amur 1142 1359 449 983
Average 1143 1625 524 1097



3. Uniform Bromegrass Trial: The hay yields for 1961 of the 14 strains of smooth bromegrass included in the uniform bromegrass trial are given in Table 5. The seven-year average yields for all strains in the trial are given in Table 6. These plots were seeded in 1953 and most of the plots have suffered some stand damage, especially if the last two years. Stands of Lyon, Fischer, and Kuhl seem to have suffered especially severely. Stands on most of the plots, however, are better than 65 per cent. Invasion of other grass and weeds has been relatively slight so far.



The average production of seeded grass for all brome varieties was 375 pounds per acre this year. The range in production this year was from a high of 443 pounds per acre for Manchar to a low of 287 pounds for Canadian commercial. These are the lowest yields obtained so far in the trial and reflect both the effects of the drought season and the deteriorating stands on the plots. Differences in yield between the northern and southern types were not consistent this year.



The data of Table 6 show that on the basis of the seven-year average the southern-type strains have been slightly more productive than the northern-type strains, Lincoln, Fischer, Achenbach, and Oklahoma synthetic are at the top of the list, and the four northern types, Manchar, Mandan 404, Homesteader, and Canadian commercial are at the bottom of the list.



The range in average productivity is not great, however, varying only from 931 pounds per acre for Canadian to 1182 pounds per acre for Lincoln.



Table 5. Composition of 1961 Hay Yields from Bromegrass Plots Seeded in 1953.
Variety Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre Total Yield-

Lbs./Acre

Grass Other

Grass

Weeds
Oklahoma Synthetic 429 4 28 461
Fischer 375 --- 86 461
Manchar 443 --- 5 448
Elsberry 408 --- 30 438
Lincoln 353 6 73 432
Bin 12 413 --- 3 416
Lancaster 384 1 20 405
Homesteader 373 1 28 402
Kuhl 376 --- 25 401
Lyon 287 1 106 394
Achenbach 360 --- 29 389
Mandan 404 377 --- 8 385
Martin 379 --- 5 384
Canadian com. 287 5 35 327
Average 375 1 34 410





Table 6. Hay Yields from Bromegrass Plots Seeded in 1953.
Variety Dry-Weight Yields - Lbs./Acre 7-Year Average Yield-

Lbs./Acre

1954 1955 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961
Lincoln 1606 1498 1459 1260 906 1115 432 1182
Fischer 1637 1414 1408 1239 849 1111 461 1160
Achenbach 1702 1463 1318 1159 734 1247 389 1145
Oklahoma Synthetic 1363 1426 1614 1190 789 1135 461 1140
Elsberry 1190 1548 1537 1184 952 1010 438 1123
Bin 12 1289 1326 1380 1206 1007 1071 416 1099
Lancaster 1275 1476 1397 1142 864 1095 405 1093
Lyon 1380 1511 1417 1140 707 1042 394 1084
Kuhl 1334 1352 1486 1107 704 1088 401 1067
Martin 1247 1335 1160 1179 951 986 384 1035
Manchar 1241 1478 1132 1126 746 1057 448 1033
Mandan 404 1261 1359 1226 1069 865 991 385 1022
Homesteader 1214 1433 1319 1099 677 1000 402 1021
Canadian Com. 1122 1287 1095 920 774 990 327 931
Average 1347 1421 1353 1144 823 1067 410 1081



4. New Crested Wheatgrass Plots: Yields of hay (oven-dry weight) from the plots in the new crested wheatgrass trials are given in Table 7. This trial was seeded in 1958, and the first yields were taken in 1959. The stands in this trial are in excellent condition, containing little or no invading grass and only negligible amounts of weeds. One variety, A-1770, which was seeded initially in the trial, failed to make satisfactory stands on any of the plots, and has not been included. Turkish Fairway is the only variety that seems to have little adaptation to the area, and this variety has been consistently low yielding.



With the yield of Turkish Fairway excluded, the range in yields for the 1961 season was from 770 pounds per acre for South Dakota #15 to 905 pounds per acre for Nebraska 3576 Fairway. The average yield for all varieties was 810 pounds per acre, which is over twice the yield of seeded grass from the brome plots (Table 5) and almost 30 per cent more than the average yield of seeded grass from the intermediate wheatgrass plots (Table 3). All the adapted varieties of crested wheatgrass show an average yield for the three-year period of over one-half ton per acre. Generally speaking, the Fairway varieties have yielded as well as the varieties of the standard type.



Table 7. Hay Yields from Crested Wheatgrass Varieties Seeded in 1958.
Variety Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre 3-Year

Av. Yield

1959 1960 1961
Commercial Crested 1452 1815 824 1364
Commercial Fairway 1425 1619 873 1306
Nebraska 3576 Fairway 1371 1605 905 1294
Summit Crested 1328 1614 856 1266
Nebraska 10 1137 1791 864 1264
Nordan Crested 1427 1461 806 1231
Mandan 2359 1157 1687 833 1226
South Dakota 15 1164 1546 770 1160
Turkish Fairway 753 930 562 748
Average 1246 1563 810 1206



5. Station Grass and Mixture Trial: Tables 8, 9, 10 summarize the yields of the mixtures and straight grass seedings in the new Station trial seeded in the spring of 1958. The trial is similar to trials being carried on at the other branch stations. Yields from the mixtures and straight grass seedings were fairly good this season considering the general drought conditions that prevailed. The mixtures actually showed very little advantage over the straight grass seedings, averaging 879 pounds per acre, while the grasses alone averaged 822 pounds per acre.



Table 8 gives the 1961 yields from the grass-alfalfa mixtures, and Table 9 summarizes the three-year average production from the mixtures. As shown in Table 8, alfalfa in the 1961 season contributed over 30 per cent of the average yield of the mixtures. Alfalfa was a major contributor to yield in four of the mixtures. These were the green stipa-ladak alfalfa mixture, the green stipa, Teton alfalfa mixture, the Lincoln brome-ladak mixture, and the Manchar brome-ladak mixture. It was a very important contributor in the case of the Lincoln brome-Teton alfalfa mixture. The two green stipa-alfalfa mixtures were seeded in the fall of 1959, and the green stipagrass is not fully established. In the other mixtures alfalfa contributed from about 10 to 20 per cent of the yield.



Stands in a number of the plots were reduced somewhat by the drought conditions of the 1961 season. However, there has been very little invasion of the stands by other grasses, and weeds have not become important in any of the established grass-alfalfa mixture plots. The 1961 yields of the Nordan crested-Teton alfalfa and the Lincoln brome-Nordan crested-Ladak alfalfa were outstandingly good for such a dry season.



The data of Table 9 show that on the basis of the three-year average yields, the Nordan crested-Teton alfalfa, the intermediate wheatgrass-Teton alfalfa, the Lincoln brome-Nordan-Ladak, and the intermediate wheatgrass-Ladak alfalfa mixtures have been the best producing mixtures. The Russian wildrye-alfalfa mixtures have been somewhat lower producing than the other mixtures, as would be expected from the growth habit of Russian wildrye. The three-year average production for all mixtures (excluding the newer seedings of green stipa) of over one ton per acre is unusually good in view of the dry 1961 season.



Table 8. Composition of 1961 Hay Yields from Station Grass-Alfalfa Mixture Trial Seeded in 1958.
Mixtures Dry-Weight Yields - Lbs./Acre
Grass Alfalfa Other

Grass

Weeds Total

Yield

Nordan Crested-Teton Alfalfa 1232 128 --- --- 1360
Lincoln Brome-Nordan Crested-Ladak Alfalfa 1044 151 --- --- 1195
Green Stipa (New)-Ladak Alfalfa 104 796 --- 135 1035
Lincoln Brome-Teton Alfalfa 668 268 4 3 943
Lincoln Brome-Ladak Alfalfa 494 392 13 4 903
Russian Wildrye (2355)-Teton Alfalfa 680 104 --- 2 786
Intermediate Whtgr.-Ladak Alfalfa 566 112 --- 77 755
Russian Wildrye (2355)-Ladak Alfalfa 647 64 --- --- 711
Manchar Brome-Ladak Alfalfa 486 204 --- 2 692
Intermediate Whtgr.-Teton Alfalfa 514 79 9 45 647
Green Stipa-Teton Alfalfa 162 475 --- 5 642
Average 600 252 2 25 879



Table 9. Three-Year Hay Yields from Station Grass-Alfalfa Mixture Trial Seeded in 1958.
Mixtures Dry-Weight Yields - Lbs./Acre
1959 1960 1961 3 - Year

Average

Yield

Nordan Crested-Teton Alfalfa 2536 3396 1360 2431
Intermediated Whtgr.-Teton Alfalfa 3144 3381 647 2391
Lincoln Brome-Nordan Crested-Ladak Alfalfa 2447 3204 1195 2282
Intermediate Whtgr.-Ladak Alfalfa 2818 3258 755 2277
Lincoln Brome-Ladak Alfalfa 2171 3272 903 2115
Lincoln Brome-Teton Alfalfa 2329 2765 943 2012
Manchar Brome-Teton Alfalfa 2127 2764 692 1816
Russian Wildrye (2355)-Teton Alfalfa 1449 2307 786 1514
Russian Wildrye (2355)-Ladak Alfalfa 1653 1716 711 1360
Green Stipagrass-Ladak Alfalfa --- --- 1035 ---
Green Stipagrass-Teton Alfalfa --- --- 642 ---
Average 2297 2896 879 2022



The production of the straight grass seedings in the Station Trial is given in Table 10. As previously mentioned, the yields of the straight grasses are very nearly as good as the yields of the grass-alfalfa mixture plots. The grass yields have been unusually good in this trial. The three-year average yield for all grass varieties of 1,988 pounds per acre compares favorably with the three-year average yields of the mixture plots at 2,022 pounds per acre.



Summit crested wheatgrass has shown the highest average yield for the three-year period with a production of 2,412 pounds per acre. Intermediate wheatgrass (Nebr. 50), Nordan crested, Lincoln brome, and Southland brome all show an average production of over one ton per acre for the period of the trial. The two northern bromes and Russian wildrye show appreciable lower production. Slender wheatgrass, which produced fairly well the first two years of the trial, has largely gone out, and the weed covered plots of this variety were not harvested, in the 1961 season. The two green stipagrass varieties are new stands, having been seeded in the fall of 1959.



Table 10. Three-Year Hay Yields from Station Grass Trial Seeded in 1958.
Grass Varieties Dry-Weight Yield-Lbs./Acre
1959 1960 1961 3 - Year

Average

Yield

Summit Crested 2653 3310 1272 2412
Intermediate Whtgr. (N.50) 2865 3440 743 2349
Nordan Crested 2364 3203 1259 2275
Lincoln Brome 2559 3107 971 2212
Southland Brome 2344 3293 750 2129
Northern Brome 2324 2876 540 1913
Manchar Brome 2332 2560 707 1866
Russian Wildrye (2355) 1368 2086 686 1380
Russian Wildrye (Com.) 1404 1913 756 1358
Slender Whtgr. 1937 2601 no stand ---
Green Stipa (New) --- --- 755 ---
Green Stipa (Com.) --- --- 608 ---
Average 2215 2839 822 1988



6. New Dryland Alfalfa Plots: A new alfalfa trial with twelve varieties was seeded on June 23, 1960. Individual plots were 6' x 30', and four replications were included. Excellent first-year stands were obtained, and the trial was cut once for hay in the 1961 season. As can be seen from Table 11, which reports the yields obtained, production was generally low with the average alfalfa yield for all varieties being 876 pounds per acre (oven-dry). Some of the varieties, especially Du Puits and Pfister, showed some stand loss from the excellent first-year stands. There was very little regrowth on the plots after the first cutting.



Vernal, Rambler, Grimm, Ladak, and Narrangansett showed the best first-year yields, but little significance can be attached to the yield differences obtained in the first year of the study. Yields of alfalfa from the plots ranged from a low of 701 pounds per acre for Pfister FD-180 to a high of 1049 pounds per acre for Vernal.



Table 11. Hay Yields from Dryland Alfalfa Plots Seeded in 1960.
Variety Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre
Alfalfa Weeds Total
Vernal 1049 50 1099
Rambler 1003 121 1124
Grimm 967 92 1059
Ladak 937 26 963
Narragansett 936 87 1023
Du Puits 872 102 974
Scandia 860 47 907
Ranger 838 31 869
S. Dak. H-2157 800 100 900
Rhizoma 782 45 827
Teton 764 77 841
Pfister FD-180 701 203 904
Average 876 82 958




NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON CRESTED WHEATGRASS



1. Plots Fertilized Every Year: Hay yields from old crested wheatgrass plots fertilized every year with ammonium nitrate (33-0-0) are given in Table 12. This trial was begun in 1955 and seven-years' data are available. Fertilizer applications on these plots have all been made in early spring, with the 1961 applications being made on April 7. The treatments include check, 25 pounds N., 50 pounds N., and 100 pounds N. per acre.



In the 1961 season, all fertilizer applications increased forage production on the fertilized plots, but all increases were very small. The check plots produced 550 pounds of forage (oven-dry) per acre; the lots with 25 pounds of nitrogen produced 661 pounds of grass per acre; those with 50 pounds N., 693 pounds of grass; and those with 100 pounds N., 706 pounds of grass. None of these increases would have been profitable considering the price of nitrogen to be ten cents per pound and the value of hay to be one cent per pound. This very poor response to nitrogen applications is clearly a result of the unfavorable moisture situation prevailing in the 1961 growing season. The yield of the check plots was only about half the previous average check yield, and the yields on the fertilized plots were only about 40 per cent of the previous average yields on fertilized plots.



Despite the low yields and poor fertilizer response obtained in the 1961 season, the data of Table 12 show that, for the seven-year period as a whole, 25 pounds of nitrogen per acre applied annually has produced a profitable increase in hay yield over that of the check. As previously shown, there is no economic justification for using amounts of nitrogen in excess of 25 pounds per acre for hay production from old crested wheatgrass stands on dryland sites in this area.



Table 12. Forage Production from Old Crested Wheatgrass Plots Fertilized Annually at Three Rates of Nitrogen (33-0-0).
Year Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre Percentage Increase Over Check
Check 25 lbs. N 50 lbs. N 100 lbs. N 25 lbs. N 50 lbs. N 100 lbs. N
1955 1276 2096 2121 2494 64.3 66.2 95.4
1956 612 751 763 670 22.7 24.7 9.5
1957 1356 2117 2064 2174 56.1 52.2 60.3
1958 1224 1679 1839 1993 37.0 50.2 62.8
1959 1116 1451 1284 1206 30.0 51.1 8.1
1960 1279 2003 1954 2160 56.6 52.6 68.9
1961 550 661 693 706 20.2 26.0 28.4
7-Year Average 1059 1537 1531 1629 45.1 44.6 53.8


2. Plots Fertilized Every Other Year: The yields from old crested wheatgrass plots fertilized every other year with ammonium nitrate are given in Table 13. These plots are fertilized in the spring, and the rates of nitrogen application are the same as for the plots fertilized annually. Fertilizer applications have been made in spring of 1957, 1959, and 1961. The data obtained thus far in the study indicate there is some carry-over from all rates of fertilization. The 1961 yields show no carry-over effect, and very little response to the current-year applications of nitrogen.



The 1961 yield on these plots were 554 pounds of grass per acre for the check, 608 pounds on the 25-pound nitrogen plots, 658 pounds on the 50-pound nitrogen plots, and 624 pounds of grass on the 100-pound nitrogen plots. Obviously the slight increases in yield obtained from the use of the fertilizer were not profitable this season.



On the basis of the use of equal amounts of nitrogen over a two-year period, the increases in yield obtained by fertilizing every other year with 50 pounds of nitrogen have not been as good as the yields obtained by fertilizing annually with 25 pounds of nitrogen per acre. Fertilizing with 100 pounds of nitrogen every other year has produced yields equal to those obtained by fertilizing every year with 50 pounds of nitrogen.



The increased yields from 50 pounds of nitrogen every year or 100 pounds of nitrogen every other year are just barely on the margin of returning the cost of the nitrogen. The use of these rates does not appear to be justified when such a distinct advantage exists for the annual 25-pound application of nitrogen.



Table 13. Forage Production From Old Crested Wheatgrass Plots Fertilized Alternate Years* at Three Rates of Nitrogen (33-0-0).
Year Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre Percentage Increase Over Check
Check 25#N 50#N 100# N 25#N 50#N 100# N
1957 1239 1714 2013 2001 38.3 62.5 61.5
1958 1003 1016 1114 1250 1.3 11.1 24.6
1959 1094 1230 1266 1659 12.4 15.7 51.6
1960 1306 1813 1801 2187 38.8 37.9 67.5
1961 554 608 658 624 9.7 18.8 12.6
5-Year Average 1039 1276 1370 1544 28.8 31.9 48.6
*Fertilizer applied in spring of 1957, 1959, and 1961.


NEW FERTILIZER TRIAL



1. Hay Yields from New Fertilizer Trial: In this trial four grasses, Nordan crested wheatgrass, Lincoln brome, Intermediate wheatgrass, and Russian wildrye were grown alone, mixed with Ladak alfalfa, and in plots fertilized with 33 pounds of nitrogen per acre, 67 pounds, and 100 pounds of nitrogen per acre. Fertilizer applications were made in the fall of 1957 and1958, and in the spring of 1960 and 1961. The trial was seeded in spring of 1956.



Fertilization was switched to the spring period because it appeared that considerable stand deterioration was taking place on the fall-fertilized plots of Lincoln brome and intermediate wheatgrass. However, stands on plots containing these varieties continued to deteriorate, and the plots could not be harvested for yield in the 1961 season. The reason for this deterioration apparently was not entirely the fertilizer, because control plots of these varieties also showed serious deterioration.



The hay yields for each of the treatments for the four-year period, 1958-1961, are given in Table 14. In the 1961 season no increases in hay yields were obtained with the alfalfa-grass mixtures over the straight grass seedings. Responses from nitrogen fertilizer were obtained with all three rates of application. Both Nordan crested and Russian wildrye, the best response was obtained with 33 pounds of nitrogen. No additional increases in yield were obtained with the heavier rates of fertilization.



Yield increases were so small that none of the rates of fertilization would have been economical. Thirty-three pounds of nitrogen per acre only increased the hay yield of Nordan crested, 151 pounds over the yield of the check, and Russian wildrye was only increased 178 pounds over the check by this amount of nitrogen.



Table 14. Hay Yields from Grasses in Pure Stands, in Mixture with Alfalfa, and in Pure Stands Fertilized at Three Different Rates, 1958-1961.
Grasses Year Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre
Grass

Alone

With

Alfalfa

33#N 67#N 100#N
Nordan Crested 1958 1809 1647 1832 2491 2724
Intermediate Whtgr. 1958 1729 1706 1992 2466 2714
Lincoln Brome 1958 1461 1818 2205 2459 2342
Russian Wildrye 1958 941 1111 1224 1613 1984
Nordan Crested 1959 1416 1827 2120 1737 2011
Intermediate Whtgr. 1959 1033 1372 1244 1468 1325
Lincoln Brome 1959 936 1465 1630 1421 1279
Russian Wildrye 1959 778 841 975 971 1086
Nordan Crested 1960 2134 2435 2910 2713 2714
Intermediate Whtgr. 1960 1395 1980 1877 2259 1998
Lincoln Brome 1960 1265 1610 2151 2283 2203
Russian Wildrye 1960 1287 1312 1710 1823 1997
Nordan Crested 1961 1036 1012 1187 1120 1108
Intermediate Whtgr. 1961 No yield - stand largely gone out
Lincoln Brome 1961 No yield - stand largely gone out
Russian Wildrye 1961 643 616 821 761 777



The four-year average yields are given in Table 15 for Nordan Crested wheatgrass and Russian wildrye. Satisfactory yields were obtained from the other two varieties only for the first three years of the trial, so these varieties are not included in the table. These data show that, for the four-year period, Nordan crested wheatgrass fertilized with 33 pounds of nitrogen per acre has produced enough additional hay to a little more than pay for the cost of the nitrogen. The additional production of Russian wildrye has not been enough to pay for the nitrogen on the basis of the average for the four-year period. These figures are based on hay values of one cent per pound and nitrogen costs of ten cents per pound.



It is apparent from the results of this trial that erratic responses to nitrogen may be expected, that there is little advantage in using more than 25 to 30 pounds of nitrogen per acre in annual fertilizer applications, and that some grasses (in this case Russian wildrye) may not make enough additional production to pay for the cost of the fertilizer. These conclusions apply primarily to the use of nitrogen for increasing hay production. There are a number of reasons for thinking that nitrogen may be more profitably used on pasture than on hayland in this area.



The production of the grass-alfalfa mixtures is probably lower than might be expected. There is now very little alfalfa in these mixtures, and less than 10 per cent of the 1961 yields of the mixtures was made up of alfalfa.



Stands containing a larger proportion of alfalfa in the mixture might well be expected to make better production than that obtained this season in this trial.











Table 15. Four-Year (1958-1961) Average Hay Yields from Nordan Crested Wheatgrass and Russian Wildrye in Pure Stands, in Mixture with Alfalfa, and in Pure Stands Fertilized with Nitrogen at Three Different Rates.
Grasses Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre
Grass

Alone

With

Alfalfa

33#N 67#N 100#N
Nordan Crested Whtgr. 1599 1743 2012 2015 2139
Russian Wildrye 912 970 1182 1292 1461



SPRING GRAZING
TRIAL



The pastures in the spring grazing trial were grazed for the seventh season in 1961. The grazing period was short this year, the yearling steers being on the pastures only from May 24 to June 21, a period of 48 days. The crested-alfalfa pastures were stocked with eight yearling steers each, as in the past, and one crested wheatgrass pasture (Pasture #3) was stocked with six steers. Pasture #1, which was fertilized with 50 pounds of nitrogen per acre on April 10, 1961, was stocked with eight steers.



Table 16 summarizes pasture yields and forage utilization on the pastures in the 1961 season. It is apparent that the nitrogen application had very little influence in increasing production on Pasture #1 during the grazing period. There was a difference in appearance in the pastures, the fertilized crested wheatgrass being a darker green, but actual production was not influenced much. The data show that during the grazing period, the fertilized pasture produced 884 pounds of forage per acre (dry weight), while the unfertilized pasture produced 852 pounds per acre. Crested-alfalfa Pasture #2 produced 812 pounds per acre, and the crested-alfalfa Pasture #4 produced 958 pounds of forage per acre. There is not much alfalfa left in the crested-alfalfa pastures, and what is present made very poor growth in the 1961 season.



There were appreciable differences in the degree of utilization on the various pastures. Pastures #1 and #2 were heavily utilized, Pasture #2 being especially so, with only 27 pounds per acre of grazable forage left on the ground. Pastures #3 and #4 were somewhat less heavily utilized than the other two.



Table 16. Forage Produced and Forage Utilized on Pastures by Yearling Steers in the Spring Grazing Trial in the 1961 Season.
Pasture

No.

Pasture Type Forage

produced -

lbs./acre

(dry-weight)

Forage

utilized-

lbs./acre

(dry-weight)

Forage left

on ground-

lbs./acre

(dry-weight)

1 Crested Wheatgrass* 884 748 136
3 Crested Wheatgrass 852 647 205
Average 1 & 3 868 697 171
2 Crested-Alfalfa 812 785 27
4 Crested-Alfalfa 958 725 233
Average 2 & 4 885 755 130
*50 pounds of nitrogen applied per acre to Pasture 1 on April 10, 1961.



Table 17 summarizes the data on yield and forage consumption on the pastures for the seven-year period of the study. The forage data from fertilized Pasture #1 are not included in the summary for 1960 and 1961. Thus the data of the table represent the averages for straight crested wheatgrass pastures and for crested-alfalfa pastures. It is apparent from these data that, despite the dry season, crested wheatgrass produced quite well. The season's production of 852 pounds of forage per acre compares favorably with the seven-year average production of 933 pounds per acre for straight crested wheatgrass. The production in 1956 of 743 pounds per acre was less than the production of straight crested in the 1961 season.



Production on the crested-alfalfa pastures, however, was the lowest this season for the seven-year period. The average production for the two crested-alfalfa pastures of 885 pounds per acre was appreciably less than the seven-year average yield of 1,166 pounds per acre. This low production is primarily a reflection of the drought situation, but is in part related to the decreasing importance if alfalfa in the mixtures.



Table 17. Seven-Year Summary of Forage Produced and Utilized on Spring Grazing Trial Pastures - 1955-1961.
Pasture

Nos.

Pasture Type Year Forage produced-

lbs./acre

(dry-weight)

Forage

utilized-

lbs./acre

(dry-weight)

Forage left

on ground-

lbs./acre

(dry-weight)

1 & 3 Crested Wheatgrass 1955 962 817 145
1 & 3 Crested Wheatgrass 1956 743 556 187
1 & 3 Crested Wheatgrass 1957 1046 827 219
1 & 3 Crested Wheatgrass 1958 902 756 146
1 & 3 Crested Wheatgrass 1959 1046 713 333
3* Crested Wheatgrass 1960 981 821 160
3* Crested Wheatgrass 1961 852 647 205
7-Year Average 933 734 199
2 & 4 Crested-Alfalfa 1955 1429 969 460
2 & 4 Crested-Alfalfa 1956 1020 756 264
2 & 4 Crested-Alfalfa 1957 1415 1231 184
2 & 4 Crested-Alfalfa 1958 1102 930 172
2 & 4 Crested-Alfalfa 1959 1110 870 240
2 & 4 Crested-Alfalfa 1960 1200 1055 145
2 & 4 Crested-Alfalfa 1961 885 755 130
7-Year Average 1166 938 228



Table 18 gives the animal data obtained on the pastures during the 1961 season. The average seasonal gains per head were slightly better on crested wheatgrass Pasture #3 than on any of the other pastures. The seasonal gain per head here was 111 pounds. On fertilized crested wheatgrass the seasonal gain was 107 pounds; on crested-alfalfa Pasture #2, 82 pounds; and on crested-alfalfa Pasture #3, 103 pounds. The gains per acre this year were 107.0 pounds on fertilized crested, 82.2 pounds on straight crested wheatgrass, 82.0 pounds on crested-alfalfa Pasture #2, and 103.0 pounds on crested-alfalfa Pasture #4. The fertilized crested wheatgrass pasture thus produced the greatest gain per acre, although this gain was only slightly better than the gain per acre on the best crested-alfalfa pasture.



Table 18. Performance of Yearling Steers on Crested Wheatgrass and Crested Wheatgrass-Alfalfa Pastures During Spring Grazing Period from May 4 to June 21, 1961. (Weights and gains in lbs.)
Pasture

No.

Pasture Type No. of Steers Acres per Pasture Days

on Pasture

Avg. initial wt./steer Avg. final wt./steer Avg. seasonal gain/head Avg.

daily gain/head

Gain

per

acre

1 Crested Whtgr.* 8 8 48 516 623 107 2.23 107.0
3 Crested Whtgr. 6 8 48 525 636 111 2.31 83.2
2 Crested-Alfalfa 8 8 48 514 596 82 1.71 82.0
4 Crested-Alfalfa 8 8 48 515 618 103 2.15 103.0
*Pasture #1 fertilized with 50 pounds nitrogen per acre.



Table 19 summarizes the animal data obtained on the pastures during the seven-year period of the study. Data from fertilized Pasture #1 are not included in this summary. The seven-year averages clearly show the superiority of the crested-alfalfa pastures over the straight crested wheatgrass pastures in the production of pounds of beef per acre. It should be pointed out that as the trial has proceeded and the alfalfa has become less vigorous in the mixture pastures, the differences in production between the crested wheatgrass and the crested wheatgrass-alfalfa pastures have become much less. However, over the seven-year period of the trial, the crested wheatgrass-alfalfa pastures have produced an average of 32.5 per cent more beef per acre than the straight crested wheatgrass pastures.



Table 19. Seven-Year Summary of Weights and Gains of Yearling Steers on Crested Wheatgrass and Crested Wheatgrass-alfalfa Pastures, 1955-1961.
Pasture No. Pasture Type Year No. Steers

on Pasture

Days

on Pasture

Avg. Initial

Wt. Per Steer Lbs.

Avg. Final Wt. Per Steer Lbs. Avg. Seasonal

Gain Per Head Lbs.

Avg. Daily Gain Per

Head Lbs.

Gain

Per

Acre

Lbs.

1 & 3 Crested Wheatgrass 1955 7 51 494 568 74 1.44 64.3
1 & 3 Crested Wheatgrass 1956 6 45 520 601 81 1.79 60.3
1 & 3 Crested Wheatgrass 1957 6 60 478 622 144 2.40 107.7
1 & 3 Crested Wheatgrass 1958 6 63 555 680 127 2.02 95.3
1 & 3 Crested Wheatgrass 1959 6 52 528 666 138 2.64 103.2
3* Crested Wheatgrass 1960 6 73 523 658 135 1.85 101.2
3* Crested Wheatgrass 1961 6 48 525 636 111 2.31 83.1
7-Year Average 6 56 518 633 115 2.06 87.9
2 & 4 Crested-Alfalfa 1955 7 51 494 600 106 2.06 92.2
2 & 4 Crested-Alfalfa 1956 8 45 520 616 96 2.14 96.3
2 & 4 Crested-Alfalfa 1957 9 60 498 639 141 2.35 158.1
2 & 4 Crested-Alfalfa 1958 8 63 550 682 132 2.10 132.0
2 & 4 Crested-Alfalfa 1959 8 52 523 636 113 2.17 112.5
2 & 4 Crested-Alfalfa 1960 8 73 521 658 137 1.88 137.0
2 & 4 Crested-Alfalfa 1961 8 48 514 608 94 1.96 94.0
7-Year Average 8 56 517 634 117 2.09 117.4
*Pasture #1 not included because of fertilizer treatment.



Table 20 contrasts forage production and beef gains per acre for the last three years on straight crested wheatgrass, on crested-alfalfa, and on crested wheatgrass fertilized with 50 pounds of nitrogen per acre. These data show that on the average for the three-year period fertilized crested wheatgrass has produced about 26 per cent more forage than straight crested wheatgrass, and about 10 per cent more than crested and alfalfa. Beef production per acre on fertilized crested has averaged about 41 per cent more than on straight crested, and about 18 per cent more than crested and alfalfa.



The increase in forage production would not pay for the cost of the fertilizer, with forage figured at one cent per pound and fertilizer at ten cents per pound. However, the extra beef produced, figured at 20 cents per pound, would be substantially profitable as between straight crested and fertilized crested. Comparing increased beef production between fertilized crested and crested-alfalfa pastures the return would be near the break-even point. From the results obtained so far, it would appear that substantial increases in beef production are possible through the use of nitrogen on crested wheatgrass pasture, but in the long run the lower costs involved in using crested wheatgrass-alfalfa pasture may prove more profitable.



Table 20. Forage Production and Gains Per Acre on Spring Grazing Trial Pastures of Crested Wheatgrass, Crested Wheatgrass and Alfalfa, and Crested Wheatgrass plus 50 Pounds of Nitrogen.
Pasture Type Year Forage

Production-

Lbs./acre

Gain

Per Acre

Lbs.

Crested Wheatgrass 1959 940 103.2
Crested Wheatgrass 1960 981 101.2
Crested Wheatgrass 1961 852 83.1
3-Year Average 924 95.8
Crested and Alfalfa 1959 1110 112.5
Crested and Alfalfa 1960 1200 137.0
Crested and Alfalfa 1961 885 94.0
3-Year Average 1065 114.5
Crested + 50 Lbs. N 1959 1153 133.0
Crested + 50 Lbs. N 1960 1476 165.0
Crested + 50 Lbs. N 1961 884 106.9
3-Year Average 1171 135.0



NEW PASTURE SEEDING



A new pasture trial to compare the value of straight crested wheatgrass, crested wheatgrass and alfalfa, and crested wheatgrass with nitrogen fertilizer was begun in the fall of 1961. Nordan crested wheatgrass was seeded on a 48-acre piece of land directly east across the road from the present spring grazing trial. Duplicate crested wheatgrass, crested wheatgrass and alfalfa, and fertilized crested wheatgrass pastures will be established on this seeding. The alfalfa for the mixture pastures will be seeded in the spring of 1962. It is hoped that grazing can be started on these pastures in the spring of 1963.



In addition, land was selected for a new trial on summer grazing using Russian wildrye and Lincoln brome pastures. The land will be uniformly cropped this year in preparation for a pasture seeding, probably to be made in the fall of 1963.



PERSONAL ACTIVITIES



1. Correspondence: Twenty-seven letters were written in the conduct of business relating to the Dickinson Station.



2. Radio Programs and TV Shows:



Radio Programs
April 19, 1961 Fertilizing Grass (recording)
May 19, 1961 Pasture Fertilization
June 8, 1961 Time of Cutting Hay
July 13, 1961 Varieties of Crested Wheatgrass
August 17, 1961 Poisonous Plants
October 5, 1961 Grass Yields (recording)


TV Programs
February 22, 1961 TV Short Course (WDAY)


3. Public Meetings:



Date Meeting Attendance Participation
2/27/61 Kiwanis Farmers' Night, Dickinson 80 50 minutes on grassland agriculture
5/15/61 Livestock Feeders' Committee 25 Discussion
7/12/61 Dickinson Crops Field Day 250 Half-day of tours
7/18/61 4-H Camp Field Trip 56 Half-day plant identification
7/19/61 Dickinson State Teachers College Conservation Class 35 50 minutes on grassland agriculture
10/28/61 Federal Land Bank Assoc., Mandan 36 Grassland values
10/29/61 Federal Land Bank Assoc., Napoleon 19 Grassland values
11/21/61 North Dakota Crop Imp. Conference, Jamestown 200 Grassland potentials
12/6/61 Livestock Research Roundup 1350 Tour and 15 minutes on grasses
12/16/61 Burleigh County Crop Imp. Association 60 Pasture in the feeding program




4. Scientific Conferences:



Date Meeting Attendance Participation
1/31 - 2-3-61 American Society of Range Management, Salt Lake City, Utah 800 Attended sessions
2/16-17/61 GP-6 Range Research Committee, Denver, Colorado 16 Preparing range project
3/9/61 Weather Bureau Conference 15 Discussion of frost occurrence data
5/5-6/61 North Dakota Academy of Science, Grand Forks 70 15-minute paper on grassland micro-climate
7/13-15/61 America Society of Range Management, Northern Plains Section, Maple Creek, Saskatchewan 85 Range field trip
8/10/61 Great Plains Range Weed Committee, Omaha, Nebraska 17 Helped prepare weed project
8/27-30/61 Ecological Society of America, Purdue University, Indiana 220 Attended symposium on climate and plant growth


5. Publications:



Whitman, W. C., D. Petersen, and T. J. Conlon. 1961. Results of Clipping Trials with Cool-Season Grasses; North Dakota Farm Research 22: 9-14.





1961 REPORT OF LIVESTOCK INVESTIGATIONS



BY LARKIN H. LANGFORD

THE BEEF BREEDING HERD



During the breeding seasons, about June 20 to July 31, of 1958, 1959, and 1960, the cow herd has been divided into three groups. One bull has been placed with each group, and a fourth bull has run with yearling heifers. For the late season clean-up, cows have been combined into two herds with one bull per herd. This system of management, combined with recorded birth weight and weaning weights, has given us enough data on the reproductive performance of each bull to form a basis for evaluation. Bulls which sire calves of inferior weight or quality can be eliminated from the herd. The bulls that have been used are:



Sire 4 - Zato Heir 9, bred by A. W. Powell, Sisseton, South Dakota



Sire 5 - Zato Heir 18, bred by A. W. Powell, Sisseton, South Dakota



Sire 6 - TTT Silver Lad, bred by Thor Tagestad, Towner, North Dakota



Sire 8 - DGH Rupert Aster, bred by Don Hoag, Harwood, North Dakota



Table 1. Weaning Weights and Ages of Calves by 4 Sires, 3 Seasons. Does Not Include Calves From 2-Year Old Heifers.
Sire 4 Sire 5 Sire 6 Sire 8
1959 1960 1961 1959 1960 1959 1960 1961 1960 1961
No. calves 40 23 24 17 22 6 17 17 11 28
Weaning Wt. 333 344 384 369 333 346 351 375 326 358
Age in Days 172 194 197 177 176 185 191 193 163 179
Wt/Day of Age 1.94 1.78 1.95 2.08 1.89 1.87 1.84 1.94 2.00 2.00


Bulls No. 4 and 6 were sold in the Fall of 1961. Weights are taken on all breeding animals regularly. Table 2. Summarizes the breeding herd record for three years. Two-year olds and their calves were not included.



Table 2. Cow Weights and Calf Production for 1959, 1960, 1961
1959 1960 1961
No. Cows, 3 yrs. and older 81 82 77
Wt. at weaning, fall before 1057 1012 1068
Wt. March 30, before calving 1094 1081 1127
Wt. at weaning, current year 1036 1106 1059
Cow Ration, Preceding Winter:
Corn Silage, Lb. 25 12-3 mo., 0-3 mo. 0
Crested and Brome Hay, Lb. 12 12-3 mo., 17-3 mo. 12-4 mo., 19-2 mo.
Straw, Lb. 0 5 7-4 mo, -mo.
Ground Barley 0 0 2-2 mo.
Calf Production:
No. Born Alive 75 71* 72*
No. Weaned 71 71 72
No. Dry Cows 6 1 0
Av. Birth Wt. 71.7 73.6 70.8
Av. Weaning Wt. 344.1 338.5 371.9
Av. Weaning Age, Da. 175 182 189
Av. Wt. Per Da. of Age 1.97 1.86 1.96
*Not included in data were 9 late calves in 1960 and 3 late ones in 1961. Also, one was born dead in 1960, and two died young in 1961.


CREEP FEEDING OF CALVES



On June 22, 1961, the 91 cows which comprised the breeding herd were divided into three groups. This allotment was made across previous lot lines taking into account the age and weight of cows, weight and sex of calves, and over-all quality of the cows. The purpose was to begin a study in creep feeding whole oats to the calves of one group, while grazing the other cow and calf pairs in the usual manner without a creep feeder. Since the three pastures are not equal in every respect, this study will have to be repeated, using a different pasture for the creep feeding each' year until weaning weights have been taken on each pasture, with and without a creep feeder. Creep feeding was begun July 1 and continued until weaning, October 30.









Table 3. Creep-Feeding Whole Oats to Calves - 1961
East Park West Park Home Pasture
No Creep No Creep Creep Feeder
No. Cows 29 30 30*
Av. Wt. Cows, June 22 978 956 990
Av. Wt. Cows, Oct. 30 1032 1031 1021
Summer Gain/Hd., Cows 54 75 31
No. Steer Calves Weaned 17 16 16
No. Heifer Calves Weaned 12 14 14
Birth Wt. All Calves 70.6 69.1 70.3
Weaning Wt. All Calves 348.6 346.2 383.7
Total Wt. Oats Fed, Lbs. 5,133
Av. Wt. Oats Fed/Calf 171
Av. Additional Wt./Calf 36
Value of Oats/Bu. Using 28 Per Lb. Average Calf Price $1.88
*Two cows lost calves before the grazing season; were removed from averages.


TWO LEVELS OF WINTERING STEERS FOLLOWED BY DIRECT OR

DEFERRED FINISHING. 4-YEARS' RESULTS



This report covers the fourth and final year of a steer calf wintering experiment begun in the fall of 1957. Each winter, two equal lots of 16 steer calves were wintered on a 'normal' and a 'low' ration. On May 1 both lots were divided into two groups, one group from each lot was summer grazed and finished the following winter, while the other group from each lot was finished in summer dry lot.



All steers were implanted with 24 mg. of stilbestrol when placed in dry lot for finishing.



The purpose of this experiment was to compare costs and profits between the two wintering rations and follow each group of steers through dry lot finishing, whether summer grazed or fed out immediately following the wintering period.



Table 4 shows results of the wintering phase; Table 5 summarizes the summer dry-lot feeding; and Table 6 combines summer grazing and dry-lot finishing which followed. Feed prices used throughout this report:



Corn Silage 7.20 per ton
Alfalfa Hay 18.00 per ton
Barley .72 per bushel
Oats .56 per bushel
Soybean Meal 80.00 per ton
Steamed Bonemeal 130.00 per ton
Trace Min Salt 54.00 per ton
Pelleted Beet Pulp 40.00 per ton
Grinding Grain 1.00 per ton when done at home
Grazing Yearlings 1.50 per hd. per month



Table 4. Wintering Steer Calves, 2 Rations, 4 Winters
Normal Ration Low Ration
1960-61 4-Yr. Av. 1960-61 4-Yr. Av.
Fall Weaning Wt. 349 359 349 360
Spring Wt. 583 592 491 496
Av. Daily Gain 1.27 1.27 .77 .78
Daily Feed:
Corn Silage 22 23 19 20
Cr. Wht. Grass Hay 4 4 4 4
Whole Oats 2 2 0 0
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:
Corn Silage 1735 1849 2522 2733
Cr. Wht. Grass Hay 309 313 507 550
Whole Oats 157 158 0 0
Feed Cost/100 Lb. Gain $11.78 $12.24 $13.64 $14.79




Table 5. Summer Dry-Lot Finishing of One-Half the Steers In Wintering Lots
From Normal Winter Lot From Low Winter Lot
1961 4-Yr. Av. 1961 4-Yr. Av.
Initial Wt. (About May 1) 583 595 492 495
Final Wt. (about Oct. 30) 999 1018 923 945
Av. Daily Gain 2.38 2.39 2.46 2.54
Daily Feed:
Corn Silage 40.60 45.00 41.30 42.50
Alfalfa Hay 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
Soybean Meal 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50
Ground Barley 3.95 1.34 3.95 4.34
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 .20 .20 .20 .20
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:
Corn Silage 1705 1857 1674 1681
Alfalfa Hay 105 104 101 97
Soybean Meal 62.6 63 60.3 59
Ground Barley 166 181 160 171
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 8.4 8.4 8.0 8.0
Feed Cost Per 100 Lb. Gain $12.62 $13.38 $12.28 $12.35
Selling Price Per 100 Lb. $22.40 $23.34 $22.75 $23.39
Return Per Hd. Above Feed From Weaning to Market $64.87 $68.00 $58.06 $61.17


Tables 4 and 5 show that it was $6.83 per head more profitable to winter steer calves well (1.27 lbs. per day) than to winter them light, (.78 lb. per day) when all were fed out in dry lot immediately after the wintering period. Table 6 gives a three-year summary which indicates that the well-wintered calves returned $4.00 per head more gross profit than the lighter calves, when the first winter was followed by summer grazing and dry-lot finishing in the following winter. One more trial in this series is in progress.



Table 6. Steers Summer Grazed And Fed Out In Winter to Sell as Two-Yr. Olds
Steers From Normal

Winter Lots

3-Yr. Av.

Steers From Low

Winter Lots

3-Yr. Av.

No. Steers 8 8
Wt. to grass 595 496
Wt. off grass 807 746
Days of grazing 146 146
Daily pasture gain 1.45 1.72
Days in Dry Lot 166 166
Daily Dry-Lot Gain 2.02 1.99
Finished Wt. 1139 1073
Daily Ration, Dry Lot:
Corn Silage 55 56
Ground Barley 3.32 3.32
Soybean Meal 1.68 1.68
Alfalfa Hay 2.50 2.50
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 .27 .27
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:
Corn Silage 2893 2881
Ground Barley 178 175
Soybean Meal 87 87
Alfalfa Hay 129 128
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 14 14
Feed Cost/100 Lb. Dry Lot Gain $18.55 $18.39
Selling Price Per cwt. $23.90 $24.43
Return Per Hd. Above Feed, Weaning to Market $90.62 $86.62



In the dry-lot feeding of long yearlings, Table 6, it has been the practice to start them in September with only corn silage, 2 lbs. soybean meal, 2.5 lbs. alfalfa hay, bonemeal, and salt for the first 60 days. After 60 days, soybean meal was reduced to 1.5 lbs., and 4 lbs. of ground barley was added. In the first two winters, the barley allowance was raised to 8 lbs. per day for the final month of feeding. All feeding was done once daily, in the morning.



WINTERING STEER CALVES ON CORN SILAGE WITH OATS,

BARLEY, AND DRY BEET PULP



In each of the last two winters, four lots of steer calves have been fed corn silage with 3 to 6 pounds of grain to compare to oats, barley, and pelleted beet pulp in wintering rations. All lots received 1.5 pounds of alfalfa hay, .15 pound of steamed bonemeal, .05 pound of salt, and either .5 or 1 pound of soybean meal, depending upon the level of grain fed.

There has been little difference in gains or costs of the four rations. In the first winter, 3 pounds each of oats and barley produced the highest daily gain (2.21 lb.); and in the second winter, the best gaining steers (2.20 lb.) were fed 2 pounds each of oats, barley, and beet pulp. Feed costs per 100 Lb. gain have ranged from a low of $10.81 for 3 pounds each of oats and barley to a high of $11.85 for 2 pounds each of oats, barley and beet pulp. The experiment is being run a third time in 1961-62. Results for the first two winters are summarized in Table 7.



Table 7. Comparing Oats, Barley, Beet Pulp for Wintering Calves
Oats Barley Oats & Bly. Oats, Bly., &

Beet Pulp

59-60 60-61 59-60 60-61 59-60 60-61 59-60 60-61
No. Steers Per Lot 8 8 8 7 8 8 8 8
Initial Wt. 406 399 403 398 404 399 405 399
Final Wt. 758 785 756 759 796 784 764 805
Av. Daily Gain 1.99 2.10 2.00 1.96 2.21 2.09 2.03 2.20
Days on Feed 177 184 177 184 177 184 177 184
Av. Daily Ration:
Corn Silage 31 33 31 33 27 28 26 29
Alfalfa Hay 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Soybean Meal 1 1 1 1 .5 .5 .5 .5
Ground Oats 2.9 3 0 0 3 3 2 2
Ground Barley 0 0 2.9 3 3 3 2 2
Pelleted Beet Pulp 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:
Corn Silage 1568 1568 1562 1698 1223 1337 1279 1319
Alfalfa Hay 76 72 75 74 68 72 74 68
Soybean Meal 49 47 49 51 22 23 27 22
Ground Oats 148 142 0 0 135 140 96 89
Ground Barley 0 0 148 151 135 140 96 89
Pelleted Beet Pulp 0 0 0 0 0 0 96 89
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 10 10 10 10 9 9 10 9
Feed Cost Per 100 Lb. G $11.39 $11.16 $11.07 $11.67 $10.81 $11.50 $11.85 $11.41



BARLEY, STEAM ROLLED, DRY ROLLED, OR TEMPERED AND ROLLED

FOR YEARLING STEERS, WITH CORN SILAGE AND SUPPLEMENT



There has been much controversy over the relative merits of steam rolling, dry rolling, and rolling of tempered barley for beef cattle. All three methods of preparation are being used successfully by cattle feeders. Perhaps the know-how of the individual feeder is of greater importance than the method of feed preparation. Six lots, two on each type of feed, were fed for 114 days to compare the three methods of rolling barley. Steam rolling was by a commercial mill. Dry rolling was done at the farm, as was the rolling of tempered barley. In tempering, the barley was elevated to an overhead bin by a 4-inch auger into which water was metered to bring the moisture content of the barley up to about 18 per cent at rolling time, 24 hours after mixing with water. This toughened the grain so that the dry roller did a better job of rolling than with dry grain. It was found that when the moisture content ran much above 20 per cent, grain stuck to the roller. Tempered and rolled barley lost most of the added moisture within a few days without causing heating or molding. Fresh feed was prepared about every week to ten days by each of the three methods. All cattle were sold on grade and yield at the close of the trial. The results are shown in Table 8.



Table 8. Steam Rolled, Dry Rolled, and Tempered Barley for Steers
Steam Rolled Dry Rolled Tempered
No. Steers 10 10 10
Initial Wt. May 4, 1961 787 788 788
Final Wt. Aug. 26, 1961 1060 1087 1068
Daily Gain 2.40 2.62 2.45
Daily Ration:
Corn Silage 38.2 41.1 40.2
Rolled Barley 9.4 9.4 9.4
Supplement 1.0 1.0 1.0
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:
Corn Silage 1591 1566 1639
Rolled Barley 390 359 382
Supplement 42 38 41
Feed Cost Per 100 Lb. Gain $13.45 $12.19 $12.88
Carcass Selling Price Per 100 $35.99 $36.12 $36.01
Grade (9=G 10=Ch.) 9.4 9.5 9.4
Dressing %, on home wt. 57.8% 58.2% 58.2%
Both dry-rolled and tempered-rolled barley priced at $31.00 ton; Steam Rolled @ $34.00 ton; Supplement at $52.00 ton; mixed as follows: 24% ground alf. hay, 15% wheat bran, 11% soybean meal, 9% steamed bonemeal, 6% salt, 5% feeding limestone. 800,000 units Vitamin A, 200,000 units Vitamin D


CORN SILAGE OR BEET PULP FOR STEERS



Two lots of 297-pound steer calves were fed ten months on ground barley, alfalfa hay, soybean meal, bonemeal and salt, vitamins A and D, and either pelleted beet pulp or corn silage. One steer in the beet pulp lot was a chronic bloater, yet after he was removed to a ration of corn silage, barley and supplements, the bloating stopped. The remaining steers in the beet pulp lot consistently outgained the silage-fed steers and returned about $5.00 per head more profit, but dressed about 2 per cent lower. Table 9 summarizes the trial.



Table 9. Corn Silage vs. Beet Pulp in Fattening Steer Calves, 1960-61
Lot 6

Beet Pulp & Barley

Lot 5

Silage & Barley

No. of Steers 6 7
Initial Wt. 291 297
Final Wt. 1003 901
Av. Daily Gain 2.39 2.03
Days on Feed 298 298
Feed Consumed Per Day:
Corn Silage 0 23.1
Beet Pulp 6.0 0
Ground Barley 6.7 6.5
Alfalfa Hay 1.4 1.6
Soymeal .90 .88
Bonemeal .11 .11
Trace Mineral Salt .04 .04
Vitamin A 5,000 5,000
Vitamin D 1,000 1,000
Feed Per 100 Gain:
Corn Silage --- 1141
Beet Pulp 252 ---
Ground Barley 280 321
Alfalfa Hay 57.5 78.0
Soymeal 37.6 43.2
Bonemeal 4.6 5.0
Trace Mineral Salt 1.6 2.0
Feed Cost Per 100 Lb. Gain $11.78 $11.94
Carcass Selling Price/100 $36.15 $36.03
Grade (9=G 10=C) 9.5 9.4
Dressing %, on home wt. 57.7% 59.8%
Return Above Feed Cost/hd., Figuring Steer Calves @ $26.20 $49.09 $44.20



HEIFERS FATTENED ON STEAM-ROLLED BARLEY,

WITH & WITHOUT CORN SILAGE



Last year, we reported that heifers self-fed steam-rolled barley gained more (2.07 lbs. per day) than heifers receiving 4 or 10 pounds per day of crested wheatgrass hay, with steam-rolled barley (1.74 & 1.60 lbs.). Other work, the most recent being that in the November-December, 1961 issue of 'North Dakota Farm Research' from the State University in Fargo, has indicated that a small amount of roughage with heavy barley feeding may give better results than no roughage. This report concerns three lots of heifer calves fed for nine months on steam-rolled barley, steam-rolled barley plus 7 pounds of corn silage, and steam-rolled barley plus 13 pounds of corn silage. Table 10 shows the results.



Table 10. Heifers Fattened On Steam-Rolled Barley, With and Without Silage
Lot 1

Hand Fed

Lot 2

Hand Fed

Lot 3

Self Fed

No. of Heifers 9 9 9
Initial Wt. 294 295 295
Final Wt. 789 823 801
Av. Daily Gain 1.83 1.96 1.87
Days on Feed 270 270 270
Av. Daily Ration:
Corn Silage 13.4 7.1 0
Alfalfa Hay 1.3 1.3 0
Steam-Rolled Barley 8.2 10.5 12.7
Supplement .87 .93 .93
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:
Corn Silage 729 362 0
Alfalfa Hay 68 64 11 (grass hay)
Steam-Rolled Barley 446 540 677
Supplement 47 47 50
Feed Cost/100 lb. Gain $12.53 $12.76 $13.39
Carcass Selling Price/100 $34.65 $34.95 $34.95
Grade (9=G 10=Ch) 9.7 9.9 9.9
Dressing %, on home wt. 57.0% 58.3% 60.1%
Return Above Feed Cost/Hd.

(Calves @ $23.65)

$24.27 $30.55 $30.73



Although the self-fed heifers (Lot 3) returned as much profit as the hand-fed heifers with limited roughage (Lot 2), there were several stiff animals in Lot 3 which would have sold lower under some market conditions.



CRACKED WHEAT VS. STEAM-ROLLED BARLEY FOR FATTENING STEERS



Cracked wheat is sometimes available at elevators and seed houses as a by-product of the cleaning process. The price is usually competitive with other feed grain prices, and the cracked wheat is often used in swine and poultry rations. Since there is little information available as to the value of cracked wheat in beef cattle rations, it was decided to run a test comparing it with steam-rolled barley. It should be recognized that the usual recommendation is to mix wheat with about equal parts of another grain in feeding cattle. No difficulty was experienced in keeping cattle on feed in this trial, probably because corn silage made up about 40 per cent of the dry matter in the ration. It was observed that the cattle did not appear to like wheat as well as rolled barley. The wheat lot always required more time to clean up their grain than the barley lot. The cracked wheat was dry-rolled to insure uniform small particle size. The wheat contained a noticeable amount of small black weeds seeds, mostly wild buckwheat and mustard, but the heifers rook this mixture as readily as they took clean cracked wheat, which was fed several times as a check on their appetite. Table 11 summarizes this trial. Cracked wheat was priced at $30.00 per ton.



Table 11. Cracked Wheat vs. Steam-Rolled Barley for Yearling Heifers
Cracked Wheat

Dry Rolled

Steam-Rolled Bly.
Initial Wt. 474 474
Final Wt. 828 845
Average Daily Gain 2.02 2.12
Average Ration:
Cracked Wheat 8.34 ---
Steam-Rolled Barley --- 8.37
Corn Silage 23.6 26.3
Protein Supplement 1.0 1.0
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:
Cracked Wheat 412 ---
Steam-Rolled Barley --- 395
Corn Silage 1166 1243
Protein Supplement 49 47
Feed Cost/100 Lb. G $11.86 $12.41
Selling Price/100 lb. $21.30 $22.40
Return Above Feed/Hd.

(Yearlings @ $23.00)

$25.36 $34.22



GRAIN FOR STEERS ON GOOD SPRING PASTURE



A preliminary trial in the spring of 1959 showed little additional gain on yearling steers which were fed 4 pounds of ground barley and oats while grazing good crested wheatgrass and alfalfa pasture. Average daily gains for 66 days of grazing were 3.06 pounds with grain, and 2.95 pounds without grain. In 1960, steers receiving 4 pounds per day of ground barley on grass averaged 2.73 pounds gain, while unsupplemented grass produced 2.17 pounds gain. Again, in 1961, 4 pounds of ground barley on grass produced 2.57 pounds daily gain, while grass alone produced only 2.13 pounds daily gain. The steers used in 1959 were reallotted after spring grazing for another experiment. All steers used in this grazing trial during 1960 and 1961 were placed in dry lot for immediate finishing. Table 12 shows how the steers performed on grass and in dry lot, and includes a third lot of similar steers which were kept in dry lot the entire summer of 1961 for comparison:



Table 12. Spring Grazing, With & Without Grain, Followed by Dry-Lot Feeding
4 Lb. Bly. On Grass Grass Alone Dry Lot
1960 1961 1960 1961 1961
No. Steers 6 6 6 6 6
Wt. to Grass, 5/2/60, 5/4/61 478 486 477 487 486
Wt. off Grass, 7/14/60, 7/10/61 677 658 635 629 662
Av. Daily Gain on Grass 2.73 2.57 2.17 2.13 2.63
Initial Wt., Dry Lot 677 658 635 629 662
Final Wt. 952 884 927 856 850
Av. Daily Gain, Dry Lot 1.79 2.09 1.89 2.10 1.74
Av. Daily Gain, all summer 2.09 2.27 1.98 2.11 2.08
Av. Daily Ration, Dry Lot:
Days in Dry Lot 154 108 154 108 175
Corn Silage 41 44 41 44 37
Ground Barley 4 4 3.9 4 4
Alfalfa Hay 1.9 2.5 1.9 2.5 2.5
Soybean Meal 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2
Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:
Corn Silage 2306 2105 2149 2088 1759
Ground Barley 222 191 205 192 192
Alfalfa Hay 105 120 99 119 120
Soybean Meal 83 72 77 72 72
Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1 11 10 10 10 10
Feed Cost/100 Lb. Gain, Dry lot $16.58 $15.02 $15.41 $14.96 $13.79
Cost/100 Lb. Inc. Grazing 11.37 10.39 10.81 10.09 13.79
Selling Price/100 Lb. 25.10 22.50 24.75 22.40 22.70
Return/Hd., Yearlings @ 25 65.56 36.05 61.53 32.76 21.25
Value of crested wheatgrass and Alfalfa Pasture Per Steer/Acre $19.00 $16.27


STILBESTROL IMPLANTS



Stilbestrol implants have consistently given increased gains in steers at the Dickinson Experiment Station. Steer calves were implanted with 0, 12, or 24 mg. pellets at weaning time for four consecutive winters. The rations fed were all based on a heavy allowance of corn silage and 3 to 6 pounds of grain, plus a protein supplement, bonemeal and salt. Since the treatments were across lots, only rate of gain data could be secured. Response to the implants in the four winters was as follows:



Table 13. Stilbestrol Implants for Steer Calves on Wintering Rations
Implanted 12 mg. Implanted 24 mg. Not Implanted
1959-60 1960-61 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61
No. Steers 12 11 7 7 12 12 7 7 8 8
Initial Wt. 401 399 396 451 406 400 397 451 407 399
Final Wt. 777 777 747 799 777 810 701 788 744 756
Av. Daily Gain 2.12 2.06 1.97 1.81 2.09 2.23 1.71 1.75 1.91 1.94
Days on Feed 177 184 177 192 177 184 177 192 177 184


Two lots of yearling heifers were implanted across lot lines in the spring of 1961. The heifers were full-fed corn silage and grain with supplement for 175 days with the following results:



Table 14. Stilbestrol Implants for Yearling Steers
12 mg. Implants No Implants
No. Heifers 8 4
Initial Wt. 474 474
Final Wt. 853 805
Av. Daily Gain 2.16 1.89
Days on Feed 175 175


EARLY SPRING GRAZING



Yearling steers have been grazed on crested wheatgrass pastures, and on crested wheatgrass and alfalfa pastures for seven consecutive years. All pastures have been used heavily for about two months in the spring only. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied to one crested wheatgrass pasture at the rate of 50 Lb. N. per acre for three years. For a complete report on this experiment, including forage yield and consumption, see Dr. Warren Whitman's section of this report. A summary of animal gains only is given in Table 15.



Table 15. Steer Gains, Early Spring Pasture, 8-Acre Plots
Year No.

Hd.

Date

In

Wt.

In

Date

off

Wt.

Off

Daily Gain Gain

Per

Acre

Crested Wht-grass 1955 7 May 4 494 July 5 568 1.44 64
Crested Wht-grass 1956 6 May 17 520 June 30 601 1.79 60
Crested Wht-grass 1957 6 May 4 478 July 3 622 2.44 108
Crested Wht-grass 1958 6 April 29 553 June 30 680 2.02 95
Crested Wht-grass + N. 1959 6 May 8 528 June 29 661 2.50 99
Crested Wht-grass 1959 6 May 8 529 June 29 671 2.67 106
Crested Wht-grass + N. 1960 8 May 2 521 June 29 686 2.27 166
Crested Wht-grass 1960 6 May 2 523 June 29 658 1.86 102
Crested Wht-grass + N. 1961 8 May 4 516 June 21 623 2.23 107
Crested Wht-grass 1961 6 May 4 525 June 21 636 2.31 83
7-Yr. Av. Without N. 6 517 634 2.08 88
3-Yr. Av. With N. 7 521 656 2.32 124
Crested & Alfalfa 1955 7 May 4 494 July 5 600 2.07 92
Crested & Alfalfa 1956 8 May 17 520 June 30 616 2.14 96
Crested & Alfalfa 1957 9 May 4 498 July 3 639 2.36 158
Crested & Alfalfa 1958 8 April 29 550 June 30 683 2.11 133
Crested & Alfalfa 1959 8 May 8 523 June 29 636 2.13 113
Crested & Alfalfa 1960 8 May 2 521 July 14 658 1.88 138
Crested & Alfalfa 1961 8 May 4 515 June 21 608 1.95 94
7-Year Average 8 517 634 2.10 118



HOGS, 1960-61



The three growing-finishing rations used in pig feeding experiments of 1960 and 1961 were mixed as follows:



Soybean Meal Buttermilk &

Soybean Meal

DES Supplement
Ground Barley 1240 1240 1260
Ground Oats 620 620 640
Soybean Meal 100 60 0
Dry Buttermilk 0 60 0
Steamed Bonemeal 30 30 20
Trace Mineral Salt 10 10 10
Dry Blood Meal 0 0 30
Meat & Bonemeal 0 0 30
Ground limestone 0 0 8
A & B Vitamins 0 0 3 1/4



The soybean meal ration was compared with the buttermilk and soybean meal ration on pigs started at 27 pound body weight in the summer of 1960. The latter ration gave faster and cheaper gains than the former (1.18 and .95 pounds daily gain , $8.52 and $8.98 per 100 pounds gain). The same two rations fed to pigs at 56 pounds initial weight showed less difference in gains and costs. The buttermilk and soy combination gave daily gains of 1.39 pounds at a cost of $9.08 per 100 pounds. The soybean meal alone produced gains of 1.23 pounds per day of $8.91.



In our opinion, the simple soymeal ration was satisfactory when pigs were placed on feed at 56 pounds, but when starting 27 pounds pigs, the combination soymeal and buttermilk was superior.



In the fall of 1960, six lots of pigs were started on the three rations listed above. The three rations were fed as pellets in the summer of 1960, but as meal in the winter of 1960-61. Winter feeding results are tabulated in Table 16.



Table 16. Growing-Finishing Fall Pigs, 1960-61
Soybean Meal Buttermilk &

Soybean Meal

DES Supp.
Lot 3 Lot 4 Lot 5 Lot 6 Lot 1 Lot 2
No. Pigs 5 5 4 5 11 5
Initial Wt. 58.0 58.0 57.5 58.0 27.1 58
Final Wt. 185.6 184.2 182.8 190.6 189.4 187.2
Av. Daily Gain 1.25 1.24 1.23 1.30 1.17 1.27
Days on Feed 102 102 102 102 139 102
Feed Per 100 Gain 453 454 457 503 402 503
Feed Cost Per 100 G. $8.20 $8.22 $9.05 $9.96 $7.60 $9.51



In this winter feeding trial, no significant difference between the three rations was evident, except in feed efficiency. The light-weight pigs of Lot 1 were a little more efficient as might be expected. Lots 2 and 6 were low in efficiency, possibly because of waste at the feeder.



SUMMER 1961 HOG FEEDING TRIALS



The Dickinson Experiment Station ration (D.E.S. Sup.) listed above was fed to pigs of 10 lots in the summer of 1961. Concrete dry lot was compared with winter wheat pasture (spring seeded), and two additives were tested, Copper Sulfate and Zinc Bacitracin. All feeders were pelleted and all lots were started on feed May 22. first, in Table 17, we will consider the lots on winter wheat pasture, with and without growth booster additives, CuSO4 and Zn Bacitracin with Penicillin.





Table 17. Growth Boosters, CuSO4 and Zn. Bacitracin in the DES Pig Ration
Lot 2 Lot 3 Lot 4 Lot 5 Lot 6
Check

DES

7.5 gms. Zn. Bac.

2.5 gms. Penicillin Per Ton

2 Lb. Cu SO4

Per Ton

Same As

Lot 3

Same As

Lot 4

Initial Wt. 35 35 35 25 25
Final Wt. 197 152 185 165 170
Av. Daily Gain 1.35 .98 1.25 1.17 1.21
Days on Feed 120 120 120 120 120
Feed/100 Lb. Gain 345 367 343 340 338
Feed Cost/100 Lb. G. $8.07 $8.77 $8.27 $8.13 $8.15



Neither Copper Sulfate nor Zinc Bacitracin and Penicillin appeared to have a beneficial effect upon rate or efficiency of gains in this trial. About 25 per cent of the pigs in the above five lots were found to be affected with Rhinitis; therefore, the trial was closed prematurely to clean up this disease.



At the DES Station other spring pigs were finished in concrete floored pens using the DES ration, DES with Zn. Bacitracin and Penicillin, and the Dry Buttermilk and Soymeal ration listed on the preceding page. Table 18 summarizes this series of trials:



Table 18. Three Rations on Concrete for 2 Weights of Feeder Pigs
Lot 1-C Lot 2-C Lot 3-C Lot 4-C Lot 5-C Lot 6-C
DES B Milk

& Soy

DES &

Zn. Bac.

DES B Milk

& Soy

DES &

Zn. Bac.

Initial Wt. 54 54 52 35 35 34
Final Wt. 172 176 167 159 158 190
Av. Daily Gain 1.28 1.33 1.25 1.03 1.03 1.30
Days on Feed 92 92 92 120 120 120
Feed/100 Lb. Gain 380 359 372 387 360 358
Feed Cost/100 Lb. G. $8.89 $8.83 $8.89 $9.06 $8.86 $8.56



The large (54 Lb.) pigs performed about the same on all three rations in this set of concrete floored pens. The lighter (34 Lb.) pigs gained slower than the larger pigs on the DES and Buttermilk & Soy rations, but gained as well as the larger pigs (1.30 Lb. per day for lites, compared 1.28, 1.33 & 1.25 for heavies) on the ration supplemented with Zinc Bacitracin and Penicillin.



1961 POULTRY FLOCK



The usual 500 day-old white Plymouth Rock chicks were picked up at the Blue Ribbon Hatchery in Mandan, March 30, 1961. They were brooded under two electric brooders in a brooder house that was heated by an oil heater. For three weeks, a commercial starter krumlet was fed, 500 pounds in all; then one ton of custom-made grower pellets was fed. Pullets were moved to an open front range shelter at seven weeks. As the pelleting mill was destroyed by fire, the cockerels were finished on grower mash, home mixed.



The cockerels were sold at twelve weeks of age, averaging more than four pounds per head. No sickness was seen in the flock at any time and mortality was about three per cent. For the first time in several years of straight-run chick raising, pullets outnumbered cockerels. There were only 190 cockerels in 500 chicks.



About 250 of the best pullets were moved from the range house to the laying house September 19. The laying house was remodeled before the pullets were housed.



The month by month laying record for pullets housed August 23, 1960, was as follows:



September 41.6%
October 59.7%
November 59.5%
December 45.8%
January 35.8%
February 24.6%
March 42.4%
April 44.8%
May 48.1%
June 46.7%
July 41.2%
August 38.0%


PUBLIC MEETINGS, 1961



Date Meeting and Subject Attendance
January 10-13 Annual Branch Station Conference, Fargo
January 14 Sidney Feeders Tour, Sidney, Montana 200
January 26 Hettinger County Cattle Feeders Tour, Mott 200
January 30-February 4 American Society of Range Management, Salt Lake City 875
February 7 Annual Sheep Day, Hettinger Experiment Station 225
February 9 Dunn County Feeder Tour and meeting, Killdeer 75
February 10 North Dakota State University Cattle Feeder's Day, Fargo
February 15 Golden Valley County Feeder Tour and meeting, Beach 100
February 16 Slope County Crops and Livestock Meeting, Amidon 70
February 25 McKenzie County Feeder Tour and meeting, Watford City 100
March 6-7 Valley City Winter Show, Valley City
March 13 Baron's Club, Dickinson, "Beef Production" 25
May 12 Dr. Whitman's Range Management Class visited Station 16
May 29 Farm Group from Wishek toured Station 30
July 10 Baron's Club, Dickinson, Picnic and tour 30
July 10 Prof. Murphy's Agriculture Class, 1 hour lecture 27
July 12 Annual Crops Day, Tour of Feed Lots 225
July 13-15 American Society of Range Management, Maple Creek, Sask. 70
July 19 Rotary Picnic and tour of Station 60
July 21 4-H District Livestock Judging Contest 70
August 14 Baron's Club toured cattle feed lots 15
September 2 Richardton 4-H Festival
September 12-15 National Barrow Show, Austin, Minnesota
October 7 Land Judging Contest, Dickinson 75
October 24 Rotary Farmer's Night, Dickinson 70
October 25 Morton Burleigh County Agricultural Improvement Association, Bismarck 40
December 6 Twelfth Annual Livestock Research Roundup 1350
December 21 Adams County Livestock Improvement Association, Hettinger 25

RADIO PROGRAMS, 1961



Date Subject
January 19, 1961 Barley, Supplements, and Rates of Feeding
February 9, 1961 Calf Feeding
March 2, 1961 Rolled Barley and Supplements for Cattle
March 23, 1961 Results of Winter-Feeding of Big Steers
April 13, 1961 Five Months' Progress Report on Feeding
May 4, 1961 Summer Feeding Trials Planned
June 1, 1961 Summer Cattle Feeding Progress
June 29, 1961 Creep Feeding Calves
July 27, 1961 Cattle Feeding Work in Progress
August 24, 1961 Sale of Finished Heifers, July 31
September 21, 1961 Recently Marketed Fat Steers
October 12, 1961 Value of Spring Pasture for Cattle
November 2, 1961 The Year's Cattle-Feeding Experiments
November 23, 1961 Abstracts of Research Roundup
December 14, 1961 Summary of 4-Years' Calf Wintering Trials


REPORT OF AGRONOMIC INVESTIGATIONS - 1961



BY THOMAS J. CONLON



THE SEASON OF 1961



The season of 1961 was characterized by below average precipitation and above average temperatures in May, June, July and August.



Above average precipitation in September of 3.05 inches raised the total annual precipitation figure to 13.90 inches which was still 1.60 inches below average for the year. The September precipitation was too late for any crop except pasture in 1961 but provided excellent conditions for fall seeding of winter grains.



Daily precipitation figures for 1961 are given in Table 1.



Table 2 summarizes the important climatic data.



Table 1. Daily Precipitation - 1961
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
1 T .11 0 0 0 .01 0 .02 .07 0 0 0
2 T .05 .03 .10 0 0 0 1.03 .53 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 T 0 0 0 0 .01 0 T 0
4 0 0 .02 .05 T 0 0 0 0 0 T 0
5 0 0 .03 .10 .37 0 T 0 T 0 0 0
6 0 0 T T .16 T T 0 0 0 0 .01
7 0 0 0 0 .09 0 T .06 0 0 0 0
8 0 0 0 0 .04 T 0 0 .02 .03 0 .02
9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .05
10 0 0 0 .03 .02 .12 .06 0 .33 0 0 0
11 0 0 T T 0 0 .11 .15 .22 0 0 0
12 0 T 0 0 .03 T 0 0 .47 .07 T 0
13 0 T .25 T 0 0 .56 0 .49 0 0 0
14 0 0 0 T 0 .67 0 0 .05 0 0 T
15 0 T 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
16 0 0 0 0 T 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
17 0 T .10 0 .37 0 T .01 0 0 0 0
18 T 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 T
19 0 T 0 0 .22 .15 0 .05 .29 0 0 T
20 T 0 0 .15 T 0 .05 0 .20 0 0 T
21 T 0 0 0 0 0 T T 0 T T 0
22 0 0 .02 0 0 0 0 0 .16 0 0 .03
23 0 .40 0 .90 0 0 T 0 0 0 T 0
24 0 .01 0 .50 .10 0 0 0 .17 0 0 0
25 0 0 T 0 0 0 T 0 0 .01 0 0
26 T .02 .05 .06 0 0 0 0 .03 0 T 0
27 0 0 T T 0 0 .18 .30 .01 0 0 0
28 0 0 T T .04 0 .02 .06 0 0 0 0
29 T 0 0 0 .05 .17 0 0 0 0 0
30 .05 0 0 0 1.82 .43 0 0 0 0 T
31 0 0 0 .08 0 0 0
Sums .05 .59 .50 1.89 1.44 2.82 1.66 1.68 3.05 .11 T .11
Total Annual Precipitation - 13.90




Table 2. Climatic Data Summary - Dickinson Experiment Station - 1961
Climatic Data Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
Precipitation
1961 Monthly .05 .59 .50 1.89 1.44 2.82 1.66 1.68 3.05 .11 T .11 13.90
68-Year Average .44 .44 .74 1.24 2.20 3.50 2.17 1.78 1.19 .85 .55 .40 15.50
Mean Temperature - Degrees Fahrenheit
1961 37.0 52.5 68.3 70.1 72.6 51.2
68-Year Average 41.7 52.8 61.8 69.0 67.0 56.2
Wind Velocity - Miles Per Hour
1961 5.5 5.6 3.5 4.0 3.0 3.6
34-Year Average 6.7 6.7 5.6 4.7 4.9 5.2
Last Killing Frost in the Spring First Killing Frost in the Fall
1961 May 2 1961 September 15
55-Year Average May 18 55-Year Average September 17

Frost-Free Season

1961 136 days
55-Year Average 119 days





Table 3. Maximum Temperatures - Degrees F. - 1961
June July August
1. 70 88 84
2. 76 77 87
3. 69 81 90
4. 82 92 97
5. 86 86 93
6. 88 85 92
7. 88 87 94
8. 88 91 86
9. 91 92 90
10. 95 92 81
11. 88 91 68
12. 93 79 79
13. 89 68 96
14. 66 72 92
15. 70 76 95
16. 75 88 100
17. 83 93 95
18. 90 98 88
19. 86 79 81
20. 74 81 88
21. 84 78 89
22. 85 72 84
23. 71 80 92
24. 88 88 96
25. 83 96 94
26. 91 95 92
27. 97 75 79
28. 95 82 87
29. 99 93 90
30. 96 80 99
31. 80 83


CROP ROTATION AND TILLAGE STUDIES AT DICKINSON



In southwestern North Dakota, the tillage method and cropping history of the land during the previous year have a most important effect on crop production. Crop yields in this area are dependent upon the moisture provided by seasonal rainfall plus the moisture which is stored in the soil at seeding time, and any farming practice that will aid in holding and storing moisture in the soil, and which will make maximum use of that moisture for crop production is recommended practice for this area.



In recent years the recognition of the importance of the use of commercial fertilizer on some crops has resulted in the inclusion of several trial designed to study the effects of commercial fertilizer on crop production when used along with different crop rotation and tillage methods.



In these experiments, tillage in preparation for seeding usually is begun within two or three days of the earliest work on farms in the community. The average seeding date is about the middle of April. Average harvest time is the first week in August.



Grain yields in these experiments are no better than yields harvested on the better farms in the area, and for the most part reflect fairly well the annual yields for this area.



USE OF COMMERCIAL FERTILIZER IN A TWO-YEAR

CORN-WHEAT ROTATION



In 1955 a series of two-year corn-wheat rotations were planned to determine the effects of commercial fertilizer application on crop yields in such a rotation, and also, to determine the residual accumulation, if any of commercial fertilizer applied to the land annually. Soil tests made in 1955 indicated a need for drill application of 75 pounds of ammonium phosphate (11-48-0) on the wheat and 100 pounds of ammonium phosphate (8-32-0) on the corn in these trials.



In these trials fertilizer was applied to the wheat with a conventional fertilizer attachment to the grain drill. The first two years of the trial, 1955 and 1956, fertilizer was applied to the corn crop with a split boot applicator. In 1957, 1958, and 1959, an applicator which placed the fertilizer about two inches to the side and at the same level as the seed was used. The important point regarding both of these methods of fertilizing corn is that the fertilizer was placed at the same level or above the seed but neither device placed it below seed level. In 1960 we began work with a fertilizer attachment which places the fertilizer two inches to one side and two inches below the seed level.



Tables 4 and 5 give the 1961 yields from this trial. Tales 6 and 7 summarize results from this trial for the past seven years.



Table 4. Wheat Yields - Corn-Wheat Rotation Fertilizer Series - 1961
Wheat Yields On: Plot No. Yield-Bushels Per Acre
1 2 3 Average
DD Cornland, Fertilized 58 112 116 0.0 1.0 1.0 .67
DD Cornland, Corn Fertilized in 1960 54 110 114 0.0 1.5 1.8 1.1
DD Cornland, Check 56 108 118 0.0 1.9 1.0 1.0




Table 5. Silage Yields - Corn-Wheat Rotation Fertilizer Series - 1961
Corn Silage Yields On: Plot No. Green Weight in Tons/Acre @ 70% Moisture
1 2 3 Average
S. P. Wheat Stubble, fertilized 55 111 115 3.7 4.9 3.8 4.1
S. P. Wheat Stubble, fertilized in 1960 59 113 117 3.3 3.7 3.1 3.4
S. P. Wheat Stubble , Check 57 109 119 4.0 3.3 4.5 3.9




Table 6. Wheat Yields - Corn-Wheat Rotation Fertilizer Series - 1955 - 1961
Wheat Yields On: Yield-Bushels Per Acre
1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 Average
DD Cornland, fertilized 27.8 3.3 14.7 25.7 9.9 15.1 0.67 13.9
DD Cornland, corn fertilized previous year 25.5 3.1 12.3 25.6 7.7 14.1 1.1 12.7
DD Cornland, Check 17.2 2.7 10.4 24.1 9.7 11.1 1.0 10.9




Table 7. Silage Yields - Corn-Wheat Rotation Fertilizer Series - 1955 - 1961
Corn Silage Yields On: Yield in Tons Per Acre @ 70% Moisture
1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 Average
S. P. Wheat Stubble, Fertilized 2.98 3.14 8.50 1.80 1.42 1.81 4.10 3.39
S. P. Wheat Stubble, Fertilized previous year 2.96 3.49 9.30 2.30 1.34 2.17 3.40 3.57
S. P. Wheat Stubble, Fertilized 2.89 3.22 8.70 2.50 1.77 2.22 3.90 3.60




Table 8. Corn Silage Yields on Different Fertilizer Application Methods - 1960 - 1961
Treatment Yield in Tons Per Acre @ 70% Moisture
1 2 3 1960

Av.

1 2 3 1961

Av.

2-Yr.

Av.

Starter Application at Seeding of 100# 8-32-0 Per Acre 2.53 1.07 1.84 1.81 3.70 4.90 3.80 4.10 2.96
Broadcast and Plowdown 100# 8-32-0 Per Acre 1.57 1.57 1.60 1.58 2.67 2.72 3.57 2.99 2.29
Check 2.86 1.26 2.53 2.22 4.00 3.30 4.50 3.90 3.06



COMPARISON OF WHEAT YIELDS ON CONTINUOUS CROPPING,

CORNLAND AND FALLOW, FERTILIZED AND UNFERTILIZED



This trial was begun in 1959 to compare long time results from commercial fertilizer application on three different cropping systems.



The fertilizer requirements, determined by means of a soil test are: 25 pounds N and 36 pounds of P2O5 per acre on non-fallow land and 8 pounds N and 36 pounds P2O5 per acre on fallow land.



Yields in this trial for the three year period 1959 through 1961 are summarized in Table 9.



Table 9. Wheat Yields on Continuous Cropping, Cornland and Fallow, Fertilized and Unfertilized
Treatment 1961 Yield BPA 1960

Av.

1959

Av.

3-Year Average
1 2 3 Av. 1959-1961
S. P. Continuous 3.5 5.9 4.9 4.8 10.8 6.7 7.4
S. P. Continuous, fertilized 5.6 3.6 2.5 3.9 12.5 8.1 8.2
Fallow 5.6 6.3 6.7 6.2 15.3 11.1 10.9
Fallow, fertilized 7.4 7.4 9.4 8.1 22.0 12.9 14.3
Disked Cornland 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 10.6 7.3 6.0
Disked Cornland, fertilized 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 13.6 8.6 7.4



WHEAT-SORGHUM, WHEAT-CORN AND WHEAT-SUDAN

COMPARED IN TWO-YEAR ROTATION



Sorghum, sudan grass and corn are compared as silage crops in this trial. Grain sorghum is also included, and is harvested as silage and for grain in years when grain matures.



In 1960 the varieties planted were Reliance grain sorghum, Ranches forage sorghum, Piper sudan grass and Nodakhybrid 301 corn. In 1961 the same varieties were used except for the substitution of MS323 grain sorghum instead of Reliance.



Yields for 1960 and 1961 are given in Tables 10 and 11.



In a separate trial sorghum was seeded on July 5 on land that had earlier been seeded to sudan grass but which was considered to be a failure. This late seeding was also a failure, with only a very short growth resulting from this late seeding. The use of sorghum and sudan for late seeding is often promoted as an emergency crop to provide feed after failures have resulted from spring and early summer drought. These seedings are successful only if precipitation is adequate germination and growth during July. During this period rainfall in this area usually comes in the form of showers.



Table 10. Wheat-Sorghum, Wheat-Corn and Wheat-Sudan in Two-Year Rotation.
Treatment
Wheat after forage sorghum: Plot No. 60 90 92 121 Av. 1960 Yield 2-Year Av.
Wheat Yield-Bushels Per Acre 6.0 1.4 6.1 6.7 5.1 10.2 7.7
Wheat after corn: Plot No. 56 63 88 95
Wheat yield-bushels per acre 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 11.4 5.7
Wheat after grain sorghum See footnote1
Cultivated rows: Plot No. 23 25 27
Wheat yield-bushels per acre 1.2 1.0 1.6 1.3 11.4 6.4
Solid Drilled: Plot No. 22 24 26
Wheat yield-bushels per acre 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.1 13.2 7.2
Wheat after Sudan: Plot No. 2 4 120
Wheat yield-bushels per acre 1.0 1.0 6.4 2.8 8.3 5.6
1Solid drilled sorghum plots were a total failure in 1959 and were plowed in July. Grain yields in 1960 reflect the effect of this midsummer tillage.




Table 11. Wheat-Sorghum, Wheat-Corn and Wheat-Sudan in Two-Year Rotation
Treatment
Forage sorghum after wheat: Plot No. 61 91 93 122 Av. 1960 Av. 2-Yr.

Av.

Silage Yield-Tons/Acre @ 70% moisture 2.58 .54 2.40 .48 1.50 2.49 2.00
Corn after wheat: Plot No. 57 62 89 94
Silage Yield-Tons/Acre W 70% moisture 3.96 4.26 3.90 4.95 4.27 1.98 3.13
Grain sorghum after wheat:
Cultivated Rows Plot No. 28 30 32
Silage Yield-Tons/Acre @ 70% moisture .42 .41 .15 .33 1.71 1.02
Grain Yield - Lbs. Per Acre 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 260 130
Solid drilled: Plot No. 29 31 33
Silage Yield-Tons/Acre @ 70% moisture 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Sudan after Wheat: Plot No. 1 3 5
Silage Yield- Tons/Acre @ 70% moisture .85 .53 .44 .61 2.39 1.50



SORGHUM ALMUM



This crop was included in the Dickinson trials for the first time in 1960. The trial includes seedings in cultivated rows and in solid drilled planting with a conventional 6 x 14 press drill.



The solid drilled planting was a total failure in both 1960 and 1961. Yields from the planting in cultivated rows are given in Table 12.



We experience the same difficulty in growing sorghum almum that we have in growing sorghum and sudan grass.



Table 12. Sorghum Almum Yields - 1960 1961
Treatment Average Yields-Tons/Acre @ 70% Moisture
Silage Yields on Spring Plowed Wheat Stubble 1961 1960 2-Yr. Av.
.54 1.61 1.08


DIFFERENT METHODS OF PLANTING CORN



This trial is designed to compare 38-inch row spacing, 42-inch row spacing and 42-inch wheel track planting of corn.



Results from this trial for the past three years are summarized in Table 13. Present plans are to continue this trial for at least another five years.



Table 13. Yields from Three Methods of Planting Corn
Corn Silage Yields On: Yield-Tons Per Acre @ 70% Moisture
1 2 3 Av. 1960

Av.

1959

Av.

3-Yr.

Av.

38-Inch Spacing 2.77 2.57 3.60 2.98 1.57 1.98 2.18
42-Inch Spacing 2.45 2.75 4.02 3.07 1.98 1.62 2.22
42-inch Wheel Track Planting 2.18 2.97 2.81 2.65 1.71 1.26 1.87



YIELDS ON CONTINUOUSLY CROPPED LAND COMPARED

WITH YIELDS FROM ALTERNATE CROP AND FALLOW



The Continuously cropped series of plots set up in 1908 have been continued without interruption for fifty-five years. Yields from this year's trial and average yields for the fifty-five year period, 1908-1961, are summarized in Table 14.



This experiment has shown spring plowing to be a better tillage method for this area than fall plowing. When spring plowing is practiced, the grain stubble is left standing during the winter months to catch and hold snow which helps provide moisture for germination and early growth of the crop in the spring. This is perhaps one of the biggest reasons for differences in production from these two tillage methods.



Local spots of gumbo or heavy clay soil and small areas of river bottom land that dry out slowly in the spring are the exceptions that may require fall plowing in western North Dakota.



At the present time, continuous cropping of small grain is neither recommended or practiced to any extent in this area. Alternate cropping and fallow is a common practice over much of the region, but in the past few years this practice has been replaced by many farmers with a corn-grain rotation which is a more productive cropping sequence if the corn crop is utilized as silage.



Table 14. Small Grain Yields on Continuous Cropping - 1961
Crop Spring Plowed Fall Plowed Alternate Fallow
1961 55-Year

Av.

1961 55-Year

Av.

1961 55-Year

Av.

Wheat 2.5 11.2 0.0 10.2 5.9 18.5
Oats 4.1 25.7 1.5 23.4 14.7 43.1
Barley 0.0 16.7 0.0 15.3 4.9 23.7



YIELDS OF CORN ON CONTINUOUS CROPPING



Table 15 summarizes the data on the continuous corn experiment for the fifty-five year period, 1908-1961.



Table 15. Corn Yields on Continuous Cropping
Corn Silage Yields On: Yield in Tons/Acre @ 70% Moisture
1961 55-Year Average

1908 - 1961

Spring Plowing 3.60 3.14
Fall plowing 2.00 3.05
Alternate Fallow 6.35 3.63
Corn Grain Yields On: Yield in Bushels of Shelled Corn Per Acre
52-Year Average

1908 - 1959

Spring Plowing 18.1
Fall Plowing 18.0
Alternate Fallow 21.9









SPRING MOISTURE AND YIELDS ON STANDING STUBBLE VS. SPRING

MOISTURE AND YIELDS ON STUBBLE LAND TILLED IN THE FALL



Crops in western North Dakota depend upon the moisture provided by seasonal rainfall plus the moisture stored in the soil at seeding time. It is important that we use only those tillage practices that will conserve soil moisture.



Fall tillage of stubble land is not an uncommon practice in western North Dakota. Except for minor localized spots of heavy clay and gumbo soils, fall tillage probably is unnecessary. In fact, in some years fall tillage may be detrimental to yields of small grain the following season.



This trial, begun in the fall of 1957, compares soil moisture at seeding time and yields of wheat stubble land: Where the stubble is not tilled in the fall, where the stubble is tilled with the one-way disk in the fall, and, where the stubble is tilled with wide sweeps in the fall.



Data from this trial for 1958 and 1959 crop seasons show no significant differences among these three treatments at the 5 per cent level of significance for soil moisture to a depth of 36 inches at seeding time or for yield of wheat for either year. In 1960, however, there was a significant difference of 4.5 bushels of wheat per acre in favor of standing stubble compared with one-way disked stubble and 3.3 bushels of wheat per acre in favor of standing stubble compared with stubble tilled in the fall with wide sweeps. In 1961, the difference in yield was 6.3 bushels per acre more on standing stubble compared with one-way disked stubble and 1.9 bushels per acre more on standing stubble when compared with yields on stubble tilled in the fall with wide sweeps.



Yields from this trial for 1960-61 are given in Table 16. Moisture determinations are summarized in Table 17.



Table 16. Wheat Yields on Fall Tillage Trial - 1961
Treatment Yield-Bushels Per Acre 1960

Yield

Av.

1960-61

1 2 3 4 Av.
Standing Stubble 7.2 8.4 4.5 5.3 6.3 12.7 9.5
Wide Blade 3.5 6.1 2.9 4.9 4.4 9.4 6.9
One-Way Disk 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.1 4.1











Table 17. Percent Moisture at Seeding on Fall Tillage Trial - 1961
Treatment Depth of Moisture Sample
0-6" 6"-12" 12"-18" 18"-24" 24"30" 30"-36"
Standing Stubble 15.0 13.2 8.9 8.9 8.5 5.9
Wide Blade 14.6 10.5 7.7 8.9 7.6 9.5
One-Way Disk 9.4 9.4 7.2 7.0 8.3 7.2


EXPERIMENTS WITH CORN - 1961



The corn silage production trial and a corn maturity rating trial were conducted at the Dickinson Experiment Station again this year in addition to the corn work included in the rotation, tillage and fertilizer trials which are summarized under the rotation and tillage sections of this report.



Data from the corn silage production trial are given in Tables 18 and 19. The corn maturity trial for 1960 is summarized in Table 20.

Table 18. Corn Silage Production Trial - 1961
Description Yield-Tons/Acre @ 70% Moisture
1 2 3 Av.
Nodak 301 3.4 1.5 2.3 2.4
Mandan Rainbow flint 5.3 1.5 3.3 3.4
Falconer 5.8 1.6 2.7 3.4
Morden 77 7.1 2.4 2.1 3.9
Kingscrost KF 4.6 2.9 2.3 3.3
Nodak 306 4.9 2.4 2.4 3.2
AES 101 2.7 1.7 1.7 2.0
Kingscrost KC3 3.9 2.9 2.3 3.0
Nodak 307 2.8 2.3 3.0 2.7
Nodak 403 3.2 2.3 3.1 2.9
Trojan B42 3.1 2.0 2.8 2.6
Trojan C-55 2.4 1.9 2.9 2.4
UM 164 2.5 2.6 3.0 2.7
Trojan D62 3.3 1.9 3.5 2.9
Jacques 820 3.5 2.0 3.5 3.0
Jacques 850 1.9 2.5 2.9 2.4
Nodak Multicross 85 3.1 3.1 4.2 3.5
Pfister 26 5.6 2.7 3.3 3.9
Pfister 28 5.3 1.9 3.2 3.5
Pfister 32 5.3 2.2 2.8 3.4
Pfister Dwarf 2.1 2.8 1.7 2.2
Jacques Sib bred 1 E 1.8 4.4 2.4 2.9




Table 19. Corn Silage Production Trial - 1954 - 1961
Description Yield in Tons Per Acre1 8-Year Av. 4-Year Av.
1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961
Nodak 301 6.9 4.8 4.3 5.2 3.4 1.9 2.7 2.4 4.0 2.6
Rainbow flint 6.5 5.0 4.9 6.9 3.7 2.8 3.1 3.4 4.5 3.0
Falconer 6.4 4.9 4.4 6.0 4.4 2.3 2.9 3.4 4.3 3.3
Morden 77 4.3 4.5 5.1 3.8 3.7 2.5 3.3 3.9 3.9 3.4
Kingscrost KF 8.6 5.6 4.8 6.1 3.9 2.5 3.4 3.3 4.8 3.3
Nodak 306 --- 5.1 5.3 4.8 3.3 2.5 3.0 3.2 --- 3.0
AES - 101 --- --- 4.8 4.2 3.9 2.6 3.5 2.0 --- 3.0
Kingscrost KC3 --- --- 5.3 6.8 3.9 3.0 3.3 3.0 --- 3.3
Nodak 307 --- --- --- 4.3 5.3 2.2 3.3 2.7 --- 3.4
Nodak 403 --- --- --- 5.9 4.3 2.5 2.9 2.9 --- 3.2
U. M. 164 --- --- --- --- 4.4 2.7 4.2 2.7 --- 3.5
Jacques 820 --- --- --- --- --- 2.0 2.4 3.0 --- ---
Pfister 26 --- --- --- --- --- --- 4.0 3.9 --- ---
Pfister 28 --- --- --- --- --- --- 3.9 3.5 --- ---
1Yields through 1958 on green weight basis. From 1959 on 70% moisture basis.




Table 20. Corn Maturity Yield Trial - 1961
Relative maturity and Description Yield- Tons/Acre @ 70% Moisture %

Moisture

At Harvest

1 2 3 Av. % Protein
Kingscrost KF1 80 day 3.0 2.8 3.3 3.0 3.40 77.2
Jacques 850 85 day 3.2 2.5 3.9 3.2 3.80 77.7
Trojan D62 90 day 3.5 2.8 4.7 3.7 2.70 75.4
Pfister 28 95 day 3.0 2.8 3.3 3.0 3.30 79.3
Pfister 32 100 day 4.4 3.2 4.0 3.9 3.50 74.6
Pfister 43 105 day 3.7 3.5 4.9 4.0 3.70 77.8
Pfister 44 110 day 2.5 3.7 4.6 3.6 3.50 80.8
Pfister Dw. 115 day 2.1 3.2 3.7 3.0 4.40 78.0
Pfister 323 120 day 2.8 4.6 4.7 4.0 2.90 78.8



EXPERIMENTS WITH BARLEY - 1961



Experiments with barley in 1961 included the varietal field plot trials, the Great Plains nursery planting and a special nursery of material furnished by Dr. Glenn S. Peterson, North Dakota State University.



FIELD PLOT TRIALS



Betzes, highest yielding variety in this year's trial produced only 16.3 bushels per acre on fertilized summer fallow. These are the lowest barley yields recorded from this trial since 1949.



Data from the field plot trials are summarized in Tables 21 and 22.



NURSERY TRIALS



Results from the 1961 Great Plains nursery planting are given in Table 23.



Material grown in the special nursery for Dr. Peterson was harvested and forwarded to him.









Table 21. Agronomic data from the Barley Variety Trial - 1961
Description Yield in Bushels Per Acre Test

Wt.

Dates Height

Inches

1 2 3 Av. Head Ripe
Kindred 8.3 8.3 12.9 9.8 48.5 6-20 7-20 19
Titan 8.0 9.4 12.4 9.9 48.0 26 22 17
Traill 6.9 10.7 13.2 10.3 48.0 26 24 17
Parkland 6.9 10.5 11.8 9.7 48.5 26 25 19
Tregal 8.5 11.8 14.0 11.4 48.5 26 24 16
Vantage 9.4 9.1 10.7 9.7 47.0 26 25 17
Swan 6.1 5.5 6.9 6.2 46.5 25 26 16
York 8.3 9.6 11.3 9.7 48.0 20 18 19
Sioux 5.5 7.7 11.0 8.1 48.0 28 24 16
Trophy 8.3 11.0 13.8 11.0 48.0 26 22 14
Larker 10.2 12.4 15.7 12.8 48.5 24 22 18
B 113 9.9 7.4 14.9 10.7 45.0 19 17 18
Husky 8.5 7.4 14.9 10.3 50.0 24 24 15
Betzes 13.8 12.7 22.3 16.3 48.0 25 24 15
Unitan 14.9 8.5 14.3 12.6 45.0 21 18 18
Herta 5.5 6.6 9.1 7.1 48.5 25 25 17
Jubilee 6.9 8.5 9.6 8.3 48.0 28 28 14
Keystone 14.0 11.8 16.5 14.1 45.5 22 24 17
Std. error % 16.4 LSD @ 5% 2.8 bu.; Seeded April 19, 1961 on summerfallow; Fertilized at 86 pounds per acre with 11-48-0













Table 22. Comparative Yields - Barley Variety Trial - 1961
Description Yield in Bushels Per Acre Averages Av.

Test

Wt.

1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 '56-'61 '57-'61 '56-'61
Titan 21.5 59.0 66.2 35.9 39.4 9.9 38.7 42.1 46.0
Kindred 16.4 30.3 33.7 22.8 43.6 9.8 26.1 28.0 47.6
Traill 21.2 48.8 62.4 31.2 53.6 10.3 37.9 41.3 48.1
Tregal 23.7 47.0 56.5 34.5 53.5 11.4 37.8 40.6 48.0
Husky 26.4 56.6 60.2 29.6 42.6 10.3 37.6 39.9 47.2
Vantage 24.6 55.4 63.4 27.8 42.7 9.7 37.3 39.8 46.6
Parkland 18.5 43.5 52.8 25.6 50.2 9.7 33.4 36.4 48.6
Betzes 53.3 65.3 31.7 56.0 16.3 44.5 48.9
Trophy 11.0
Larker 12.8





Table 23. Agronomic data from the Uniform Great Plains Barley Nursery - 1961
Description C.I.

No.

Yield-Bu. Per Acre Test

Wt.

Dates Height Inches
1 2 3 Av. Head Ripe
Flynn 1 5911 10.8 12.3 17.3 13.5 43.5 6-27 7-18 16
Munsing 6009 13.0 13.8 16.3 14.4 50.5 19 14 16
Otis 7557 16.3 15.5 18.8 16.9 47.0 20 15 14
Hiland 9530 7.8 7.0 11.8 8.9 43.0 20 18 13
P.I. 168250 7837 12.8 11.0 15.8 13.2 48.0 20 15 14
Dekap 3351 11.5 8.3 15.5 11.8 49.0 25 15 14
Trebi x Spartan 10003 11.8 10.0 12.8 11.5 47.5 20 15 18
C.I. 7114 x Velvon II 10006 9.8 7.0 11.0 9.3 40.0 19 15 15
Korol 6300 11.3 12.8 11.8 12.0 49.0 24 17 14
Piroline 9558 7.3 10.8 8.3 8.8 47.0 24 18 13
Unitan 10421 2.5 5.0 9.8 5.8 47.0 24 18 11
Velvon II x Spartan 10422 4.0 13.0 7.8 8.3 47.5 24 18 13
Betzes 6398 12.5 16.3 14.3 14.4 49.4 24 18 15
Palliser 10860 13.0 18.3 15.0 15.4 44.5 24 18 18
36Ab 1991 x Titan 10639 7.5 17.8 9.0 11.4 46.5 24 18 10
Glacier x Compana 10861 7.8 16.8 10.8 11.8 43.5 25 18 12
Arivat x Afghanistan 10076 3.5 8.0 3.5 5.0 46.0 25 18 12
Seeded April 18, 1961



EXPERIMENTS WITH FLAX - 1961



Experiments with flax at the Dickinson Experiment Station in 1961 included a varietal field plot trial of six varieties seeded on summerfallow on May 8, and the Uniform early-sown flax nursery which was planted on April 20.



FIELD PLOT TRIALS



This year's flax variety trial was a total failure because of the drought.



Yields from the flax variety trial for the past ten years are given in Table 24.



NURSERY TRIALS



Very poor yields were harvested from the nursery planting this year because of the drought. The earlier seeding date of April 20 did not seem to make a difference in this year's production.



Yields from this year's flax nursery planting are given in Table 25.



Table 24. Comparative Yields -Flax Variety Trials - 1952-1961
Description 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961
Sheyenne 4.1 6.3 0 6.2 0 0 6.8 0 2.6 0
Marine 6.1 4.1 0 7.2 0 0 9.4 0 6.3 0
Linda 5.4 7.3 0 7.7 0 0 9.9 0 5.9 0
Bison 9.3 5.4 0 7.0 0 0 11.0 0 6.8 0
Redwood 4.8 3.2 0 6.2 0 0 9.0 0 7.1 0
B5128 5.7 5.0 0 5.6 0 0 8.5 0 7.9 0
Norland 6.1 0 0 8.1 0 7.5 0
Arny 8.1 0 7.3 0
Bolley 10.6 0 5.6 0




Table 25. Agronomic data from the Uniform Early-Sown Flax Nursery - 1961
Entry No. Name or Cross C.I. No. Yield-bu. Per Acre Test Wt. Ht.

Inches

Days From Sowing
1 2 3 Av.
1 Bison 389 1.1 .5 1.8 1.1 50.0 10 64
2 Redwing 320 .5 .5 1.5 .8 50.0 9 61
3 Redwood 1130 1.2 .5 1.0 .9 50.5 8 61
4 Marine 1135 1.0 .6 1.5 1.0 50.5 8 61
5 Redwood Sel. 1822 1.1 1.1 3.4 1.9 50.5 9 61
6 (Rnw x Bis) (Ko x Rwg) (Rwd 1823 1.2 1.8 1.5 1.5 51.0 13 61
7 Repit 117 x Redson 1825 1.0 1.6 1.2 1.3 51.0 10 54
8 Resel C. I. 1606 1914 1.3 2.1 1.7 1.7 50.0 10 61
9 Dak. x Cryst-B.S. 1915 1.0 1.9 1.3 1.4 49.5 13 61
10 Cryst x Rock (Cree) 1916 1.0 1.8 1.2 1.3 49.5 14 61
11 Rwd x (Val x Raja) 2264 .8 2.3 1.0 1.4 48.5 11 63
12 Redwood X4 2274 .5 2.2 .8 1.2 49.5 10 63
13 Marine X4 2275 .5 1.9 .7 1.0 49.0 10 63
14 B-5128 Sel N.D. 2 2278 2.6 .5 .5 1.2 48.5 13 64
15 B-5128 Sel N. D. 4 2279 .5 1.7 .6 .9 46.5 13 64
Seeded April 20, 1961



EXPERIMENTS WITH OATS - 1961



Experiments with oats at the Dickinson Experiment Station in 1961 included a field plot trial of 12 varieties, the North Central States Uniform Oat nursery planting and a special planting of 1958 Aberdeen selections.



FIELD PLOT TRIALS



Yields in the 1961 oat variety trial were the poorest harvested at the Dickinson Station since 1941 when yields of oats were reduced by a severe hail storm. Yields this year rank with the poor oat years of 1931, 1933, 1934, 1936 and 1937.



Data from the oat variety trials are summarized in Tables 26 and 27.



NURSERY TRIALS



Yields in the 1961 nursery plantings were the poorest recorded for many years because of the drought.



Data from this year's nursery plantings are given in Tables 28 and 29.



Table 26. Agronomic data from the Oats Variety Trial - 1961
Description Yield in Bushels Per Acre Test

Wt.

Dates Height Inches
1 2 3 Av. Head Ripe
Ransom 13.4 21.8 12.8 16.0 41.5 6-18 7-16 20
Minhafer 13.4 18.5 12.4 14.8 35.0 18 16 25
Clintland 60 14.8 16.9 13.4 15.0 33.5 19 17 23
Burnett 17.1 14.4 11.5 14.3 35.0 19 19 25
Marion 23.7 21.2 18.5 21.1 34.5 20 18 23
Ajax 23.7 23.3 23.3 23.4 33.0 25 21 23
Gopher 27.2 28.8 27.2 27.7 35.5 21 19 21
Sauk 24.3 29.9 27.2 27.1 36.0 25 22 23
Garry 11.1 25.5 20.6 19.1 30.0 25 26 21
Rodney 20.6 23.9 22.7 22.4 33.0 26 26 24
Nodaway 10.3 10.7 6.6 9.2 34.0 19 16 24
Vicar Hulles1 16.1 16.7 14.4 15.7 42.0 26 28 26
1Yields adjusted for 30% hull.















Table 27. Comparative Yields - Oat Variety Trial 1961
Description Yield in Bushels Per Acre Averages Av.

Test Wt.

1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 '56-'61 '58-'61 '58-'61
Ransom 25.2 55.6 63.8 34.2 49.3 16.0 40.7 40.8 37.0
Ajax 21.4 74.4 63.3 32.5 51.4 23.4 44.4 42.7 33.9
Gopher 21.4 75.9 80.4 35.9 59.5 27.7 50.1 50.9 35.0
Rodney 22.5 63.9 64.3 39.8 53.0 22.4 44.3 44.9 35.8
Garry 19.5 61.3 64.9 37.2 51.8 19.1 42.3 43.3 33.9
Marion 20.3 78.8 65.6 33.2 54.1 21.1 45.5 43.5 34.8
Sauk 23.0 77.0 68.5 38.1 58.8 27.1 48.8 48.1 34.1
Minhafer 63.4 63.6 26.8 40.5 14.6 36.4 36.1
Burnett 77.3 63.2 28.7 43.9 14.3 37.5 35.8
Vicar Hulless1 68.0 41.4 37.5 15.7 40.7 43.1
1 Yield adjusted for absence of hull. Estimated 30%; Average test weight is for 1958-1961



Table 28. North Central States Oat Nursery Yields - 1961
1961

Entry No.

Yield-Bushels Per Acre Dates Height Inches Test

Wt.

1 2 3 Av. 1st-Hd. Ripe
1 16.0 18.4 16.0 16.8+ 6-15 7-16 25 32.0
2 10.6 18.0 16.0 14.9+ 19 18 21 32.0
3 12.8 20.8 18.4 17.3+ 20 18 24 37.0
4 21.0 27.6 24.4 24.3+ 26 26 21 33.0
5 20.4 20.4 22.0 20.9+ 22 20 21 32.0
6 14.8 22.0 18.0 18.3+ 21 20 22 29.0
7 16.8 28.8 18.4 21.3+ 19 20 22 33.5
8 20.0 23.6 16.0 19.9+ 18 19 19 34.0
9 15.0 16.4 13.2 14.9+ 18 16 18 31.0
10 13.2 9.2 11.2 11.2+ 19 16 19 32.0
11 17.2 15.2 17.6 16.7+ 18 15 22 33.5
12 13.2 12.8 13.6 13.2+ 19 18 16 35.0
13 20.8 18.4 24.0 21.1+ 19 19 20 34.0
14 12.0 14.8 12.4 13.1+ 19 19 18 33.5
15 10.8 12.8 9.6 11.1+ 19 19 21 32.0
16 14.0 14.8 9.2 12.7+ 15 19 21 32.0
17 18.4 16.0 12.0 15.5+ 15 19 19 32.5
18 11.6 13.6 6.4 10.5+ 15 19 21 32.0
19 17.6 17.6 7.2 14.1+ 19 19 21 32.0
20 14.4 17.2 5.2 12.3+ 15 19 21 32.0
21 22.0 21.6 12.0 18.5+ 16 19 21 32.5
22 17.2 18.0 8.4 14.5+ 19 19 22 33.0
23 17.2 16.8 6.8 13.6+ 20 21 15 32.0
24 18.0 19.2 8.4 15.2+ 19 20 15 34.0
25 15.2 18.4 14.4 16.0+ 20 19 16 35.0
26 18.0 18.0 10.0 15.3+ 20 19 21 32.5
27 26.4 27.2 12.0 21.9+ 25 22 22 27.5
28 26.0 23.6 11.2 20.3+ 25 20 23 34.0
29 24.8 22.8 8.0 18.5+ 25 20 23 33.5
30 21.2 22.0 10.2 17.8+ 23 20 20 31.5
31 17.6 12.0 6.4 12.0+ 20 20 21 32.0
32 36.8 24.0 14.8 25.2+ 21 21 21 31.5
33 19.6 12.0 10.0 13.9+ 20 20 20 32.0
34 12.8 8.0 12.8 11.2+ 14 20 24 32.0
35 22.4 18.0 8.4 16.3+ 22 19 22 26.5
36 31.2 22.8 9.6 21.2+ 24 20 19 35.0
37 25.2 25.6 9.6 20.1+ 24 20 19 33.0
38 18.0 20.8 13.2 17.3+ 19 22 22 36.5
39 11.6 13.6 12.0 12.4+ 15 23 23 32.0
40 19.2 20.8 14.4 18.1+ 20 21 21 33.5
41 16.5 21.2 22.0 19.9+ 26 20 20 28.5
42 18.0 18.4 18.0 18.1+ 19 25 25 33.5
43 14.0 16.0 16.0 15.3+ 19 24 24 32.5
44 11.6 16.0 16.0 14.5+ 15 22 22 32.5
45 21.2 25.2 14.8 20.4+ 26 23 23 30.5
46 16.4 20.0 8.4 14.9+ 22 22 22 33.0
47 12.4 17.2 7.2 12.3+ 20 20 20 31.5
48 19.2 21.2 14.4 18.3+ 23 22 22 32.5
49 12.8 14.8 12.0 13.2+ 15 19 19 32.0
50 12.4 17.6 9.6 13.2+ 23 21 21 32.0





Description of Material Included in the 1961 North Central States Uniform Oat Performance Nursery
1961

Entry

No.

CI. No. Variety or Cross
1 7552 Ajax x Ransom
2 4170 Andrew: Bond x Rainbow (ck)
3 7669 (Beacon x Hawkeye-Victoria) x Rodney
4 7670 [(Beaver-Garry x Clinton) x Clintland] x Minor
5 7671 [(Beaver-Garry x Clinton) x Clintland] x Minor
6 7672 (Beaver-Garry x Clinton) x Waubay x [(Bonda x Hajira-Joanette) x Santa Fe]
7 7673 [(Bond-Rainbow x Hajira-Joanette) x Landhafer] x Andrew3
8 7674 [(Bond-Rainbow x Hajira-Joanette) x Landhafer] x Andrew3
9 7675 [(Bonda x Hajira-Joanette) x Santa Fe] x Marion x (Roxton-R.L. 1276 x Ajax-R.L. 1276)
10 7563 Bonham5 x (Cherokee2 x R.L. 2105)
11 7676 (Cherokee x Ark 674) x Newton
12 7677 Clintland x (Clinton2-Ark 674 x Milford)
13 7678 Clintland x (Garry x Hawkeye-Victoria)
14 7453 Clintland x (Garry x Hawkeye-Victoria)
15 7555 Clintland8 x [Victoria x (Hajira x Banner)] x (Victory x Hajira) x Roxton
16 7462 Clintland 602 x Mo. 0-205
17 7679 Clintland 602 x Mo. 0-205
18 7680 Clintland 602 x Mo. 0-205
19 7681 Clintland 602 x Mo. 0-205
20 7556 Clinton x Garry
21 7454 Clinton x [(Victoria x Hajira-Banner) x Victory]
22 4259 Clinton 59: D69 x Bond (ck)
23 7640 Clinton 59 x [(Hajira-Joanette x Bond-Rainbow) x Santa Fe] x Andrew-Landhafer
24 7463 Clinton 597-Landhafer x Milford
25 7461 Clinton 596-Landhafer x [(Victoria x Hajira-Banner) x (Victory-Hajira x Roxton)]
26 7269 Dodge: Clintland x (Garry x Hawkeye-Victoria)
27 6662 Garry: Victory x (Victoria x Hajira-Banner) (ck)
28 7472 [Garry x (Santa Fe x R.L. 1942)] x R.L. 2228
29 7473 [Garry x (Santa Fe x R.L. 1942)] x R.L. 2228
30 2027 Gopher: Sixty-Day Selection (ck)
31 7467 [Landhafer x (Mindo x Hajira-Joanette)] x Andrew x Clintland
32 7682 [Landhafer x (Mindo x Hajira-Joanette)] x Andrew2 x Rodney
33 7683 [Landhafer x (Mindo x Hajira-Joanette)] x Andrew x Clinton x Rodney
34 7685 Logan x (Beacon x Hawkeye-Victoria)
35 7684 Marne2 x [(Beaver-Garry x Clinton) x Clintland]
36 7680 Minor x [Beaver-Garry x Clinton) x Clintland]
37 7687 Minor x [Beaver-Garry x Clinton) x Clintland]
38 7560 Minton x (Beacon x Hawkeye-Victoria)
39 7466 Mo. o-205 x (Clinton 597-Landhafer)3 x [(Clinton x Boone-Cartier) x R.L. 2105]
40 7688 Newton x Garry
41 7528 Niagara: Garry x [(Goldwin x Victoria-Rainbow) x Branch]
42 7690 Putnam x [Landhafer x (Mindo x Hajira-Joanette)] x Andrew
43 7691 Putnam4 x [Landhafer x (Mindo x Hajira-Joanette)] x Andrew
44 7531 Putnam 61: Putnam4 x [Landhafer x (Mindo x Hajira-Joanette)] x Andrew
45 7561 Richland-Bond x (Garry x Hawkeye-Victoria)
46 7387 Rodney Selection
47 7464 [Roxton x (Victoria x Hajira-Banner)] x [Ajax x (Victoria x Hajira-Banner)] x (Clinton 597 x Landh)
48 7524 Tioga: Garry x Goldwin-Clinton
49 7448 [(Victoria x Hajira-Banner) x (Victory x Hajira-Ajax)] x Mo. 0-2052
50 7689 Waubay x [(Bonda x Hajira-Joanette) x Santa Fe]
R.L. 1276 = (Banner x Hajira) x Victoria

R.L. 1942 = [Victoria x (Hajira x Banner)] x Ajax

R.L. 2105 = [Victoria x (Hajira x Banner)] x (Victory x Hajira) x Roxton

R.L. 2228 = (Santa Fe x R.L. 1942) x Garry





Table 29. Coffmans 1958 Aberdeen Oat Selections - 1961
Entry

No.

Description C.I.

No.

Yield-Bushels Per Acre Test

Wt.

1 2 3 Av.
1 58 ab 2774 7589 14.5 16.0 15.0 15.2 25.0
2 58 ab 2776 7590 13.0 14.0 13.5 13.5 25.0
3 58 ab 2778 7592 17.5 20.0 11.5 16.3 24.0
4 58 ab 2779 7593 14.0 19.0 16.5 16.5 23.5
5 58 ab 2780 7571 11.0 16.0 16.5 14.5 23.0
6 58 ab 2781 7572 12.5 13.5 15.5 13.8 25.0
7 58 ab 2783 7574 14.0 14.5 19.5 16.0 24.5
8 58 ab 2785 7576 14.0 13.0 13.0 13.3 25.0
9 58 ab 2786 7577 18.0 15.0 19.0 17.3 25.5
10 58 ab 2787 7578 18.5 16.5 19.0 18.0 25.0
11 58 ab 2788 7579 16.0 15.5 19.0 16.8 25.5
12 58 ab 2789 7580 15.5 17.5 17.5 16.8 25.0
13 58 ab 2790 7581 24.5 9.0 18.0 17.2 25.5
14 Mo 0-205 10.5 7.5 11.5 9.7 25.0
15 Garry 9.5 17.5 16.0 14.3 25.0
16 Rodney 20.5 14.0 18.5 17.7 27.0
17 Gopher 10.0 14.5 14.0 12.8 25.0
18 Marion 11.0 13.5 10.0 11.5 25.0



EXPERIMENTS WITH WINTER RYE - 1961



Fairly good yields of winter rye were harvested in 1961 considering the droughty growing conditions. Elk was the poorest winter survivor and was disappointing in this respect.



Data on the winter rye variety trial are given in Tables 30 and 31.

Table 30. Agronomic data from the Rye Variety Trial - 1961
Description Yield-Bushels Per Acre Test

Wt.

Dates %

Stand

Height

Inches

1 2 3 Av. Head Ripe
Dakold 8.1 6.8 12.3 9.1 53.0 6-14 7-21 70 29
Antelope 6.8 10.4 10.8 9.3 53.0 15 24 70 29
Caribou 7.5 9.7 9.7 9.0 52.5 15 24 70 27
Elk 2.1 6.5 7.0 5.2 51.0 18 24 40 30





Table 31. Comparative Yields - Winter Rye Variety Trial - 1961
Description Yield in Bushels Per Acre Averages Av.

Test Wt.

1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1960 '56-'61 '60-'61 '56-'61
Dakold 2.0 24.5 10.3 13.3 17.9 9.1 12.9 13.5 53.8
Caribou 2.9 19.2 12.2 14.1 18.2 9.0 12.6 13.6 54.0
Antelope 2.0 21.8 12.1 13.9 17.5 9.3 12.8 13.4 53.0
Elk 20.7 5.2 13.0 53.51
1Average test weight for Elk is for 1960-1961.



EXPERIMENTS WITH SAFFLOWER - 1961



Highest yield in this year's regional safflower planting at Dickinson was 3.0 bushels per acre.



Safflower is not a particularly good crop under droughty growing conditions and yields were poor this year for this reason.



Data on this year's safflower trial are given in Tables 32 and 33.



Iodine and oil percentage determinations were made by John E. Bear, USDA.



Table 32. Agronomic data on the Regional Safflower Nursery - 1961
Yield-Bushels Per Acre Test

Wt.

Height Inches Date
1 2 3 4 5 6 Av. 90% Bloom
U. S. 10 2.1 3.1 1.5 4.7 3.3 2.7 2.9 36.2 7 7-19
N 10 1.7 1.9 1.0 2.2 2.0 1.3 1.7 40.4 9 19
Gila 3.6 3.2 2.3 1.7 1.7 1.8 2.4 41.2 5 17
A-5731 4.4 3.5 1.1 4.0 1.9 1.9 2.8 36.6 8 21
N4055 3.1 2.6 2.6 3.3 2.2 1.9 2.6 41.2 8 23
N4051 4.0 3.3 .8 3.9 3.5 2.2 3.0 46.5 9 28





Table 33. Determinations of Oil Percentage and Iodine Number - 1961 Regional Safflower Trial
Description Iodine Number % Oil
N-10 143 28.4
A-5731 144 29.4
US-10 143 27.6
N-4055 143 29.6
N-4051 146 26.0
Gila 145 30.8


EXPERIMENTS WITH WINTER WHEAT - 1961



The Hard Red Winter Wheat Regional Performance Nursery was seeded September 20, 1960 on summerfallow and emergence and fall growth was fairly good. Spring survival was zero for all entries.



Table 34 lists entries in this year's planting.



Minter winter wheat planted with the winter rye in field plot trials was considered a total failure this spring.



Work with winter wheat is being expanded at this Station to include seedings made with hoe or furrow-type drills on both fallow and stubble land.



Table 34. Northern Regional Hard Red Winter Wheat Performance Nursery - 1961
Entry No. Pedigree C.I. No. Source
1 Kharkof 1442 ---
2 Minter 12138 ---
3 Yogo 8033 ---
4 Nebred 10094 ---
5 Cheyenne 8885 ---
6 Cheyenne Selection 13193 Wyoming
7 Nebred x Red Chief 13195 Nebraska
8 Yogo x (Tk x Oro 221)-117 13542 Montana
9 (Yogo x Rescue 21) x Marmin-1065 13544 Montana
10 Marmin x (Yogo x Rescue 5)-342 13545 Montana
11 Minnesota Selection 13280 Minnesota
12* Nebred-Hope-Tk x Cnn-Pnc (N. 56178) 13546 Nebraska
13* Tk-Cheyenne x Hope-Cheyenne2 (N. 57167) 13547 Nebraska
14 South Dakota Selection 13526 South Dakota
15 South Dakota Selection 13528 South Dakota
16 South Dakota Selection 13198 South Dakota


EXPERIMENTS WITH SPRI NG WHEAT - 1961



Experiments with spring wheat in 1961 included field plot trials of 14 varieties of hard red spring and six varieties of durum wheat, the Uniform Regional Nursery, the Uniform Bunt Nursery, and nurseries of material produced at Dickinson. Most of this material is early generation material for purposes of selection and yield data were not recorded on this material this year.



Yields and other agronomic data recorded from the 1961 trials with wheat are given in Table 35 through 40.



In addition to the field plot and nursery trials, this year the Dickinson Station cooperated in growing 12 bushel lots of four varieties and smaller lots of two other varieties for the Crop Quality Council milling and baking quality tests.



Table 35. Agronomic data from the Hard Red Spring Wheat Variety Trial - 1961
Description Yield in Bushels Per Acre Test

Wt.

Dates Height Inches
1 2 3 Av. Head Ripe
Lee 9.9 9.4 12.4 10.6 55.0 6-20 7-22 19
Selkirk 9.9 10.5 12.1 10.8 51.5 22 24 19
Pembina 8.5 9.9 12.1 10.2 51.0 23 24 19
ND 102 Sib 10.2 12.1 13.5 11.9 56.0 25 24 20
Minn II-53-404 10.5 11.0 12.9 11.5 57.0 23 24 20
ND 102 11.0 11.3 14.6 12.3 57.0 25 24 21
Canthatch 9.9 11.3 12.9 11.4 56.5 23 24 19
ND 137 6.1 8.3 12.9 9.1 57.5 22 24 19
Thatcher 7.2 8.8 6.9 7.6 55.5 24 26 19
Mida 9.1 11.3 12.9 11.1 59.0 25 27 21
Conley 6.3 8.0 11.6 8.6 57.5 26 27 20
Marquis 8.3 10.7 13.8 10.9 57.0 25 28 20
Rushmore 6.6 11.8 13.2 10.5 57.0 23 24 20
Chinook 8.0 12.9 14.0 11.6 59.5 22 24 21





Table 36. Comparative Yields - Hard Red Spring Wheat Variety Trial - 1961
Description Yield in Bushels Per Acre Averages Av.

Test Wt.

1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 '56-'61 '58-'61 '56-'61
Lee 11.4 32.6 22.8 15.0 26.4 10.6 19.8 18.7 57.8
Rushmore 10.3 25.7 28.8 14.5 22.7 10.5 18.8 19.1 58.5
Selkirk 12.2 23.0 28.6 13.3 26.0 10.8 19.0 19.7 56.8
Mida 11.9 27.2 28.2 14.2 25.0 11.1 19.6 19.6 59.7
Thatcher 12.4 30.1 29.9 14.0 23.9 7.6 19.7 18.6 58.2
Conley 11.9 25.3 28.4 12.4 22.3 8.6 18.2 17.9 57.8
Chinook 10.9 26.4 28.6 14.0 22.0 11.6 18.9 19.1 59.4
Marquis 12.5 27.8 29.5 16.2 24.3 10.9 20.2 20.2 58.5
Canthatch 34.2 15.2 25.5 11.4 21.6 57.0*
Pembina 25.7 10.2 54.0*
Minn. II-53-404 25.4 11.5 57.0*
*Average test weights are for years yields are given





Table 37. Agronomic data from the Durum Wheat Variety Trial - 1961
Description Yield in Bushels Per Acre Test

Wt.

Dates Height Inches
1 2 3 Av. Head Ripe
Mindum 9.9 12.4 15.4 12.6 60.0 6-26 7-28 26
Ramsey 8.3 11.0 10.2 9.8 61.5 25 28 25
Langdon 10.2 11.3 15.4 12.3 60.0 24 27 23
Sentry 10.2 11.6 14.6 12.1 60.5 22 24 21
Lakota 11.0 13.2 17.9 14.0 58.0 22 24 21
Wells 12.1 12.9 13.5 12.8 60.5 23 24 22





Table 38. Comparative Yields - Durum Variety Trial - 1961
Description Yield in Bushels Per Acre Averages Av.

Test Wt.

1965 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 '56-'61 '58-'61 '58'-'61
Mindum 10.8 31.5 29.0 14.8 23.4 12.6 20.4 20.0 59.0
Sentry 9.8 30.8 28.6 14.0 27.8 12.1 20.5 20.6 60.4
Langdon 10.7 32.8 28.1 15.4 25.8 12.3 20.9 20.4 59.6
Ramsey 7.5 36.6 30.2 15.5 24.8 9.8 20.7 20.1 60.0
Wells 34.3 17.7 26.4 12.8 22.8 59.4
Lakota 34.7 15.5 27.2 14.0 22.9 57.0





Table 39. Agronomic data from the Uniform Regional Spring Wheat Nursery - 1961
Description C.I. No. Yield-Bu. Per Acre Test

Wt.

Dates Ht. Inches
1 2 3 Av. Head Ripe
Marquis 3641 4.8 8.6 7.0 6.8 59.5 6-23 7-27 20
Thatcher 10003 8.8 7.6 12.4 9.6 59.0 22 24 20
Selkirk 13100 11.0 7.6 10.4 9.7 57.5 22 24 21
Lee 12488 9.8 9.0 12.2 10.3 59.5 20 24 18
Conley 13157 9.4 10.0 17.2 12.2 58.0 24 28 18
Pembina 13332 12.0 7.4 15.0 11.5 59.5 22 24 20
Lathrop 13457 11.0 10.4 15.6 12.3 59.0 23 25 18
Lee2 x Kenya Farmer 13463 12.8 9.0 14.6 12.1 58.0 26 28 20
(Thatcher6-Kenya Farmer) x (Thatcher7-Frontana) 13625 11.0 10.8 13.2 11.7 59.0 23 25 19
Conley x N.D. 40-2 13462 12.6 12.2 15.0 13.3 59.0 24 27 21
N.D. 81 x Lee 13349 9.2 8.2 13.8 10.4 57.5 24 26 19
(Lee x N. D. 81 sib) x Lee 13453 9.6 8.6 11.8 10.0 57.5 24 26 18
N. D. 81 sib x N. D. 1 13603 6.6 8.4 14.0 9.7 57.0 26 26 17
N. D. 81 sib x Conley 13608 9.0 9.4 9.2 9.2 59.5 26 28 18
CT231 x Conley 13565 11.8 11.6 12.8 12.1 59.0 23 25 21
CT231 x Conley 13566 8.8 11.0 7.2 9.0 59.0 23 25 19
Conley x N. D. 81 13567 9.2 9.4 9.0 9.2 59.0 22 28 19
ND140 x ND138 13568 6.8 8.0 7.6 7.5 58.0 23 28 18
ND138 x (Lee x FP1186035) 13569 6.8 9.2 10.4 8.8 59.0 22 24 18
ND138 x (Lee x FP1186035) 13570 4.6 8.0 9.0 7.2 60.0 23 24 18
Conley x ND142 13571 9.0 11.0 10.8 10.3 58.0 23 28 19
Frontana x Thatcher4 13572 9.0 15.0 11.0 11.7 58.5 25 25 19
(Frontana x Thatcher2) x (II-44-29 x Thatcher2) 13573 8.6 11.6 10.2 10.1 56.5 23 24 20
Lee x No. 58 13574 10.2 15.0 10.2 11.8 58.0 21 24 19
Lee x No. 58 13575 10.8 11.2 11.8 11.3 57.5 19 24 20
Rival x II-50-17 13576 11.0 8.0 10.8 9.9 59.5 21 24 22
(Rushmore x Supresa PW36) x (Thatcher-Triumph 630) 13577 9.6 10.8 9.6 10.0 58.0 21 24 20
Selkirk x W250 13584 6.4 10.0 9.4 8.6 56.5 21 24 21
KT-Tc3 x II-44-29 x Tc2 13465 9.4 5.0 7.0 7.1 59.0 23 26 22





Table 40. Uniform Regional Spring Wheat Bunt Nursery - 1961
Key

No.

Description C. I.

No.

Percent Smutty Heads
1 2 Av.
1 Marquis 3641 0 0 0
2 Thatcher 10003 0 2 1.0
3 Selkirk 13100 0 0 0
4 Lee 12488 1 1 1.0
5 Conley 13157 0 0 0
6 Pembina 13332 0 0 0
7 Lathrop 13457 4 5 4.5
8 Lee2 x Kenya Farmer 13463 2 1 1.5
9 (Thatcher6-Kenya Farmer) x (Thatcher7-Frontana) 13625 1 0 0.5
10 Conley x N.D. 40-2 13462 1 0 0.5
11 N. D. 81 x Lee 13349 1 2 1.5
12 (Lee x N. D. 81 sib) x Lee 13453 1 2 1.5
13 N. D. 81 sib x N. D. 1 13603 0 2 1.0
14 N. D. 81 sib x Conley 13608 4 5 4.5
15 CT231 x Conley, 55.302 A-4-5-3-2-1-1 13565 1 0 0.5
16 CT231 x Conley, 55.302 A-9-6-5-1-7 13566 1 0 0.5
17 Conley x N. D. 81, 56.51 A-1-2-10-5 13567 2 0 1.0
18 ND140 x ND138, 57.79 A-2-28-4 13568 5 2 3.5
19 ND138 x (Lee x FP1186035), 57.434 A-1-1-1-3 13569 7 1 4.0
20 ND138 x (Lee x FP1186035), 57.434 A-2-3-1-3 13570 1 0 0.5
21 Conley x ND142, 58.82 A-1-1-4 13571 1 2 1.5
22 Frontana x Thatcher4 13572 0 2 1.0
23 (Frontana x Thatcher2) x (II-44-29 x Thatcher2) 13573 6 0 3.0
24 Lee x No. 58 13574 4 1 2.5
25 Lee x No. 58 13575 2 1 1.5
26 Rival x II-50-17 13576 2 2 2.0
27 (Rushmore x Sunpresza PW36) x (Thatcher-Triumph 630) 13577 0 2 1.0
28 Selkirk x W250 B584 0 0 0
29 KT-Tc3 x II-44-29 x Tc2 13465 4 1 2.5
30 Canthatch 13345 2 1 1.5
31 Lee x ND34 13322 0 2 1.0
32 K338AA x Ns 3880.191 13302 0 0 0
33 N2350 x 4021-K338AC --- 0 0 0
34 ND4 x Lee 13324 3 2 2.5
35 ND81 x ND1 13451 0 0 0
36 CT231 x Conley -- 1 0 0.5
37 Ftn x Tc5 --- 0 2 1.0
38 Ftn x Tc5 --- 0 0 0
39 Ftn-Tc3 x (II-44-29)-Tc2 --- 0 0 0
40 II-50-25 x II-44-653 --- 0 0 0
41 II-50-17 x Selkirk --- 2 2 2
42 II-50-72 x Selkirk --- 2 3 2.5
43 II-50-25 x Selkirk --- 2 4 3.0
44 II-50-25 x Selkirk --- 0 6 3.0
45 II-50-23 x II-42-22 --- 10 7 8.5
46 II-50-17 x Rushmore --- 3 0 1.5
47 II-50-17 x Rushmore --- 3 4 3.5
48 II-50-17 x Rushmore --- 2 6 4.0
49 II-50-17 x Rushmore --- 5 11 8.0
50 II-50-17 x Rushmore --- 16 5 10.5
51 II-50-17 x Rushmore --- 3 5 4.0
52 II-50-72 x Rushmore --- 0 3 1.5



PUBLICATIONS - 1961



Yields on continuous cropping, cornland and summerfallow, fertilizer and unfertilized; North Dakota Farm Research, Vol. 21 No. 11, May-June, 1961. Conlon, T. J. and Douglas, R. J.



Spring Moisture and Yields Compared; North Dakota Farm Research, Vol. 21 No. 12, July-August, 1961. Conlon, T. J. and Douglas, R. J.



Stubble Tillage Practices - Three methods compared at Dickinson; North Dakota Farm Research, Vol. 21 No. 12, July-August, 1961. Conlon, T. J. and Douglas, R. J.



Results of Clipping Trials with Cool Season Grasses; Whitman, W. C., Peterson, D. R., and Conlon, T. J.; North Dakota Farm Research, Vol. 22 No. 2, November-December, 1961



Winter Wheat Production in North Dakota; Extension Service Circular A-354 April, 1961; Jensen, L. A. and Conlon, T. J.



RADIO PROGRAMS AND NEWS STORIES - 1961



Radio with County Agent, Maurice A. Ellingson:
January 5 Fall Tillage vs. No Fall Tillage of Stubble
January 26 Winter Wheat Work at Dickinson
March 9 New Trials Planned for 1961
April 20 Small Grain Trials at Dickinson for 1961
May 4 Weed Spraying in 1961
June 15 Insect Damage to Wheat, Trees, and Shrubs
July 6 Crops Field Day
August 3 Results of Wheat Variety Trials at the DES
August 31 Results of Wheat Variety Trials at the DES
September 21 Results of Barley and Oat Variety Trials at the DES
September 28 Winter Wheat Trials at the DES
October 19 Commercial Fertilizer Trials at the DES in 1961
November 9 Roughage Production Trials in 1961
November 30 Livestock Research Roundup Plans
December 21 Summary for 1961




News Story:
November 4 On material to be discussed at the Twelfth Annual Livestock Research Roundup




Conferences - 1961
January 10-13 Annual Branch Station Conference




Public Meetings - 1961 Attendance
Adams County Crop Imp. Ass'n. 30
Hettinger Station Sheep Day Attended
Stark County Crop Imp. Ass'n. 35
Slope County Crop Imp. Ass'n. 100
Valley City Winter Show Grain Judge
Regent PTA 40
Hettinger County Crop Imp. Ass'n. 25
Sixth Grade Dickinson Elementary School 60
Wishek FFA - Tour of the Dickinson Experiment Station 30
Barons Club - Tour of the Dickinson Experiment Station 30
Crops Field Day - Dickinson Experiment Station 225
DSTC Agriculture Class - Tour of DES 30
Rotary Club - Tour of the Dickinson Experiment Station 60
Morton County 4-H Achievement Day Judge
Richardton 4-H Achievement Day Judge
Golden Valley 4-H Achievement Day Judge
Stark 4-H Achievement Day Judge
Dunn 4-H Achievement Day Judge
Stark County Soil Conservation Achievement Banquet 75
Dickinson High School Career Day 125