1961 ANNUAL REPORT
RAYMOND J. DOUGLAS, Superintendent
North Dakota should be geared to a balanced Agriculture. Each year points up the importance of this type of farming operation not only for the western part of North Dakota, but that it is also essential for the entire state.
Not only do we need to use the best methods and practices in the handling of the operating unit, but the planning of the North Dakota farmer and rancher must be such that each enterprise developed will be organized to live permanently with the conditions and circumstances under which we operate. This thinking and organization must carry through our Conservation practices, crops and livestock enterprises. There is no substitute for using the best methods and practices adapted to each individual farm or ranch. This means that the best Conservation practices, varieties of grain and livestock selection, and handling should be with an eye to the needs of each farm or ranch.
Feeding out cattle and hogs for market must be built around homegrown feeds adapted to the unit, properly supplemented. Economy of operation should never be overlooked; every dollar saved is the same as having earned an extra dollar, and the days of earning the easy dollar in Agriculture are gone, perhaps forever.
Some examples of the consideration that should be given practices are as listed below:
1. Windstripping should not be used when the proper practice for the land is strip cropping on the contour.
2. The highest yielding variety of oats or feed barley should be planted if feed is desired.
3. Feeding out cattle and hogs should be built around the highest yielding grains and roughages that can be produced on the farm or ranch.
4. Grass should be seeded in place of small grains, when it can be utilized for grazing and return a higher income than from small grains.
5. Economy of operation can be emphasized by using an electric fence in place of the conventional type four-barbed wire fence. There may be cases such as small lots where an electric fence is not desirable in the eyes of the operator and when such a circumstance exists, the conventional type fence can be used; from the standpoint of reducing overhead, the electric fence should be considered.
Our job at the Dickinson Experiment Station is to improve the income for the men and women making their living off the land. This will provide their families and the generations to come with a better way of life. We as a part of the North Dakota State University point our efforts towards improving the Agriculture of our state for this and future generations. Our efforts must be geared to this type of program which requires the following improvements, projects and needs at the Station for the future:
A. In April, 1961, the last payment of $2250.00 and interest was made on the SW 1/4 of Section 32-140-96. The deed has been recorded and the land is now owned by the State for the exclusive use of the Agricultural Experiment Station. This land was purchased without an appropriation with all payments being made from oil-lease payments, and station sales of livestock and grain.
B. In 1962, the first step will be taken in the construction of Highway 94 through the Dickinson Experiment Station just north of the headquarters and across one mile of Station land. The attached map shows where this road will be located in relation to Experiment Station land.
C. We have a projected plan for increasing the size of Pyramid Park to give us an additional grazing acreage in the Badlands. This land must be secured through the Forest Service and we hope will be realized in the not too distant future. We need to add about three quarters or 480 acres to our present grazing, and is essential for the management of our herd under range conditions. While we are grazing one-third of our cow herd at the Dickinson Experiment Station headquarters each summer, it would be desirable to graze the whole herd, in the Badlands each year from about June 15 to October 15 in three separate pastures for grazing two-thirds of our herds in two separate pastures. Our present grazing area in the Badlands has only sufficient acreage for grazing two-thirds of our herd in two separate pastures.
A. During 1961, the following projects were completed:
1. New office at the Livestock Farm.
2. The garage on the Livestock Farm was moved to a new location so that the site where it was located would be available for the office building in accord with plans for the expansion and improvement of the Dickinson Experiment Station.
3. The poultry house was moved to a new location along with making the following improvements:
a. New foundation and cement floor.
b. The sills were replaced.
c. New insulation added in the walls.
d. Inside walls were sealed up with new lumber.
e. Building was re-shingled with asphalt shingles.
f. Lap siding was purchased to re-side the entire outside of the building.
g. New nests were installed.
4. Most of the hog fence in need of repair at the Livestock Farm was replaced in 1961.
5. Ten new hog houses, 8' x 10' were built in 1961. These houses replace straw sheds previously used.
6. The driveway at the elevator on the Agronomy Farm was improved, leveled out and graveled.
7. An electric hoist was purchased for the grain elevator, and will be installed early in 1962.
8. The old platform scale on the Agronomy Farm was removed.
9. All broad leaf trees were removed from the shelter belt planting north of the farmstead on the Agronomy Farm. This will be fallowed in 1962 and re-planted to trees probably in 1963 unless it should be decided to fallow the acreage a second year. The trees were in such a condition that it was felt the only way to renovate the planting was to remove all but the pines and re-plant the belt.
10. Approximately 80 acres were added to the grazing area at Pyramid Park, which was land owned by the State, but never included in our grazing area. This area added was fenced in with a new three-wire barbed wire fence and steel posts.
11. A new dugout and dam of approximately 3,000 cubic yards was added to Pyramid Park grazing area.
Office building, 18 feet by 14 feet with basement, constructed on the Livestock Farm
at a cost of approximately $1,000.00
These hog houses, 10 feet by 8 feet are of wood construction with a metal roof. The sills
are 4 inches by 4 inches firmly braced to be used as runners. The cost of each
building was about $80.00.
A. Improvements to be made in 1962.
1. Paint all buildings if possible on both farms in 1962. This project was delayed because of the other essential jobs in 1961.
2. Replace dead trees especially spruce on both farms. The new planting of evergreens in cooperation with the Extension Service has made excellent progress, but will also need some replacements in 1962.
3. Build a new entrance to the root cellar on the Agronomy Farm.
4. Enlarge the building and put a basement under the drying house which is to be used for drying all samples; these changes are necessary to provide the additional space required. The drying room will be equipped with a new burner to provide adequate drying facilities.
5. Repair fence for one-half mile on the Agronomy Farm along the South side of the SE 1/4 of Section 32.
6. Level and improve rotation and tillage plots on the Agronomy Farm.
7. Build another new machine shed at the Agronomy Farm about the size of the one built in 1960. Funds for this to be derived from Station sales.
8. Work has been started on the renovation of the shelter belt North of the farmstead on the Agronomy Farm. Thus far, the deciduous trees have been removed and the area is to be fallowed in 1962 and not planted to trees before 1963 or 1964. This will serve as a shelter belt and a storage place for machinery when not in use during the summer months.
9. Re-locate the feed shed adjacent to the chicken house at the Livestock Farm.
10. Re-locate fuel tanks on the Livestock Farm.
11. Re-work the shelter belt on the Livestock Farm.
12. Install a leg in the elevator in the feed house at the hog barn. We would also like to increase the feed storage capacity of this elevator from 650 bushels to approximately 1000 bushels.
13. Replace all hog fences at the Livestock Farm not replaced or improved in 1960 or 1961.
14. Construct new doors on the South side of the machine shed at the Livestock Farm.
15. Remove upright silos, if time permits, and construct a bunker-type silo.
16. Level, fertilize, and seed the yard on the Livestock Farm. Re-plant trees that died in summer of 1961 to varieties better adapted to the area.
17. Re-work the fence on the South and East of our grazing land at Pyramid Park to include about ten additional acres presently not enclosed but owned by the State. Remove the old wire and posts previously used but not included in the new fence line.
18. Do the necessary repair work needed on the cabin at the Pyramid Park. This included sealing up the inside of the building with a mouse-proof composition board, repairing the walls and floor.
19. Move the seed house on the Agronomy Farm to a location East of the elevator; put it over a basement and remodel the interior.
20. Construct ten more new hog houses the same as those built in 1961.
IV. MODEL PROJECTS
A. Our poultry house was re-located and improved in 1961. This project should be easier to handle and more profitable in 1962 than it has been in the past. It is our opinion that the size of this project is about in line with the size poultry flock a farmer or rancher should have, provided he keeps a flock of chickens.
B. The model garden needs to be improved, perhaps most important would be moving to a more favorable location to improve soil and moisture conditions.
A. A program is carried out each year acquainting ranchers and farmers with the results of the projects being carried on at the Dickinson Experiment Station. This material is released in publications, news articles, tours, classes, and Field Days. When projects are completed, they are written up and released through the North Dakota Farm Research, Bimonthly Bulletin. Two thousand copies of the Livestock Research Roundup report with 1600 being distributed on the day of the Roundup were prepared.
VI. WEATHER RECORDS AT THE DICKINSON EXPERIMENT STATION INCLUDE:
1. Maximum, minimum and 7:00 a.m. temperature reading each day.
2. Wind velocity over each 24-hour period.
3. Free surface evaporation, April 1 to October 1 each year.
4. Daily precipitation.
5. Snow fall and depth of snow on the ground each day.
6. A thermograph record of the daily temperature changes as they occur each day along with the soil temperature at a depth of 8 inches.
|Month||1892 - 1961||Last 10 Years|
|1961||Summary*||Average||Accumulative Average||Year||April - July||Annual|
|70-Year Average Precipitation = 15.50
70-Year Average Precipitation, April-July = 9.08
*Total Precipitation in inches per month for 70 years
**Greatest of record
***Least of record
1961 - Greatest 24 hour precipitation, June 30, 1.82 inches
|Latest Killing Frost in Spring||Earliest Killing Frost in Fall|
|1915||June 16||30o F||1917||Aug. 9||30o F|
|1961||May 2||29o F||1961||Sept. 15||29o F|
|Frost-Free Season||Shortest of Record||Longest of Record|
|1961 136 days||69 days - in 1915-1917||164 days - 1952|
|Temperatures||Lowest of Record||Highest of Record|
|1936, Feb. 16, -47oF||1936, July 6, 114oF|
|1961, Dec. 12, -26oF||1961, Aug. 16, 100oF|
VII. LIVESTOCK PROGRAM
A. Improving the cow herd.
1. An effort is being made to improve the productivity of the cow herd. The same ration is fed all animals which this winter is hay and straw/and limited barley. We would rather feed some silage in their ration but have not been feeding any so far this winter in order to save the silage for the animals on feeding trials and for the breeding herd during the last several months of the pregnancy period.
2. We have approximately 100 breeding animals in the cow herd; our winter lots and range will handle this number in a very satisfactory manner.
3. The breeding heifers are put back in the breeding herd each year. In order to be a replacement heifer, a calf must be of average weight or better as compared to all heifers raised in the current calf crop from which the heifers are being selected.
Selection is then made on a basis of thickness, type, quality, and breed character.
4. The cow herd is culled each year to make room for the replacement heifers with the animals being removed on the basis of the following:
a. Defects; lump jaw, cancer eye, bad feet, etc.
d. Dry cows
e. Quality, thickness, type and weights of calf at weaning
5. It is our plan to add at least one bull calf to the herd each year. His gaining ability and quality is observed each year, and if he develops in satisfactory manner, is saved for the breeding herd. Bulls are culled out after being entered in the breeding herd on the following basis:
a. Lacking in ability to sire good gaining calves of the right thickness, type and weight at weaning.
6. To improve our breeding herd and the quality of our feeder calves; the following bulls will be used in 1962:
a. AP Zato Heir 18 Number 9,359,270; May 22, 1956; Calves bred by A.W. Powell, Sisseton, South Dakota
b. AP Zato Heir 64 Number 10,620,922; Calved February 1, 1959; Bred by A.W. Powell, Sisseton, South Dakota
c. DGH Rupert Aster Number 10,148,644; Calved October 13, 1957; Bred by the Turner Ranch, Sulphur, Oklahoma
d. TTT Lodge Heir 3 Number 11,643,726; Calved April 3, 1961; Bred by Thor Tagestad, Towner, North Dakota
e. TTT Anxiety Number 11, 643,725; Calved April 3, 1961; Bred by Thor Tagestad, Towner North Dakota
B. Feeding Trials. Our program is geared to develop a feeding program in North Dakota so that it will live over the years and be a stable enterprise. To do this, the ration must be built around home-grown feed properly supplemented. Probably the best ration for the majority of our feeders will be a roughage ration with grain added in the amount preferred by each feeder. Each feeder is to aim towards marketing his animals whenever the marketing fits his program, and to give him the best possible income. Feeding beef cattle has the greatest potential of the Agricultural enterprises presently being developed in North Dakota.
Our experimental work is built around getting sound answers to the following problems:
1. Roughing calves through the winter followed by one of the following:
a. Dry lot fattening following the wintering period.
b. Spring and summer grazing following the winter feeding period with finishing in dry lot starting in early fall.
2. Feeding steers and heifers in dry lot from weaning until finished to determine the following:
a. Value of stilbestrol implants in steers and heifers
b. Rations to give maximum gains at lowest possible cost until ready for slaughter.
c. High roughage rations with:
1. No grain
2. Limited grain
3. Heavy grain
4. Beet pulp alone and in combination with grain
5. Testing of new additives showing promise
6. Self-feeding grain
7. Pelleting of grain and roughage
8. Adding vitamins to the ration
C. Quality Feeds
1. Late maturing corn, compared to corn recommended for the area as having the best chance of maturing.
D. Swine Program
1. Breeding Program
a. Improve the type, gaining ability and quality by selection of the best gilts, and use of best boar we can obtain. This year we are using the following boars:
1. DDTO Tostmaster 297; Born March 6, 1960; Bred by Donald Trapp, Claremont, Minnesota
2. DTTO Atlas 175; Born March 3, 1960, Bred by Donald Trapp, Claremont, Minnesota
3. KWT9 Special Englishman; Bred by Keith Thurston, Madelia, Minnesota
b. Only gilts with the best type, quality and gaining ability are saved each year.
2. Feeding Trials
a. Presently winter wheat seeded in the spring is used as a temporary pasture crop. Other crops will be tested when available.
b. Dry lot with concrete floors is being compared to pasturing of pigs.
c. Limited feeding is being compared to full feeding on pasture.
d. Winter rations
e. Comparing new rations and new supplements
f. Additives showing promise will be tested
g. Small hog houses, 8 feet by 10 feet, with metal roofs for both winter and summer quarters have been substituted for the straw sheds previously used.
h. New methods of cleaning and disinfecting farrowing quarters are being used.
i. Injectable iron is given all pigs at from three to seven days of age.
j. Efforts are made to reduce the cost of producing 100 pounds of pork.
k. Economy of operation is our goal in all phases of hog production.
l. Farrowing pen construction, litter, and improved handling methods are being studied each year.
VIII. GRASS AND LEGUME INVESTIGATIONS
A. Grasses for Hay
1. New varieties and best methods of handling all varieties for quantity and quality production
2. Winter hardiness
3. Grasses alone
a. Grasses with legumes
b. Grasses fertilized
c. Protein content of grasses and of grass-legume mixtures
d. Renovation of grasses
e. Nitrate content of fertilized grasses
1. Winter hardiness and yield determinations
C. Sweet Clover
1. Hay yields of low-coumarin varieties
1. For early spring grazing
a. Crested Wheatgrass
b. Crested Wheatgrass with Alfalfa
c. Crested Wheatgrass fertilized
2. Pastures for late spring and summer grazing.
a. Delay grazing of crested wheat and other grass and grass-legume mixture until about June 20 or July 1.
b. Use of the following grasses:
1. Russian Wildrye
2. Russian Wildrye with Alfalfa
3. Lincoln Brome Grass
4. Lincoln Brome and Alfalfa
IX AGRONOMY PROGRAM
A. Tillage practices and crop rotations are being continued as follows:
1. Spring plowing as compared to fall plowing.
2. Comparing different tillage practices on small grain stubble.
a. Before seeding small grain in the spring
b. Fall preparation of land for fallow or small grain the following spring.
c. Disking and mold board plowing of cornland in the spring for small grain crops.
B. Methods of fallowing for most complete weed control, water conservation and the preventing of both wind and water erosion.
1. The implements list being used in this investigation:
a. Moldboard plow
b. One-way disk
c. Victor blade
d. Medium-sized cultivator shovels
C. The following small grain varieties are tested for yield and adaptability to the area:
a. Spring wheat
b. Durum wheat
c. Winter wheat
D. Crop Rotations
1. Most productive for western North Dakota:
a. Continuous cropping
b. Alternate cropping
c. Three-year rotation comparing cornland and fallow
d. Four-year rotation with green manure
E. Fertilizer under following conditions:
1. First year on:
a. Cornland planted to small grain
2. Residual effects in following years.
3. Placement in fertilizing of corn.
F. Comparing the following:
1. Corn with all types of roughage adapted to the area, including:
a. Recommended varieties of 85-87 day corn
b. Late maturing varieties including 120-day corn
2. Corn Spacing Trial
a. For greatest tonnage silage
G. Spring moisture in the soil, on small grain acreage of the previous year.
1. Standing stubble
2. Stubble one-wayed in fall
3. Tillage with victory blade in fall
H. Small grain nurseries using new varieties where only limited amounts of seed are available.
a. To determine adaptability in western North Dakota.
I. Wheat breeding program
1. Making several new crosses each year
2. New varieties tested for:
c. Resistance to disease
d. Comparing maturity date strength of straw, etc.
X. GENERAL FARMING OPERATIONS
|Feed on hand November 1, 1961:|
|175 tons hay @ $20.00||$3,500.00|
|1500 tons corn silage @ $7.24||$10,860.00|
|4000 bushels of barley @ $.70||$2,800.00|
|2000 bushels of oats @ $.55||$1,100.00|
1. Model 6 Fords Hydraulic Truck Lift
2. Cub tractor
3. Cultivator for Cub tractor
4. Tool bar for Cub tractor
5. Mower for Cub tractor
6. Shadle Precision Sickle Sharpener
7. Anscomatic Slide Projector
8. 4AS Ritchie Livestock Waterer
9 Allis-Chalmers 6-ton trailers (2)
10. Used Combine Grain Hoppers for grain and feed bins (3)
11. No. 19 New Idea Manure Spreader
12. Water tank
13. 16-inch Power Chain Saw
14. Gas heater for new office on Livestock Farm
15. Air compressor
16. Tub, sink, and Toilet in Superintendent's residence
17. Diesel tractor
18. 25-pound ABC All-Class Fire Extinguisher
19. 5-pound ABC All-Class Fire Extinguisher
1. 2-Hereford bull calves
2. 30-Calves for feeding trials
3. 1-Yorkshire boar
4. 500-Special mated straight-run White Rock Chickens
5. 1-Yearling Hereford bull
6. 2-Purebred Yorkshire gilts
7. 25-head of yearling steers for trials
XIII. MEETINGS AND TOURS
|Jan. 9||Annual Experiment Station Conference|
|Jan. 14||Sidney Feeders Tour
|Jan. 26||Hettinger County Feeder Tour||200|
|Jan. 30||Exchange Club
"North Dakota Agriculture"
|Feb. 2||Bottineau-Renville Agriculture Imp. Ass'n.
"Increasing our Income from Livestock"
|Feb. 7||Stutsman County Farm Institute
|Feb. 9||Dunn County Livestock Tour
"Improving Our Roughage and Grazing"
|March 6-7||Valley City Winter Show|
|March 13||Stockmen from South Dakota
Tour of Station
|March 14||FFA Annual Banquet at Watford City
|March 28||Annual Farmers' Night at Watford City
|April 27||Sixth Grades from Dickinson
Visited Weather Station
|May 1||Alfred A. Skrede, Meteorologist
Visited Weather Station
|May 3||M. L. Buchanan, T. W. Gildersleeve
Tour of Station
|May 12||Warren C. Whitman and class
Tour of Station
|May 12||SCS Luncheon
"Plan for Livestock Research Roundup"
|May 26||A. E. Mead, Commissioner
Tour of Station
|June 7||Grant County Agriculture Ass'n.
|June 12||North Dakota Stockmen's Ass'n.
|June 16||Area 4-H Livestock Judging Contest||50|
|June 28||Medora Grazing Ass'n.
|July 10||Barons Club
Tour of Station
|July 12||Crops Field Day
Tour of Projects
|July 13||Agriculture Class, DSTC
Dickinson Experiment Station
|July 19||Rotary Club
Tour of Station
|July 21||Extension 4-H Meeting
Livestock Judging Contest
|August 8||Redwood Falls, Minnesota Productive Credit Ass'ns. "Livestock in Western North Dakota"||200|
|September 14-15||Austin Barrow Show|
|October 11||SCS District Meeting "Remarks"||60|
|October 13||Chamber of Commerce Agric. Committee||7|
|October 18||Nelson County Agric. Imp. Ass'n.
|October 19||Rugby Farmer Businessmen Meeting
|October 23||Mandan Production Credit Ass'n.
"Winter Rations for Beef Cows"
|October 24||Rotary Farmer's Night||70|
|October 25||Tri-County Livestock Panel, Dickinson||200|
|October 25||SCS Administrative Staff
Tour of Station
|October 26||McLean County Farm Bureau
|November 6||Rolette County Agriculture Imp. Ass'n.
|November 13||Dickinson Central High School
|November 27||Barnes County Agriculture Imp. Ass'n.
"Livestock Research Roundup"
|November 28||McLean County Agriculture Imp. Ass'n.
"Livestock Research Roundup"
|December 6||Twelfth Annual Livestock Research Roundup||1350|
|December 12||Bottineau County Agriculture Imp. Ass'n.
|January 12, 1961||Getting Ready for the Spring Pig Crop|
|February 12, 1961||Improving Our Pastures|
|March 16, 1961||Pastures and Spring Grazing|
|April 6, 1961||Creep Rations for Pigs|
|April 27, 1961||Early Spring Pastures|
|May 18, 1961||Growing Out Spring Pigs|
|June 22, 1961||Crops Day
A Plastic Cover for the Silo
|July 20, 1961||Watch that Feed Supply|
|August 17, 1961||Fall Tillage|
|September 7, 1961||Feeding Out Yearlings|
|October 26, 1961||Livestock Research Roundup
Winter Rations for the Beef Herd
|November 9, 1961||Roughage Production Trial for 1961|
|November 30, 1961||Livestock Research Roundup|
|December 7, 1961||Wintering the Beef Herd|
|December 21, 1961||Corn Production|
|July - August||North Dakota Farm Research Vol. 21, No. 12
Spring Moisture Yields
Thomas J. Conlon, Raymond J. Douglas
|July - August||North Dakota Farm Research Vol. 21, No. 12
Stubble Tillage Practices
Thomas J. Conlon, Raymond J. Douglas
XVI. GENERAL SUMMARY
|People at Meetings and Tours||Meetings Attended||Station Calls||Radio Talks||News Articles|
REPORT OF GRASS AND LEGUME INVESTIGATIONS
1961 CROP SEASON
BY WARREN C. WHITMAN, Botanist
1. Intermediate and pubescent wheatgrass plots: The 1961 hay yields from the intermediate-pubescent wheatgrass plots seeded in 1954 are given in Table 1. Table 2 gives the average yields of the intermediate and pubescent wheatgrass varieties in this trial over the 7-year period, 1955-1961. The data given in Table 1 show the composition of the 1961 yields in terms of seeded grass, other grass, and weeds. The "other grass" consists almost entirely of invading crested wheatgrass. As the data of Table 1 show, there have been rather extensive invasions of crested-wheatgrass into the plots. Especially heavy invasions have taken place in the plots of North Dakota pubescent and Ree wheatgrass.
|Table 1. Composition of 1961 Forage Yields from Intermediate-Pubescent Wheatgrass Plots Seeded in 1954.|
|Variety||Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre|
|N. Dak. Pubescent Whtgr.||822||247||11||1080|
|N. Dak. Intermediate||379||94||85||558|
|Table 2. Hay Yields from Intermediate-Pubescent Wheatgrass Plots Seeded in 1954|
|Variety||Oven-Dry Weight - Lbs./Acre||7-Year
|N. Dak. Pubescent||2580||1308||1905||1794||1580||1605||1080||1693|
|N. Dak. Intermediate||2839||1385||2214||1735||1490||1431||558||1665|
All intermediate and pubescent stands in the trial show serious stand loss, with none of the varieties showing more than a 50 per cent stand in the 1961 season, and most varieties averaging about a 25-35 per cent stand. The relatively low plot yields obtained in the 1961 season are primarily the result of drought, but stand deterioration has had an important influence in reducing yields. The average yield of 559 pounds per acre of seeded grass for all varieties is the lowest average yield for the 7-year period of the trial.
The average plot yields (Table 2) show that the intermediate wheatgrass and pubescent wheatgrass varieties have yielded remarkably well for the period of the trial. Despite the low yields of the 1961 season, all varieties have averaged over 3/4-ton of hay for the 7-year period. Stand deterioration is now so serious, however, that it is doubtful whether the varieties will continue adequate production to merit retaining the trial. There seems to be little difference in total production between the intermediate and the pubescent wheatgrass varieties.
2. New Intermediate Wheatgrass Plots: The 1961 yields of hay from the new intermediate wheatgrass trial are given in Table 3. As yet the stands show little invasion by other grass, and the proportion of weeds in the stands is not excessively high. However, the stands do show serious deterioration, and only a few of the plots have over a 50 per cent stand on them.
The range in yield of seeded grass on the plots this year was from 690 pounds per acre for Idaho #4 to 357 pounds for Amur (A-13046). It is doubtful whether the differences in yield have any significance as between varieties. More likely they reflect slight differences in soil moisture. The average yield of the varieties in the 1961 season was only about one-third of last year's average yield.
The three-year average yields (1959-1961) are given in Table 4. While generalization from the present data is hardly justified, it does seem that Amur and Greenar have been less productive in this trial than most of the other varieties. However, the range in average yields for the three-year period is only from 983 pounds per acre to 1262 pounds per acre. The three-year average yield for all varieties of a little over one-half ton per acre is relatively low for young stands of intermediate wheatgrass. South Dakota #20 has been consistently among the better producers throughout the period of the trial.
|Table 3. Composition of 1961 Forage Yields from Intermediate Wheatgrass Plots Seeded in 1958.|
|Variety||Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre||Total
|South Dakota #20||642||---||---||642|
|N. Dak. Intermediate||460||3||23||486|
|Table 4. Hay Yields from Intermediate Wheatgrass Plots Seeded in 1958.|
|Variety||Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre|
|South Dakota 20||1282||1863||642||1262|
|N. Dak. Intermediate||1145||1629||486||1087|
3. Uniform Bromegrass Trial: The hay yields for 1961 of the 14 strains of smooth bromegrass included in the uniform bromegrass trial are given in Table 5. The seven-year average yields for all strains in the trial are given in Table 6. These plots were seeded in 1953 and most of the plots have suffered some stand damage, especially if the last two years. Stands of Lyon, Fischer, and Kuhl seem to have suffered especially severely. Stands on most of the plots, however, are better than 65 per cent. Invasion of other grass and weeds has been relatively slight so far.
The average production of seeded grass for all brome varieties was 375 pounds per acre this year. The range in production this year was from a high of 443 pounds per acre for Manchar to a low of 287 pounds for Canadian commercial. These are the lowest yields obtained so far in the trial and reflect both the effects of the drought season and the deteriorating stands on the plots. Differences in yield between the northern and southern types were not consistent this year.
The data of Table 6 show that on the basis of the seven-year average the southern-type strains have been slightly more productive than the northern-type strains, Lincoln, Fischer, Achenbach, and Oklahoma synthetic are at the top of the list, and the four northern types, Manchar, Mandan 404, Homesteader, and Canadian commercial are at the bottom of the list.
The range in average productivity is not great, however, varying only from 931 pounds per acre for Canadian to 1182 pounds per acre for Lincoln.
|Table 5. Composition of 1961 Hay Yields from Bromegrass Plots Seeded in 1953.|
|Variety||Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre||Total Yield-
|Table 6. Hay Yields from Bromegrass Plots Seeded in 1953.|
|Variety||Dry-Weight Yields - Lbs./Acre||7-Year
4. New Crested Wheatgrass Plots: Yields of hay (oven-dry weight) from the plots in the new crested wheatgrass trials are given in Table 7. This trial was seeded in 1958, and the first yields were taken in 1959. The stands in this trial are in excellent condition, containing little or no invading grass and only negligible amounts of weeds. One variety, A-1770, which was seeded initially in the trial, failed to make satisfactory stands on any of the plots, and has not been included. Turkish Fairway is the only variety that seems to have little adaptation to the area, and this variety has been consistently low yielding.
With the yield of Turkish Fairway excluded, the range in yields for the 1961 season was from 770 pounds per acre for South Dakota #15 to 905 pounds per acre for Nebraska 3576 Fairway. The average yield for all varieties was 810 pounds per acre, which is over twice the yield of seeded grass from the brome plots (Table 5) and almost 30 per cent more than the average yield of seeded grass from the intermediate wheatgrass plots (Table 3). All the adapted varieties of crested wheatgrass show an average yield for the three-year period of over one-half ton per acre. Generally speaking, the Fairway varieties have yielded as well as the varieties of the standard type.
|Table 7. Hay Yields from Crested Wheatgrass Varieties Seeded in 1958.|
|Variety||Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre||3-Year
|Nebraska 3576 Fairway||1371||1605||905||1294|
|South Dakota 15||1164||1546||770||1160|
5. Station Grass and Mixture Trial: Tables 8, 9, 10 summarize the yields of the mixtures and straight grass seedings in the new Station trial seeded in the spring of 1958. The trial is similar to trials being carried on at the other branch stations. Yields from the mixtures and straight grass seedings were fairly good this season considering the general drought conditions that prevailed. The mixtures actually showed very little advantage over the straight grass seedings, averaging 879 pounds per acre, while the grasses alone averaged 822 pounds per acre.
Table 8 gives the 1961 yields from the grass-alfalfa mixtures, and Table 9 summarizes the three-year average production from the mixtures. As shown in Table 8, alfalfa in the 1961 season contributed over 30 per cent of the average yield of the mixtures. Alfalfa was a major contributor to yield in four of the mixtures. These were the green stipa-ladak alfalfa mixture, the green stipa, Teton alfalfa mixture, the Lincoln brome-ladak mixture, and the Manchar brome-ladak mixture. It was a very important contributor in the case of the Lincoln brome-Teton alfalfa mixture. The two green stipa-alfalfa mixtures were seeded in the fall of 1959, and the green stipagrass is not fully established. In the other mixtures alfalfa contributed from about 10 to 20 per cent of the yield.
Stands in a number of the plots were reduced somewhat by the drought conditions of the 1961 season. However, there has been very little invasion of the stands by other grasses, and weeds have not become important in any of the established grass-alfalfa mixture plots. The 1961 yields of the Nordan crested-Teton alfalfa and the Lincoln brome-Nordan crested-Ladak alfalfa were outstandingly good for such a dry season.
The data of Table 9 show that on the basis of the three-year average yields, the Nordan crested-Teton alfalfa, the intermediate wheatgrass-Teton alfalfa, the Lincoln brome-Nordan-Ladak, and the intermediate wheatgrass-Ladak alfalfa mixtures have been the best producing mixtures. The Russian wildrye-alfalfa mixtures have been somewhat lower producing than the other mixtures, as would be expected from the growth habit of Russian wildrye. The three-year average production for all mixtures (excluding the newer seedings of green stipa) of over one ton per acre is unusually good in view of the dry 1961 season.
|Table 8. Composition of 1961 Hay Yields from Station Grass-Alfalfa Mixture Trial Seeded in 1958.|
|Mixtures||Dry-Weight Yields - Lbs./Acre|
|Nordan Crested-Teton Alfalfa||1232||128||---||---||1360|
|Lincoln Brome-Nordan Crested-Ladak Alfalfa||1044||151||---||---||1195|
|Green Stipa (New)-Ladak Alfalfa||104||796||---||135||1035|
|Lincoln Brome-Teton Alfalfa||668||268||4||3||943|
|Lincoln Brome-Ladak Alfalfa||494||392||13||4||903|
|Russian Wildrye (2355)-Teton Alfalfa||680||104||---||2||786|
|Intermediate Whtgr.-Ladak Alfalfa||566||112||---||77||755|
|Russian Wildrye (2355)-Ladak Alfalfa||647||64||---||---||711|
|Manchar Brome-Ladak Alfalfa||486||204||---||2||692|
|Intermediate Whtgr.-Teton Alfalfa||514||79||9||45||647|
|Green Stipa-Teton Alfalfa||162||475||---||5||642|
|Table 9. Three-Year Hay Yields from Station Grass-Alfalfa Mixture Trial Seeded in 1958.|
|Mixtures||Dry-Weight Yields - Lbs./Acre|
|1959||1960||1961||3 - Year
|Nordan Crested-Teton Alfalfa||2536||3396||1360||2431|
|Intermediated Whtgr.-Teton Alfalfa||3144||3381||647||2391|
|Lincoln Brome-Nordan Crested-Ladak Alfalfa||2447||3204||1195||2282|
|Intermediate Whtgr.-Ladak Alfalfa||2818||3258||755||2277|
|Lincoln Brome-Ladak Alfalfa||2171||3272||903||2115|
|Lincoln Brome-Teton Alfalfa||2329||2765||943||2012|
|Manchar Brome-Teton Alfalfa||2127||2764||692||1816|
|Russian Wildrye (2355)-Teton Alfalfa||1449||2307||786||1514|
|Russian Wildrye (2355)-Ladak Alfalfa||1653||1716||711||1360|
|Green Stipagrass-Ladak Alfalfa||---||---||1035||---|
|Green Stipagrass-Teton Alfalfa||---||---||642||---|
The production of the straight grass seedings in the Station Trial is given in Table 10. As previously mentioned, the yields of the straight grasses are very nearly as good as the yields of the grass-alfalfa mixture plots. The grass yields have been unusually good in this trial. The three-year average yield for all grass varieties of 1,988 pounds per acre compares favorably with the three-year average yields of the mixture plots at 2,022 pounds per acre.
Summit crested wheatgrass has shown the highest average yield for the three-year period with a production of 2,412 pounds per acre. Intermediate wheatgrass (Nebr. 50), Nordan crested, Lincoln brome, and Southland brome all show an average production of over one ton per acre for the period of the trial. The two northern bromes and Russian wildrye show appreciable lower production. Slender wheatgrass, which produced fairly well the first two years of the trial, has largely gone out, and the weed covered plots of this variety were not harvested, in the 1961 season. The two green stipagrass varieties are new stands, having been seeded in the fall of 1959.
|Table 10. Three-Year Hay Yields from Station Grass Trial Seeded in 1958.|
|Grass Varieties||Dry-Weight Yield-Lbs./Acre|
|1959||1960||1961||3 - Year
|Intermediate Whtgr. (N.50)||2865||3440||743||2349|
|Russian Wildrye (2355)||1368||2086||686||1380|
|Russian Wildrye (Com.)||1404||1913||756||1358|
|Slender Whtgr.||1937||2601||no stand||---|
|Green Stipa (New)||---||---||755||---|
|Green Stipa (Com.)||---||---||608||---|
6. New Dryland Alfalfa Plots: A new alfalfa trial with twelve varieties was seeded on June 23, 1960. Individual plots were 6' x 30', and four replications were included. Excellent first-year stands were obtained, and the trial was cut once for hay in the 1961 season. As can be seen from Table 11, which reports the yields obtained, production was generally low with the average alfalfa yield for all varieties being 876 pounds per acre (oven-dry). Some of the varieties, especially Du Puits and Pfister, showed some stand loss from the excellent first-year stands. There was very little regrowth on the plots after the first cutting.
Vernal, Rambler, Grimm, Ladak, and Narrangansett showed the best first-year yields, but little significance can be attached to the yield differences obtained in the first year of the study. Yields of alfalfa from the plots ranged from a low of 701 pounds per acre for Pfister FD-180 to a high of 1049 pounds per acre for Vernal.
|Table 11. Hay Yields from Dryland Alfalfa Plots Seeded in 1960.|
|Variety||Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre|
|S. Dak. H-2157||800||100||900|
1. Plots Fertilized Every Year: Hay yields from old crested wheatgrass plots fertilized every year with ammonium nitrate (33-0-0) are given in Table 12. This trial was begun in 1955 and seven-years' data are available. Fertilizer applications on these plots have all been made in early spring, with the 1961 applications being made on April 7. The treatments include check, 25 pounds N., 50 pounds N., and 100 pounds N. per acre.
In the 1961 season, all fertilizer applications increased forage production on the fertilized plots, but all increases were very small. The check plots produced 550 pounds of forage (oven-dry) per acre; the lots with 25 pounds of nitrogen produced 661 pounds of grass per acre; those with 50 pounds N., 693 pounds of grass; and those with 100 pounds N., 706 pounds of grass. None of these increases would have been profitable considering the price of nitrogen to be ten cents per pound and the value of hay to be one cent per pound. This very poor response to nitrogen applications is clearly a result of the unfavorable moisture situation prevailing in the 1961 growing season. The yield of the check plots was only about half the previous average check yield, and the yields on the fertilized plots were only about 40 per cent of the previous average yields on fertilized plots.
Despite the low yields and poor fertilizer response obtained in the 1961 season, the data of Table 12 show that, for the seven-year period as a whole, 25 pounds of nitrogen per acre applied annually has produced a profitable increase in hay yield over that of the check. As previously shown, there is no economic justification for using amounts of nitrogen in excess of 25 pounds per acre for hay production from old crested wheatgrass stands on dryland sites in this area.
|Table 12. Forage Production from Old Crested Wheatgrass Plots Fertilized Annually at Three Rates of Nitrogen (33-0-0).|
|Year||Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre||Percentage Increase Over Check|
|Check||25 lbs. N||50 lbs. N||100 lbs. N||25 lbs. N||50 lbs. N||100 lbs. N|
2. Plots Fertilized Every Other Year: The yields from old crested wheatgrass plots fertilized every other year with ammonium nitrate are given in Table 13. These plots are fertilized in the spring, and the rates of nitrogen application are the same as for the plots fertilized annually. Fertilizer applications have been made in spring of 1957, 1959, and 1961. The data obtained thus far in the study indicate there is some carry-over from all rates of fertilization. The 1961 yields show no carry-over effect, and very little response to the current-year applications of nitrogen.
The 1961 yield on these plots were 554 pounds of grass per acre for the check, 608 pounds on the 25-pound nitrogen plots, 658 pounds on the 50-pound nitrogen plots, and 624 pounds of grass on the 100-pound nitrogen plots. Obviously the slight increases in yield obtained from the use of the fertilizer were not profitable this season.
On the basis of the use of equal amounts of nitrogen over a two-year period, the increases in yield obtained by fertilizing every other year with 50 pounds of nitrogen have not been as good as the yields obtained by fertilizing annually with 25 pounds of nitrogen per acre. Fertilizing with 100 pounds of nitrogen every other year has produced yields equal to those obtained by fertilizing every year with 50 pounds of nitrogen.
The increased yields from 50 pounds of nitrogen every year or 100 pounds of nitrogen every other year are just barely on the margin of returning the cost of the nitrogen. The use of these rates does not appear to be justified when such a distinct advantage exists for the annual 25-pound application of nitrogen.
|Table 13. Forage Production From Old Crested Wheatgrass Plots Fertilized Alternate Years* at Three Rates of Nitrogen (33-0-0).|
|Year||Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre||Percentage Increase Over Check|
|Check||25#N||50#N||100# N||25#N||50#N||100# N|
|*Fertilizer applied in spring of 1957, 1959, and 1961.|
1. Hay Yields from New Fertilizer Trial: In this trial four grasses, Nordan crested wheatgrass, Lincoln brome, Intermediate wheatgrass, and Russian wildrye were grown alone, mixed with Ladak alfalfa, and in plots fertilized with 33 pounds of nitrogen per acre, 67 pounds, and 100 pounds of nitrogen per acre. Fertilizer applications were made in the fall of 1957 and1958, and in the spring of 1960 and 1961. The trial was seeded in spring of 1956.
Fertilization was switched to the spring period because it appeared that considerable stand deterioration was taking place on the fall-fertilized plots of Lincoln brome and intermediate wheatgrass. However, stands on plots containing these varieties continued to deteriorate, and the plots could not be harvested for yield in the 1961 season. The reason for this deterioration apparently was not entirely the fertilizer, because control plots of these varieties also showed serious deterioration.
The hay yields for each of the treatments for the four-year period, 1958-1961, are given in Table 14. In the 1961 season no increases in hay yields were obtained with the alfalfa-grass mixtures over the straight grass seedings. Responses from nitrogen fertilizer were obtained with all three rates of application. Both Nordan crested and Russian wildrye, the best response was obtained with 33 pounds of nitrogen. No additional increases in yield were obtained with the heavier rates of fertilization.
Yield increases were so small that none of the rates of fertilization would have been economical. Thirty-three pounds of nitrogen per acre only increased the hay yield of Nordan crested, 151 pounds over the yield of the check, and Russian wildrye was only increased 178 pounds over the check by this amount of nitrogen.
|Table 14. Hay Yields from Grasses in Pure Stands, in Mixture with Alfalfa, and in Pure Stands Fertilized at Three Different Rates, 1958-1961.|
|Grasses||Year||Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre|
|Intermediate Whtgr.||1961||No yield - stand largely gone out|
|Lincoln Brome||1961||No yield - stand largely gone out|
The four-year average yields are given in Table 15 for Nordan Crested wheatgrass and Russian wildrye. Satisfactory yields were obtained from the other two varieties only for the first three years of the trial, so these varieties are not included in the table. These data show that, for the four-year period, Nordan crested wheatgrass fertilized with 33 pounds of nitrogen per acre has produced enough additional hay to a little more than pay for the cost of the nitrogen. The additional production of Russian wildrye has not been enough to pay for the nitrogen on the basis of the average for the four-year period. These figures are based on hay values of one cent per pound and nitrogen costs of ten cents per pound.
It is apparent from the results of this trial that erratic responses to nitrogen may be expected, that there is little advantage in using more than 25 to 30 pounds of nitrogen per acre in annual fertilizer applications, and that some grasses (in this case Russian wildrye) may not make enough additional production to pay for the cost of the fertilizer. These conclusions apply primarily to the use of nitrogen for increasing hay production. There are a number of reasons for thinking that nitrogen may be more profitably used on pasture than on hayland in this area.
The production of the grass-alfalfa mixtures is probably lower than might be expected. There is now very little alfalfa in these mixtures, and less than 10 per cent of the 1961 yields of the mixtures was made up of alfalfa.
Stands containing a larger proportion of alfalfa in the mixture might well be expected to make better production than that obtained this season in this trial.
|Table 15. Four-Year (1958-1961) Average Hay Yields from Nordan Crested Wheatgrass and Russian Wildrye in Pure Stands, in Mixture with Alfalfa, and in Pure Stands Fertilized with Nitrogen at Three Different Rates.|
|Grasses||Dry-Weight Yield - Lbs./Acre|
|Nordan Crested Whtgr.||1599||1743||2012||2015||2139|
The pastures in the spring grazing trial were grazed for the seventh season in 1961. The grazing period was short this year, the yearling steers being on the pastures only from May 24 to June 21, a period of 48 days. The crested-alfalfa pastures were stocked with eight yearling steers each, as in the past, and one crested wheatgrass pasture (Pasture #3) was stocked with six steers. Pasture #1, which was fertilized with 50 pounds of nitrogen per acre on April 10, 1961, was stocked with eight steers.
Table 16 summarizes pasture yields and forage utilization on the pastures in the 1961 season. It is apparent that the nitrogen application had very little influence in increasing production on Pasture #1 during the grazing period. There was a difference in appearance in the pastures, the fertilized crested wheatgrass being a darker green, but actual production was not influenced much. The data show that during the grazing period, the fertilized pasture produced 884 pounds of forage per acre (dry weight), while the unfertilized pasture produced 852 pounds per acre. Crested-alfalfa Pasture #2 produced 812 pounds per acre, and the crested-alfalfa Pasture #4 produced 958 pounds of forage per acre. There is not much alfalfa left in the crested-alfalfa pastures, and what is present made very poor growth in the 1961 season.
There were appreciable differences in the degree of utilization on the various pastures. Pastures #1 and #2 were heavily utilized, Pasture #2 being especially so, with only 27 pounds per acre of grazable forage left on the ground. Pastures #3 and #4 were somewhat less heavily utilized than the other two.
|Table 16. Forage Produced and Forage Utilized on Pastures by Yearling Steers in the Spring Grazing Trial in the 1961 Season.|
|Average 1 & 3||868||697||171|
|Average 2 & 4||885||755||130|
|*50 pounds of nitrogen applied per acre to Pasture 1 on April 10, 1961.|
Table 17 summarizes the data on yield and forage consumption on the pastures for the seven-year period of the study. The forage data from fertilized Pasture #1 are not included in the summary for 1960 and 1961. Thus the data of the table represent the averages for straight crested wheatgrass pastures and for crested-alfalfa pastures. It is apparent from these data that, despite the dry season, crested wheatgrass produced quite well. The season's production of 852 pounds of forage per acre compares favorably with the seven-year average production of 933 pounds per acre for straight crested wheatgrass. The production in 1956 of 743 pounds per acre was less than the production of straight crested in the 1961 season.
Production on the crested-alfalfa pastures, however, was the lowest this season for the seven-year period. The average production for the two crested-alfalfa pastures of 885 pounds per acre was appreciably less than the seven-year average yield of 1,166 pounds per acre. This low production is primarily a reflection of the drought situation, but is in part related to the decreasing importance if alfalfa in the mixtures.
|Table 17. Seven-Year Summary of Forage Produced and Utilized on Spring Grazing Trial Pastures - 1955-1961.|
|1 & 3||Crested Wheatgrass||1955||962||817||145|
|1 & 3||Crested Wheatgrass||1956||743||556||187|
|1 & 3||Crested Wheatgrass||1957||1046||827||219|
|1 & 3||Crested Wheatgrass||1958||902||756||146|
|1 & 3||Crested Wheatgrass||1959||1046||713||333|
|2 & 4||Crested-Alfalfa||1955||1429||969||460|
|2 & 4||Crested-Alfalfa||1956||1020||756||264|
|2 & 4||Crested-Alfalfa||1957||1415||1231||184|
|2 & 4||Crested-Alfalfa||1958||1102||930||172|
|2 & 4||Crested-Alfalfa||1959||1110||870||240|
|2 & 4||Crested-Alfalfa||1960||1200||1055||145|
|2 & 4||Crested-Alfalfa||1961||885||755||130|
Table 18 gives the animal data obtained on the pastures during the 1961 season. The average seasonal gains per head were slightly better on crested wheatgrass Pasture #3 than on any of the other pastures. The seasonal gain per head here was 111 pounds. On fertilized crested wheatgrass the seasonal gain was 107 pounds; on crested-alfalfa Pasture #2, 82 pounds; and on crested-alfalfa Pasture #3, 103 pounds. The gains per acre this year were 107.0 pounds on fertilized crested, 82.2 pounds on straight crested wheatgrass, 82.0 pounds on crested-alfalfa Pasture #2, and 103.0 pounds on crested-alfalfa Pasture #4. The fertilized crested wheatgrass pasture thus produced the greatest gain per acre, although this gain was only slightly better than the gain per acre on the best crested-alfalfa pasture.
|Table 18. Performance of Yearling Steers on Crested Wheatgrass and Crested Wheatgrass-Alfalfa Pastures During Spring Grazing Period from May 4 to June 21, 1961. (Weights and gains in lbs.)|
|Pasture Type||No. of Steers||Acres per Pasture||Days
|Avg. initial wt./steer||Avg. final wt./steer||Avg. seasonal gain/head||Avg.
|*Pasture #1 fertilized with 50 pounds nitrogen per acre.|
Table 19 summarizes the animal data obtained on the pastures during the seven-year period of the study. Data from fertilized Pasture #1 are not included in this summary. The seven-year averages clearly show the superiority of the crested-alfalfa pastures over the straight crested wheatgrass pastures in the production of pounds of beef per acre. It should be pointed out that as the trial has proceeded and the alfalfa has become less vigorous in the mixture pastures, the differences in production between the crested wheatgrass and the crested wheatgrass-alfalfa pastures have become much less. However, over the seven-year period of the trial, the crested wheatgrass-alfalfa pastures have produced an average of 32.5 per cent more beef per acre than the straight crested wheatgrass pastures.
|Table 19. Seven-Year Summary of Weights and Gains of Yearling Steers on Crested Wheatgrass and Crested Wheatgrass-alfalfa Pastures, 1955-1961.|
|Pasture No.||Pasture Type||Year||No.
Wt. Per Steer Lbs.
|Avg. Final Wt. Per Steer Lbs.||Avg.
Gain Per Head Lbs.
|1 & 3||Crested Wheatgrass||1955||7||51||494||568||74||1.44||64.3|
|1 & 3||Crested Wheatgrass||1956||6||45||520||601||81||1.79||60.3|
|1 & 3||Crested Wheatgrass||1957||6||60||478||622||144||2.40||107.7|
|1 & 3||Crested Wheatgrass||1958||6||63||555||680||127||2.02||95.3|
|1 & 3||Crested Wheatgrass||1959||6||52||528||666||138||2.64||103.2|
|2 & 4||Crested-Alfalfa||1955||7||51||494||600||106||2.06||92.2|
|2 & 4||Crested-Alfalfa||1956||8||45||520||616||96||2.14||96.3|
|2 & 4||Crested-Alfalfa||1957||9||60||498||639||141||2.35||158.1|
|2 & 4||Crested-Alfalfa||1958||8||63||550||682||132||2.10||132.0|
|2 & 4||Crested-Alfalfa||1959||8||52||523||636||113||2.17||112.5|
|2 & 4||Crested-Alfalfa||1960||8||73||521||658||137||1.88||137.0|
|2 & 4||Crested-Alfalfa||1961||8||48||514||608||94||1.96||94.0|
|*Pasture #1 not included because of fertilizer treatment.|
Table 20 contrasts forage production and beef gains per acre for the last three years on straight crested wheatgrass, on crested-alfalfa, and on crested wheatgrass fertilized with 50 pounds of nitrogen per acre. These data show that on the average for the three-year period fertilized crested wheatgrass has produced about 26 per cent more forage than straight crested wheatgrass, and about 10 per cent more than crested and alfalfa. Beef production per acre on fertilized crested has averaged about 41 per cent more than on straight crested, and about 18 per cent more than crested and alfalfa.
The increase in forage production would not pay for the cost of the fertilizer, with forage figured at one cent per pound and fertilizer at ten cents per pound. However, the extra beef produced, figured at 20 cents per pound, would be substantially profitable as between straight crested and fertilized crested. Comparing increased beef production between fertilized crested and crested-alfalfa pastures the return would be near the break-even point. From the results obtained so far, it would appear that substantial increases in beef production are possible through the use of nitrogen on crested wheatgrass pasture, but in the long run the lower costs involved in using crested wheatgrass-alfalfa pasture may prove more profitable.
|Table 20. Forage Production and Gains Per Acre on Spring Grazing Trial Pastures of Crested Wheatgrass, Crested Wheatgrass and Alfalfa, and Crested Wheatgrass plus 50 Pounds of Nitrogen.|
|Crested and Alfalfa||1959||1110||112.5|
|Crested and Alfalfa||1960||1200||137.0|
|Crested and Alfalfa||1961||885||94.0|
|Crested + 50 Lbs. N||1959||1153||133.0|
|Crested + 50 Lbs. N||1960||1476||165.0|
|Crested + 50 Lbs. N||1961||884||106.9|
A new pasture trial to compare the value of straight crested wheatgrass, crested wheatgrass and alfalfa, and crested wheatgrass with nitrogen fertilizer was begun in the fall of 1961. Nordan crested wheatgrass was seeded on a 48-acre piece of land directly east across the road from the present spring grazing trial. Duplicate crested wheatgrass, crested wheatgrass and alfalfa, and fertilized crested wheatgrass pastures will be established on this seeding. The alfalfa for the mixture pastures will be seeded in the spring of 1962. It is hoped that grazing can be started on these pastures in the spring of 1963.
In addition, land was selected for a new trial on summer grazing using Russian wildrye and Lincoln brome pastures. The land will be uniformly cropped this year in preparation for a pasture seeding, probably to be made in the fall of 1963.
1. Correspondence: Twenty-seven letters were written in the conduct of business relating to the Dickinson Station.
2. Radio Programs and TV Shows:
|April 19, 1961||Fertilizing Grass (recording)|
|May 19, 1961||Pasture Fertilization|
|June 8, 1961||Time of Cutting Hay|
|July 13, 1961||Varieties of Crested Wheatgrass|
|August 17, 1961||Poisonous Plants|
|October 5, 1961||Grass Yields (recording)|
|February 22, 1961||TV Short Course (WDAY)|
3. Public Meetings:
|2/27/61||Kiwanis Farmers' Night, Dickinson||80||50 minutes on grassland agriculture|
|5/15/61||Livestock Feeders' Committee||25||Discussion|
|7/12/61||Dickinson Crops Field Day||250||Half-day of tours|
|7/18/61||4-H Camp Field Trip||56||Half-day plant identification|
|7/19/61||Dickinson State Teachers College Conservation Class||35||50 minutes on grassland agriculture|
|10/28/61||Federal Land Bank Assoc., Mandan||36||Grassland values|
|10/29/61||Federal Land Bank Assoc., Napoleon||19||Grassland values|
|11/21/61||North Dakota Crop Imp. Conference, Jamestown||200||Grassland potentials|
|12/6/61||Livestock Research Roundup||1350||Tour and 15 minutes on grasses|
|12/16/61||Burleigh County Crop Imp. Association||60||Pasture in the feeding program|
4. Scientific Conferences:
|1/31 - 2-3-61||American Society of Range Management, Salt Lake City, Utah||800||Attended sessions|
|2/16-17/61||GP-6 Range Research Committee, Denver, Colorado||16||Preparing range project|
|3/9/61||Weather Bureau Conference||15||Discussion of frost occurrence data|
|5/5-6/61||North Dakota Academy of Science, Grand Forks||70||15-minute paper on grassland micro-climate|
|7/13-15/61||America Society of Range Management, Northern Plains Section, Maple Creek, Saskatchewan||85||Range field trip|
|8/10/61||Great Plains Range Weed Committee, Omaha, Nebraska||17||Helped prepare weed project|
|8/27-30/61||Ecological Society of America, Purdue University, Indiana||220||Attended symposium on climate and plant growth|
Whitman, W. C., D. Petersen, and T. J. Conlon. 1961. Results of Clipping Trials with Cool-Season Grasses; North Dakota Farm Research 22: 9-14.
During the breeding seasons, about June 20 to July 31, of 1958, 1959, and 1960, the cow herd has been divided into three groups. One bull has been placed with each group, and a fourth bull has run with yearling heifers. For the late season clean-up, cows have been combined into two herds with one bull per herd. This system of management, combined with recorded birth weight and weaning weights, has given us enough data on the reproductive performance of each bull to form a basis for evaluation. Bulls which sire calves of inferior weight or quality can be eliminated from the herd. The bulls that have been used are:
Sire 4 - Zato Heir 9, bred by A. W. Powell, Sisseton, South Dakota
Sire 5 - Zato Heir 18, bred by A. W. Powell, Sisseton, South Dakota
Sire 6 - TTT Silver Lad, bred by Thor Tagestad, Towner, North Dakota
Sire 8 - DGH Rupert Aster, bred by Don Hoag, Harwood, North Dakota
|Table 1. Weaning Weights and Ages of Calves by 4 Sires, 3 Seasons. Does Not Include Calves From 2-Year Old Heifers.|
|Sire 4||Sire 5||Sire 6||Sire 8|
|Age in Days||172||194||197||177||176||185||191||193||163||179|
|Wt/Day of Age||1.94||1.78||1.95||2.08||1.89||1.87||1.84||1.94||2.00||2.00|
Bulls No. 4 and 6 were sold in the Fall of 1961. Weights are taken on all breeding animals regularly. Table 2. Summarizes the breeding herd record for three years. Two-year olds and their calves were not included.
|Table 2. Cow Weights and Calf Production for 1959, 1960, 1961|
|No. Cows, 3 yrs. and older||81||82||77|
|Wt. at weaning, fall before||1057||1012||1068|
|Wt. March 30, before calving||1094||1081||1127|
|Wt. at weaning, current year||1036||1106||1059|
|Cow Ration, Preceding Winter:|
|Corn Silage, Lb.||25||12-3 mo., 0-3 mo.||0|
|Crested and Brome Hay, Lb.||12||12-3 mo., 17-3 mo.||12-4 mo., 19-2 mo.|
|Straw, Lb.||0||5||7-4 mo, -mo.|
|Ground Barley||0||0||2-2 mo.|
|No. Born Alive||75||71*||72*|
|No. Dry Cows||6||1||0|
|Av. Birth Wt.||71.7||73.6||70.8|
|Av. Weaning Wt.||344.1||338.5||371.9|
|Av. Weaning Age, Da.||175||182||189|
|Av. Wt. Per Da. of Age||1.97||1.86||1.96|
|*Not included in data were 9 late calves in 1960 and 3 late ones in 1961. Also, one was born dead in 1960, and two died young in 1961.|
On June 22, 1961, the 91 cows which comprised the breeding herd were divided into three groups. This allotment was made across previous lot lines taking into account the age and weight of cows, weight and sex of calves, and over-all quality of the cows. The purpose was to begin a study in creep feeding whole oats to the calves of one group, while grazing the other cow and calf pairs in the usual manner without a creep feeder. Since the three pastures are not equal in every respect, this study will have to be repeated, using a different pasture for the creep feeding each' year until weaning weights have been taken on each pasture, with and without a creep feeder. Creep feeding was begun July 1 and continued until weaning, October 30.
|Table 3. Creep-Feeding Whole Oats to Calves - 1961|
|East Park||West Park||Home Pasture|
|No Creep||No Creep||Creep Feeder|
|Av. Wt. Cows, June 22||978||956||990|
|Av. Wt. Cows, Oct. 30||1032||1031||1021|
|Summer Gain/Hd., Cows||54||75||31|
|No. Steer Calves Weaned||17||16||16|
|No. Heifer Calves Weaned||12||14||14|
|Birth Wt. All Calves||70.6||69.1||70.3|
|Weaning Wt. All Calves||348.6||346.2||383.7|
|Total Wt. Oats Fed, Lbs.||5,133|
|Av. Wt. Oats Fed/Calf||171|
|Av. Additional Wt./Calf||36|
|Value of Oats/Bu. Using 28¢ Per Lb. Average Calf Price||$1.88|
|*Two cows lost calves before the grazing season; were removed from averages.|
TWO LEVELS OF WINTERING STEERS FOLLOWED BY DIRECT OR
DEFERRED FINISHING. 4-YEARS' RESULTS
This report covers the fourth and final year of a steer calf wintering experiment begun in the fall of 1957. Each winter, two equal lots of 16 steer calves were wintered on a 'normal' and a 'low' ration. On May 1 both lots were divided into two groups, one group from each lot was summer grazed and finished the following winter, while the other group from each lot was finished in summer dry lot.
All steers were implanted with 24 mg. of stilbestrol when placed in dry lot for finishing.
The purpose of this experiment was to compare costs and profits between the two wintering rations and follow each group of steers through dry lot finishing, whether summer grazed or fed out immediately following the wintering period.
Table 4 shows results of the wintering phase; Table 5 summarizes the summer dry-lot feeding; and Table 6 combines summer grazing and dry-lot finishing which followed. Feed prices used throughout this report:
|Corn Silage||7.20 per ton|
|Alfalfa Hay||18.00 per ton|
|Barley||.72 per bushel|
|Oats||.56 per bushel|
|Soybean Meal||80.00 per ton|
|Steamed Bonemeal||130.00 per ton|
|Trace Min Salt||54.00 per ton|
|Pelleted Beet Pulp||40.00 per ton|
|Grinding Grain||1.00 per ton when done at home|
|Grazing Yearlings||1.50 per hd. per month|
|Table 4. Wintering Steer Calves, 2 Rations, 4 Winters|
|Normal Ration||Low Ration|
|1960-61||4-Yr. Av.||1960-61||4-Yr. Av.|
|Fall Weaning Wt.||349||359||349||360|
|Av. Daily Gain||1.27||1.27||.77||.78|
|Cr. Wht. Grass Hay||4||4||4||4|
|Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:|
|Cr. Wht. Grass Hay||309||313||507||550|
|Feed Cost/100 Lb. Gain||$11.78||$12.24||$13.64||$14.79|
|Table 5. Summer Dry-Lot Finishing of One-Half the Steers In Wintering Lots|
|From Normal Winter Lot||From Low Winter Lot|
|1961||4-Yr. Av.||1961||4-Yr. Av.|
|Initial Wt. (About May 1)||583||595||492||495|
|Final Wt. (about Oct. 30)||999||1018||923||945|
|Av. Daily Gain||2.38||2.39||2.46||2.54|
|Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1||.20||.20||.20||.20|
|Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:|
|Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1||8.4||8.4||8.0||8.0|
|Feed Cost Per 100 Lb. Gain||$12.62||$13.38||$12.28||$12.35|
|Selling Price Per 100 Lb.||$22.40||$23.34||$22.75||$23.39|
|Return Per Hd. Above Feed From Weaning to Market||$64.87||$68.00||$58.06||$61.17|
Tables 4 and 5 show that it was $6.83 per head more profitable to winter steer calves well (1.27 lbs. per day) than to winter them light, (.78 lb. per day) when all were fed out in dry lot immediately after the wintering period. Table 6 gives a three-year summary which indicates that the well-wintered calves returned $4.00 per head more gross profit than the lighter calves, when the first winter was followed by summer grazing and dry-lot finishing in the following winter. One more trial in this series is in progress.
|Table 6. Steers Summer Grazed And Fed Out In Winter to Sell as Two-Yr. Olds|
|Steers From Normal
|Steers From Low
|Wt. to grass||595||496|
|Wt. off grass||807||746|
|Days of grazing||146||146|
|Daily pasture gain||1.45||1.72|
|Days in Dry Lot||166||166|
|Daily Dry-Lot Gain||2.02||1.99|
|Daily Ration, Dry Lot:|
|Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1||.27||.27|
|Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:|
|Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1||14||14|
|Feed Cost/100 Lb. Dry Lot Gain||$18.55||$18.39|
|Selling Price Per cwt.||$23.90||$24.43|
|Return Per Hd. Above Feed, Weaning to Market||$90.62||$86.62|
In the dry-lot feeding of long yearlings, Table 6, it has been the practice to start them in September with only corn silage, 2 lbs. soybean meal, 2.5 lbs. alfalfa hay, bonemeal, and salt for the first 60 days. After 60 days, soybean meal was reduced to 1.5 lbs., and 4 lbs. of ground barley was added. In the first two winters, the barley allowance was raised to 8 lbs. per day for the final month of feeding. All feeding was done once daily, in the morning.
In each of the last two winters, four lots of steer calves have been fed corn silage with 3 to 6 pounds of grain to compare to oats, barley, and pelleted beet pulp in wintering rations. All lots received 1.5 pounds of alfalfa hay, .15 pound of steamed bonemeal, .05 pound of salt, and either .5 or 1 pound of soybean meal, depending upon the level of grain fed.
There has been little difference in gains or costs of the four rations. In the first winter, 3 pounds each of oats and barley produced the highest daily gain (2.21 lb.); and in the second winter, the best gaining steers (2.20 lb.) were fed 2 pounds each of oats, barley, and beet pulp. Feed costs per 100 Lb. gain have ranged from a low of $10.81 for 3 pounds each of oats and barley to a high of $11.85 for 2 pounds each of oats, barley and beet pulp. The experiment is being run a third time in 1961-62. Results for the first two winters are summarized in Table 7.
|Table 7. Comparing Oats, Barley, Beet Pulp for Wintering Calves|
|Oats||Barley||Oats & Bly.||Oats, Bly., &
|No. Steers Per Lot||8||8||8||7||8||8||8||8|
|Av. Daily Gain||1.99||2.10||2.00||1.96||2.21||2.09||2.03||2.20|
|Days on Feed||177||184||177||184||177||184||177||184|
|Av. Daily Ration:|
|Pelleted Beet Pulp||0||0||0||0||0||0||2||2|
|Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1||.2||.2||.2||.2||.2||.2||.2||.2|
|Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:|
|Pelleted Beet Pulp||0||0||0||0||0||0||96||89|
|Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1||10||10||10||10||9||9||10||9|
|Feed Cost Per 100 Lb. G||$11.39||$11.16||$11.07||$11.67||$10.81||$11.50||$11.85||$11.41|
BARLEY, STEAM ROLLED, DRY ROLLED, OR TEMPERED AND ROLLED
FOR YEARLING STEERS, WITH CORN SILAGE AND SUPPLEMENT
There has been much controversy over the relative merits of steam rolling, dry rolling, and rolling of tempered barley for beef cattle. All three methods of preparation are being used successfully by cattle feeders. Perhaps the know-how of the individual feeder is of greater importance than the method of feed preparation. Six lots, two on each type of feed, were fed for 114 days to compare the three methods of rolling barley. Steam rolling was by a commercial mill. Dry rolling was done at the farm, as was the rolling of tempered barley. In tempering, the barley was elevated to an overhead bin by a 4-inch auger into which water was metered to bring the moisture content of the barley up to about 18 per cent at rolling time, 24 hours after mixing with water. This toughened the grain so that the dry roller did a better job of rolling than with dry grain. It was found that when the moisture content ran much above 20 per cent, grain stuck to the roller. Tempered and rolled barley lost most of the added moisture within a few days without causing heating or molding. Fresh feed was prepared about every week to ten days by each of the three methods. All cattle were sold on grade and yield at the close of the trial. The results are shown in Table 8.
|Table 8. Steam Rolled, Dry Rolled, and Tempered Barley for Steers|
|Steam Rolled||Dry Rolled||Tempered|
|Initial Wt. May 4, 1961||787||788||788|
|Final Wt. Aug. 26, 1961||1060||1087||1068|
|Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:|
|Feed Cost Per 100 Lb. Gain||$13.45||$12.19||$12.88|
|Carcass Selling Price Per 100||$35.99||$36.12||$36.01|
|Grade (9=G 10=Ch.)||9.4||9.5||9.4|
|Dressing %, on home wt.||57.8%||58.2%||58.2%|
|Both dry-rolled and tempered-rolled barley priced at $31.00 ton; Steam Rolled @ $34.00 ton; Supplement at $52.00 ton; mixed as follows: 24% ground alf. hay, 15% wheat bran, 11% soybean meal, 9% steamed bonemeal, 6% salt, 5% feeding limestone. 800,000 units Vitamin A, 200,000 units Vitamin D|
CORN SILAGE OR BEET PULP FOR STEERS
Two lots of 297-pound steer calves were fed ten months on ground barley, alfalfa hay, soybean meal, bonemeal and salt, vitamins A and D, and either pelleted beet pulp or corn silage. One steer in the beet pulp lot was a chronic bloater, yet after he was removed to a ration of corn silage, barley and supplements, the bloating stopped. The remaining steers in the beet pulp lot consistently outgained the silage-fed steers and returned about $5.00 per head more profit, but dressed about 2 per cent lower. Table 9 summarizes the trial.
|Table 9. Corn Silage vs. Beet Pulp in Fattening Steer Calves, 1960-61|
Beet Pulp & Barley
Silage & Barley
|No. of Steers||6||7|
|Av. Daily Gain||2.39||2.03|
|Days on Feed||298||298|
|Feed Consumed Per Day:|
|Trace Mineral Salt||.04||.04|
|Feed Per 100 Gain:|
|Trace Mineral Salt||1.6||2.0|
|Feed Cost Per 100 Lb. Gain||$11.78||$11.94|
|Carcass Selling Price/100||$36.15||$36.03|
|Grade (9=G 10=C)||9.5||9.4|
|Dressing %, on home wt.||57.7%||59.8%|
|Return Above Feed Cost/hd., Figuring Steer Calves @ $26.20||$49.09||$44.20|
Last year, we reported that heifers self-fed steam-rolled barley gained more (2.07 lbs. per day) than heifers receiving 4 or 10 pounds per day of crested wheatgrass hay, with steam-rolled barley (1.74 & 1.60 lbs.). Other work, the most recent being that in the November-December, 1961 issue of 'North Dakota Farm Research' from the State University in Fargo, has indicated that a small amount of roughage with heavy barley feeding may give better results than no roughage. This report concerns three lots of heifer calves fed for nine months on steam-rolled barley, steam-rolled barley plus 7 pounds of corn silage, and steam-rolled barley plus 13 pounds of corn silage. Table 10 shows the results.
|Table 10. Heifers Fattened On Steam-Rolled Barley, With and Without Silage|
|No. of Heifers||9||9||9|
|Av. Daily Gain||1.83||1.96||1.87|
|Days on Feed||270||270||270|
|Av. Daily Ration:|
|Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:|
|Alfalfa Hay||68||64||11 (grass hay)|
|Feed Cost/100 lb. Gain||$12.53||$12.76||$13.39|
|Carcass Selling Price/100||$34.65||$34.95||$34.95|
|Grade (9=G 10=Ch)||9.7||9.9||9.9|
|Dressing %, on home wt.||57.0%||58.3%||60.1%|
|Return Above Feed Cost/Hd.
(Calves @ $23.65)
Although the self-fed heifers (Lot 3) returned as much profit as the hand-fed heifers with limited roughage (Lot 2), there were several stiff animals in Lot 3 which would have sold lower under some market conditions.
Cracked wheat is sometimes available at elevators and seed houses as a by-product of the cleaning process. The price is usually competitive with other feed grain prices, and the cracked wheat is often used in swine and poultry rations. Since there is little information available as to the value of cracked wheat in beef cattle rations, it was decided to run a test comparing it with steam-rolled barley. It should be recognized that the usual recommendation is to mix wheat with about equal parts of another grain in feeding cattle. No difficulty was experienced in keeping cattle on feed in this trial, probably because corn silage made up about 40 per cent of the dry matter in the ration. It was observed that the cattle did not appear to like wheat as well as rolled barley. The wheat lot always required more time to clean up their grain than the barley lot. The cracked wheat was dry-rolled to insure uniform small particle size. The wheat contained a noticeable amount of small black weeds seeds, mostly wild buckwheat and mustard, but the heifers rook this mixture as readily as they took clean cracked wheat, which was fed several times as a check on their appetite. Table 11 summarizes this trial. Cracked wheat was priced at $30.00 per ton.
|Table 11. Cracked Wheat vs. Steam-Rolled Barley for Yearling Heifers|
|Average Daily Gain||2.02||2.12|
|Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:|
|Feed Cost/100 Lb. G||$11.86||$12.41|
|Selling Price/100 lb.||$21.30||$22.40|
|Return Above Feed/Hd.
(Yearlings @ $23.00)
A preliminary trial in the spring of 1959 showed little additional gain on yearling steers which were fed 4 pounds of ground barley and oats while grazing good crested wheatgrass and alfalfa pasture. Average daily gains for 66 days of grazing were 3.06 pounds with grain, and 2.95 pounds without grain. In 1960, steers receiving 4 pounds per day of ground barley on grass averaged 2.73 pounds gain, while unsupplemented grass produced 2.17 pounds gain. Again, in 1961, 4 pounds of ground barley on grass produced 2.57 pounds daily gain, while grass alone produced only 2.13 pounds daily gain. The steers used in 1959 were reallotted after spring grazing for another experiment. All steers used in this grazing trial during 1960 and 1961 were placed in dry lot for immediate finishing. Table 12 shows how the steers performed on grass and in dry lot, and includes a third lot of similar steers which were kept in dry lot the entire summer of 1961 for comparison:
|Table 12. Spring Grazing, With & Without Grain, Followed by Dry-Lot Feeding|
|4 Lb. Bly.||On Grass||Grass Alone||Dry Lot|
|Wt. to Grass, 5/2/60, 5/4/61||478||486||477||487||486|
|Wt. off Grass, 7/14/60, 7/10/61||677||658||635||629||662|
|Av. Daily Gain on Grass||2.73||2.57||2.17||2.13||2.63|
|Initial Wt., Dry Lot||677||658||635||629||662|
|Av. Daily Gain, Dry Lot||1.79||2.09||1.89||2.10||1.74|
|Av. Daily Gain, all summer||2.09||2.27||1.98||2.11||2.08|
|Av. Daily Ration, Dry Lot:|
|Days in Dry Lot||154||108||154||108||175|
|Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1||.2||.2||.2||.2||.2|
|Feed Per 100 Lb. Gain:|
|Bonemeal & Salt, 3:1||11||10||10||10||10|
|Feed Cost/100 Lb. Gain, Dry lot||$16.58||$15.02||$15.41||$14.96||$13.79|
|Cost/100 Lb. Inc. Grazing||11.37||10.39||10.81||10.09||13.79|
|Selling Price/100 Lb.||25.10||22.50||24.75||22.40||22.70|
|Return/Hd., Yearlings @ 25¢||65.56||36.05||61.53||32.76||21.25|
|Value of crested wheatgrass and Alfalfa Pasture Per Steer/Acre||$19.00||$16.27|
Stilbestrol implants have consistently given increased gains in steers at the Dickinson Experiment Station. Steer calves were implanted with 0, 12, or 24 mg. pellets at weaning time for four consecutive winters. The rations fed were all based on a heavy allowance of corn silage and 3 to 6 pounds of grain, plus a protein supplement, bonemeal and salt. Since the treatments were across lots, only rate of gain data could be secured. Response to the implants in the four winters was as follows:
|Table 13. Stilbestrol Implants for Steer Calves on Wintering Rations|
|Implanted 12 mg.||Implanted 24 mg.||Not Implanted|
|Av. Daily Gain||2.12||2.06||1.97||1.81||2.09||2.23||1.71||1.75||1.91||1.94|
|Days on Feed||177||184||177||192||177||184||177||192||177||184|
Two lots of yearling heifers were implanted across lot lines in the spring of 1961. The heifers were full-fed corn silage and grain with supplement for 175 days with the following results:
|Table 14. Stilbestrol Implants for Yearling Steers|
|12 mg. Implants||No Implants|
|Av. Daily Gain||2.16||1.89|
|Days on Feed||175||175|
Yearling steers have been grazed on crested wheatgrass pastures, and on crested wheatgrass and alfalfa pastures for seven consecutive years. All pastures have been used heavily for about two months in the spring only. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied to one crested wheatgrass pasture at the rate of 50 Lb. N. per acre for three years. For a complete report on this experiment, including forage yield and consumption, see Dr. Warren Whitman's section of this report. A summary of animal gains only is given in Table 15.
|Table 15. Steer Gains, Early Spring Pasture, 8-Acre Plots|
|Crested Wht-grass||1955||7||May 4||494||July 5||568||1.44||64|
|Crested Wht-grass||1956||6||May 17||520||June 30||601||1.79||60|
|Crested Wht-grass||1957||6||May 4||478||July 3||622||2.44||108|
|Crested Wht-grass||1958||6||April 29||553||June 30||680||2.02||95|
|Crested Wht-grass + N.||1959||6||May 8||528||June 29||661||2.50||99|
|Crested Wht-grass||1959||6||May 8||529||June 29||671||2.67||106|
|Crested Wht-grass + N.||1960||8||May 2||521||June 29||686||2.27||166|
|Crested Wht-grass||1960||6||May 2||523||June 29||658||1.86||102|
|Crested Wht-grass + N.||1961||8||May 4||516||June 21||623||2.23||107|
|Crested Wht-grass||1961||6||May 4||525||June 21||636||2.31||83|
|7-Yr. Av. Without N.||6||517||634||2.08||88|
|3-Yr. Av. With N.||7||521||656||2.32||124|
|Crested & Alfalfa||1955||7||May 4||494||July 5||600||2.07||92|
|Crested & Alfalfa||1956||8||May 17||520||June 30||616||2.14||96|
|Crested & Alfalfa||1957||9||May 4||498||July 3||639||2.36||158|
|Crested & Alfalfa||1958||8||April 29||550||June 30||683||2.11||133|
|Crested & Alfalfa||1959||8||May 8||523||June 29||636||2.13||113|
|Crested & Alfalfa||1960||8||May 2||521||July 14||658||1.88||138|
|Crested & Alfalfa||1961||8||May 4||515||June 21||608||1.95||94|
The three growing-finishing rations used in pig feeding experiments of 1960 and 1961 were mixed as follows:
|Soybean Meal||Buttermilk &
|Trace Mineral Salt||10||10||10|
|Dry Blood Meal||0||0||30|
|Meat & Bonemeal||0||0||30|
|A & B Vitamins||0||0||3 1/4|
The soybean meal ration was compared with the buttermilk and soybean meal ration on pigs started at 27 pound body weight in the summer of 1960. The latter ration gave faster and cheaper gains than the former (1.18 and .95 pounds daily gain , $8.52 and $8.98 per 100 pounds gain). The same two rations fed to pigs at 56 pounds initial weight showed less difference in gains and costs. The buttermilk and soy combination gave daily gains of 1.39 pounds at a cost of $9.08 per 100 pounds. The soybean meal alone produced gains of 1.23 pounds per day of $8.91.
In our opinion, the simple soymeal ration was satisfactory when pigs were placed on feed at 56 pounds, but when starting 27 pounds pigs, the combination soymeal and buttermilk was superior.
In the fall of 1960, six lots of pigs were started on the three rations listed above. The three rations were fed as pellets in the summer of 1960, but as meal in the winter of 1960-61. Winter feeding results are tabulated in Table 16.
|Table 16. Growing-Finishing Fall Pigs, 1960-61|
|Soybean Meal||Buttermilk &
|Lot 3||Lot 4||Lot 5||Lot 6||Lot 1||Lot 2|
|Av. Daily Gain||1.25||1.24||1.23||1.30||1.17||1.27|
|Days on Feed||102||102||102||102||139||102|
|Feed Per 100 Gain||453||454||457||503||402||503|
|Feed Cost Per 100 G.||$8.20||$8.22||$9.05||$9.96||$7.60||$9.51|
In this winter feeding trial, no significant difference between the three rations was evident, except in feed efficiency. The light-weight pigs of Lot 1 were a little more efficient as might be expected. Lots 2 and 6 were low in efficiency, possibly because of waste at the feeder.
The Dickinson Experiment Station ration (D.E.S. Sup.) listed above was fed to pigs of 10 lots in the summer of 1961. Concrete dry lot was compared with winter wheat pasture (spring seeded), and two additives were tested, Copper Sulfate and Zinc Bacitracin. All feeders were pelleted and all lots were started on feed May 22. first, in Table 17, we will consider the lots on winter wheat pasture, with and without growth booster additives, CuSO4 and Zn Bacitracin with Penicillin.
|Table 17. Growth Boosters, CuSO4 and Zn. Bacitracin in the DES Pig Ration|
|Lot 2||Lot 3||Lot 4||Lot 5||Lot 6|
|7.5 gms. Zn. Bac.
2.5 gms. Penicillin Per Ton
|2 Lb. Cu SO4
|Av. Daily Gain||1.35||.98||1.25||1.17||1.21|
|Days on Feed||120||120||120||120||120|
|Feed/100 Lb. Gain||345||367||343||340||338|
|Feed Cost/100 Lb. G.||$8.07||$8.77||$8.27||$8.13||$8.15|
Neither Copper Sulfate nor Zinc Bacitracin and Penicillin appeared to have a beneficial effect upon rate or efficiency of gains in this trial. About 25 per cent of the pigs in the above five lots were found to be affected with Rhinitis; therefore, the trial was closed prematurely to clean up this disease.
At the DES Station other spring pigs were finished in concrete floored pens using the DES ration, DES with Zn. Bacitracin and Penicillin, and the Dry Buttermilk and Soymeal ration listed on the preceding page. Table 18 summarizes this series of trials:
|Table 18. Three Rations on Concrete for 2 Weights of Feeder Pigs|
|Lot 1-C||Lot 2-C||Lot 3-C||Lot 4-C||Lot 5-C||Lot 6-C|
|Av. Daily Gain||1.28||1.33||1.25||1.03||1.03||1.30|
|Days on Feed||92||92||92||120||120||120|
|Feed/100 Lb. Gain||380||359||372||387||360||358|
|Feed Cost/100 Lb. G.||$8.89||$8.83||$8.89||$9.06||$8.86||$8.56|
The large (54 Lb.) pigs performed about the same on all three rations in this set of concrete floored pens. The lighter (34 Lb.) pigs gained slower than the larger pigs on the DES and Buttermilk & Soy rations, but gained as well as the larger pigs (1.30 Lb. per day for lites, compared 1.28, 1.33 & 1.25 for heavies) on the ration supplemented with Zinc Bacitracin and Penicillin.
The usual 500 day-old white Plymouth Rock chicks were picked up at the Blue Ribbon Hatchery in Mandan, March 30, 1961. They were brooded under two electric brooders in a brooder house that was heated by an oil heater. For three weeks, a commercial starter krumlet was fed, 500 pounds in all; then one ton of custom-made grower pellets was fed. Pullets were moved to an open front range shelter at seven weeks. As the pelleting mill was destroyed by fire, the cockerels were finished on grower mash, home mixed.
The cockerels were sold at twelve weeks of age, averaging more than four pounds per head. No sickness was seen in the flock at any time and mortality was about three per cent. For the first time in several years of straight-run chick raising, pullets outnumbered cockerels. There were only 190 cockerels in 500 chicks.
About 250 of the best pullets were moved from the range house to the laying house September 19. The laying house was remodeled before the pullets were housed.
The month by month laying record for pullets housed August 23, 1960, was as follows:
|Date||Meeting and Subject||Attendance|
|January 10-13||Annual Branch Station Conference, Fargo|
|January 14||Sidney Feeders Tour, Sidney, Montana||200|
|January 26||Hettinger County Cattle Feeders Tour, Mott||200|
|January 30-February 4||American Society of Range Management, Salt Lake City||875|
|February 7||Annual Sheep Day, Hettinger Experiment Station||225|
|February 9||Dunn County Feeder Tour and meeting, Killdeer||75|
|February 10||North Dakota State University Cattle Feeder's Day, Fargo|
|February 15||Golden Valley County Feeder Tour and meeting, Beach||100|
|February 16||Slope County Crops and Livestock Meeting, Amidon||70|
|February 25||McKenzie County Feeder Tour and meeting, Watford City||100|
|March 6-7||Valley City Winter Show, Valley City|
|March 13||Baron's Club, Dickinson, "Beef Production"||25|
|May 12||Dr. Whitman's Range Management Class visited Station||16|
|May 29||Farm Group from Wishek toured Station||30|
|July 10||Baron's Club, Dickinson, Picnic and tour||30|
|July 10||Prof. Murphy's Agriculture Class, 1 hour lecture||27|
|July 12||Annual Crops Day, Tour of Feed Lots||225|
|July 13-15||American Society of Range Management, Maple Creek, Sask.||70|
|July 19||Rotary Picnic and tour of Station||60|
|July 21||4-H District Livestock Judging Contest||70|
|August 14||Baron's Club toured cattle feed lots||15|
|September 2||Richardton 4-H Festival|
|September 12-15||National Barrow Show, Austin, Minnesota|
|October 7||Land Judging Contest, Dickinson||75|
|October 24||Rotary Farmer's Night, Dickinson||70|
|October 25||Morton Burleigh County Agricultural Improvement Association, Bismarck||40|
|December 6||Twelfth Annual Livestock Research Roundup||1350|
|December 21||Adams County Livestock Improvement Association, Hettinger||25|
|January 19, 1961||Barley, Supplements, and Rates of Feeding|
|February 9, 1961||Calf Feeding|
|March 2, 1961||Rolled Barley and Supplements for Cattle|
|March 23, 1961||Results of Winter-Feeding of Big Steers|
|April 13, 1961||Five Months' Progress Report on Feeding|
|May 4, 1961||Summer Feeding Trials Planned|
|June 1, 1961||Summer Cattle Feeding Progress|
|June 29, 1961||Creep Feeding Calves|
|July 27, 1961||Cattle Feeding Work in Progress|
|August 24, 1961||Sale of Finished Heifers, July 31|
|September 21, 1961||Recently Marketed Fat Steers|
|October 12, 1961||Value of Spring Pasture for Cattle|
|November 2, 1961||The Year's Cattle-Feeding Experiments|
|November 23, 1961||Abstracts of Research Roundup|
|December 14, 1961||Summary of 4-Years' Calf Wintering Trials|
REPORT OF AGRONOMIC INVESTIGATIONS - 1961
BY THOMAS J. CONLON
The season of 1961 was characterized by below average precipitation and above average temperatures in May, June, July and August.
Above average precipitation in September of 3.05 inches raised the total annual precipitation figure to 13.90 inches which was still 1.60 inches below average for the year. The September precipitation was too late for any crop except pasture in 1961 but provided excellent conditions for fall seeding of winter grains.
Daily precipitation figures for 1961 are given in Table 1.
Table 2 summarizes the important climatic data.
|Table 1. Daily Precipitation - 1961|
|Total Annual Precipitation - 13.90|
|Table 2. Climatic Data Summary - Dickinson Experiment Station - 1961|
|Mean Temperature - Degrees Fahrenheit|
|Wind Velocity - Miles Per Hour|
|Last Killing Frost in the Spring||First Killing Frost in the Fall|
|1961||May 2||1961||September 15|
|55-Year Average||May 18||55-Year Average||September 17|
|55-Year Average||119 days|
|Table 3. Maximum Temperatures - Degrees F. - 1961|
In southwestern North Dakota, the tillage method and cropping history of the land during the previous year have a most important effect on crop production. Crop yields in this area are dependent upon the moisture provided by seasonal rainfall plus the moisture which is stored in the soil at seeding time, and any farming practice that will aid in holding and storing moisture in the soil, and which will make maximum use of that moisture for crop production is recommended practice for this area.
In recent years the recognition of the importance of the use of commercial fertilizer on some crops has resulted in the inclusion of several trial designed to study the effects of commercial fertilizer on crop production when used along with different crop rotation and tillage methods.
In these experiments, tillage in preparation for seeding usually is begun within two or three days of the earliest work on farms in the community. The average seeding date is about the middle of April. Average harvest time is the first week in August.
Grain yields in these experiments are no better than yields harvested on the better farms in the area, and for the most part reflect fairly well the annual yields for this area.
In 1955 a series of two-year corn-wheat rotations were planned to determine the effects of commercial fertilizer application on crop yields in such a rotation, and also, to determine the residual accumulation, if any of commercial fertilizer applied to the land annually. Soil tests made in 1955 indicated a need for drill application of 75 pounds of ammonium phosphate (11-48-0) on the wheat and 100 pounds of ammonium phosphate (8-32-0) on the corn in these trials.
In these trials fertilizer was applied to the wheat with a conventional fertilizer attachment to the grain drill. The first two years of the trial, 1955 and 1956, fertilizer was applied to the corn crop with a split boot applicator. In 1957, 1958, and 1959, an applicator which placed the fertilizer about two inches to the side and at the same level as the seed was used. The important point regarding both of these methods of fertilizing corn is that the fertilizer was placed at the same level or above the seed but neither device placed it below seed level. In 1960 we began work with a fertilizer attachment which places the fertilizer two inches to one side and two inches below the seed level.
Tables 4 and 5 give the 1961 yields from this trial. Tales 6 and 7 summarize results from this trial for the past seven years.
|Table 4. Wheat Yields - Corn-Wheat Rotation Fertilizer Series - 1961|
|Wheat Yields On:||Plot No.||Yield-Bushels Per Acre|
|DD Cornland, Fertilized||58||112||116||0.0||1.0||1.0||.67|
|DD Cornland, Corn Fertilized in 1960||54||110||114||0.0||1.5||1.8||1.1|
|DD Cornland, Check||56||108||118||0.0||1.9||1.0||1.0|
|Table 5. Silage Yields - Corn-Wheat Rotation Fertilizer Series - 1961|
|Corn Silage Yields On:||Plot No.||Green Weight in Tons/Acre @ 70% Moisture|
|S. P. Wheat Stubble, fertilized||55||111||115||3.7||4.9||3.8||4.1|
|S. P. Wheat Stubble, fertilized in 1960||59||113||117||3.3||3.7||3.1||3.4|
|S. P. Wheat Stubble , Check||57||109||119||4.0||3.3||4.5||3.9|
|Table 6. Wheat Yields - Corn-Wheat Rotation Fertilizer Series - 1955 - 1961|
|Wheat Yields On:||Yield-Bushels Per Acre|
|DD Cornland, fertilized||27.8||3.3||14.7||25.7||9.9||15.1||0.67||13.9|
|DD Cornland, corn fertilized previous year||25.5||3.1||12.3||25.6||7.7||14.1||1.1||12.7|
|DD Cornland, Check||17.2||2.7||10.4||24.1||9.7||11.1||1.0||10.9|
|Table 7. Silage Yields - Corn-Wheat Rotation Fertilizer Series - 1955 - 1961|
|Corn Silage Yields On:||Yield in Tons Per Acre @ 70% Moisture|
|S. P. Wheat Stubble, Fertilized||2.98||3.14||8.50||1.80||1.42||1.81||4.10||3.39|
|S. P. Wheat Stubble, Fertilized previous year||2.96||3.49||9.30||2.30||1.34||2.17||3.40||3.57|
|S. P. Wheat Stubble, Fertilized||2.89||3.22||8.70||2.50||1.77||2.22||3.90||3.60|
|Table 8. Corn Silage Yields on Different Fertilizer Application Methods - 1960 - 1961|
|Treatment||Yield in Tons Per Acre @ 70% Moisture|
|Starter Application at Seeding of 100# 8-32-0 Per Acre||2.53||1.07||1.84||1.81||3.70||4.90||3.80||4.10||2.96|
|Broadcast and Plowdown 100# 8-32-0 Per Acre||1.57||1.57||1.60||1.58||2.67||2.72||3.57||2.99||2.29|
COMPARISON OF WHEAT YIELDS ON CONTINUOUS CROPPING,
CORNLAND AND FALLOW, FERTILIZED AND UNFERTILIZED
This trial was begun in 1959 to compare long time results from commercial fertilizer application on three different cropping systems.
The fertilizer requirements, determined by means of a soil test are: 25 pounds N and 36 pounds of P2O5 per acre on non-fallow land and 8 pounds N and 36 pounds P2O5 per acre on fallow land.
Yields in this trial for the three year period 1959 through 1961 are summarized in Table 9.
|Table 9. Wheat Yields on Continuous Cropping, Cornland and Fallow, Fertilized and Unfertilized|
|Treatment||1961 Yield BPA||1960
|S. P. Continuous||3.5||5.9||4.9||4.8||10.8||6.7||7.4|
|S. P. Continuous, fertilized||5.6||3.6||2.5||3.9||12.5||8.1||8.2|
|Disked Cornland, fertilized||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||13.6||8.6||7.4|
WHEAT-SORGHUM, WHEAT-CORN AND WHEAT-SUDAN
COMPARED IN TWO-YEAR ROTATION
Sorghum, sudan grass and corn are compared as silage crops in this trial. Grain sorghum is also included, and is harvested as silage and for grain in years when grain matures.
In 1960 the varieties planted were Reliance grain sorghum, Ranches forage sorghum, Piper sudan grass and Nodakhybrid 301 corn. In 1961 the same varieties were used except for the substitution of MS323 grain sorghum instead of Reliance.
Yields for 1960 and 1961 are given in Tables 10 and 11.
In a separate trial sorghum was seeded on July 5 on land that had earlier been seeded to sudan grass but which was considered to be a failure. This late seeding was also a failure, with only a very short growth resulting from this late seeding. The use of sorghum and sudan for late seeding is often promoted as an emergency crop to provide feed after failures have resulted from spring and early summer drought. These seedings are successful only if precipitation is adequate germination and growth during July. During this period rainfall in this area usually comes in the form of showers.
|Table 10. Wheat-Sorghum, Wheat-Corn and Wheat-Sudan in Two-Year Rotation.|
|Wheat after forage sorghum:||Plot No.||60||90||92||121||Av.||1960 Yield||2-Year Av.|
|Wheat Yield-Bushels Per Acre||6.0||1.4||6.1||6.7||5.1||10.2||7.7|
|Wheat after corn:||Plot No.||56||63||88||95|
|Wheat yield-bushels per acre||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||11.4||5.7|
|Wheat after grain sorghum||See footnote1|
|Cultivated rows:||Plot No.||23||25||27|
|Wheat yield-bushels per acre||1.2||1.0||1.6||1.3||11.4||6.4|
|Solid Drilled:||Plot No.||22||24||26|
|Wheat yield-bushels per acre||1.1||1.0||1.2||1.1||13.2||7.2|
|Wheat after Sudan:||Plot No.||2||4||120|
|Wheat yield-bushels per acre||1.0||1.0||6.4||2.8||8.3||5.6|
|1Solid drilled sorghum plots were a total failure in 1959 and were plowed in July. Grain yields in 1960 reflect the effect of this midsummer tillage.|
|Table 11. Wheat-Sorghum, Wheat-Corn and Wheat-Sudan in Two-Year Rotation|
|Forage sorghum after wheat:||Plot No.||61||91||93||122||Av.||1960 Av.||2-Yr.
|Silage Yield-Tons/Acre @ 70% moisture||2.58||.54||2.40||.48||1.50||2.49||2.00|
|Corn after wheat:||Plot No.||57||62||89||94|
|Silage Yield-Tons/Acre W 70% moisture||3.96||4.26||3.90||4.95||4.27||1.98||3.13|
|Grain sorghum after wheat:|
|Cultivated Rows||Plot No.||28||30||32|
|Silage Yield-Tons/Acre @ 70% moisture||.42||.41||.15||.33||1.71||1.02|
|Grain Yield - Lbs. Per Acre||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||260||130|
|Solid drilled:||Plot No.||29||31||33|
|Silage Yield-Tons/Acre @ 70% moisture||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0|
|Sudan after Wheat:||Plot No.||1||3||5|
|Silage Yield- Tons/Acre @ 70% moisture||.85||.53||.44||.61||2.39||1.50|
This crop was included in the Dickinson trials for the first time in 1960. The trial includes seedings in cultivated rows and in solid drilled planting with a conventional 6 x 14 press drill.
The solid drilled planting was a total failure in both 1960 and 1961. Yields from the planting in cultivated rows are given in Table 12.
We experience the same difficulty in growing sorghum almum that we have in growing sorghum and sudan grass.
|Table 12. Sorghum Almum Yields - 1960 1961|
|Treatment||Average Yields-Tons/Acre @ 70% Moisture|
|Silage Yields on Spring Plowed Wheat Stubble||1961||1960||2-Yr. Av.|
This trial is designed to compare 38-inch row spacing, 42-inch row spacing and 42-inch wheel track planting of corn.
Results from this trial for the past three years are summarized in Table 13. Present plans are to continue this trial for at least another five years.
|Table 13. Yields from Three Methods of Planting Corn|
|Corn Silage Yields On:||Yield-Tons Per Acre @ 70% Moisture|
|42-inch Wheel Track Planting||2.18||2.97||2.81||2.65||1.71||1.26||1.87|
YIELDS ON CONTINUOUSLY CROPPED LAND COMPARED
WITH YIELDS FROM ALTERNATE CROP AND FALLOW
The Continuously cropped series of plots set up in 1908 have been continued without interruption for fifty-five years. Yields from this year's trial and average yields for the fifty-five year period, 1908-1961, are summarized in Table 14.
This experiment has shown spring plowing to be a better tillage method for this area than fall plowing. When spring plowing is practiced, the grain stubble is left standing during the winter months to catch and hold snow which helps provide moisture for germination and early growth of the crop in the spring. This is perhaps one of the biggest reasons for differences in production from these two tillage methods.
Local spots of gumbo or heavy clay soil and small areas of river bottom land that dry out slowly in the spring are the exceptions that may require fall plowing in western North Dakota.
At the present time, continuous cropping of small grain is neither recommended or practiced to any extent in this area. Alternate cropping and fallow is a common practice over much of the region, but in the past few years this practice has been replaced by many farmers with a corn-grain rotation which is a more productive cropping sequence if the corn crop is utilized as silage.
|Table 14. Small Grain Yields on Continuous Cropping - 1961|
|Crop||Spring Plowed||Fall Plowed||Alternate Fallow|
Table 15 summarizes the data on the continuous corn experiment for the fifty-five year period, 1908-1961.
|Table 15. Corn Yields on Continuous Cropping|
|Corn Silage Yields On:||Yield in Tons/Acre @ 70% Moisture|
1908 - 1961
|Corn Grain Yields On:||Yield in Bushels of Shelled Corn Per Acre|
1908 - 1959
SPRING MOISTURE AND YIELDS ON STANDING STUBBLE VS. SPRING
MOISTURE AND YIELDS ON STUBBLE LAND TILLED IN THE FALL
Crops in western North Dakota depend upon the moisture provided by seasonal rainfall plus the moisture stored in the soil at seeding time. It is important that we use only those tillage practices that will conserve soil moisture.
Fall tillage of stubble land is not an uncommon practice in western North Dakota. Except for minor localized spots of heavy clay and gumbo soils, fall tillage probably is unnecessary. In fact, in some years fall tillage may be detrimental to yields of small grain the following season.
This trial, begun in the fall of 1957, compares soil moisture at seeding time and yields of wheat stubble land: Where the stubble is not tilled in the fall, where the stubble is tilled with the one-way disk in the fall, and, where the stubble is tilled with wide sweeps in the fall.
Data from this trial for 1958 and 1959 crop seasons show no significant differences among these three treatments at the 5 per cent level of significance for soil moisture to a depth of 36 inches at seeding time or for yield of wheat for either year. In 1960, however, there was a significant difference of 4.5 bushels of wheat per acre in favor of standing stubble compared with one-way disked stubble and 3.3 bushels of wheat per acre in favor of standing stubble compared with stubble tilled in the fall with wide sweeps. In 1961, the difference in yield was 6.3 bushels per acre more on standing stubble compared with one-way disked stubble and 1.9 bushels per acre more on standing stubble when compared with yields on stubble tilled in the fall with wide sweeps.
Yields from this trial for 1960-61 are given in Table 16. Moisture determinations are summarized in Table 17.
|Table 16. Wheat Yields on Fall Tillage Trial - 1961|
|Treatment||Yield-Bushels Per Acre||1960
|Table 17. Percent Moisture at Seeding on Fall Tillage Trial - 1961|
|Treatment||Depth of Moisture Sample|
The corn silage production trial and a corn maturity rating trial were conducted at the Dickinson Experiment Station again this year in addition to the corn work included in the rotation, tillage and fertilizer trials which are summarized under the rotation and tillage sections of this report.
Data from the corn silage production trial are given in Tables 18 and 19. The corn maturity trial for 1960 is summarized in Table 20.
|Table 18. Corn Silage Production Trial - 1961|
|Description||Yield-Tons/Acre @ 70% Moisture|
|Mandan Rainbow flint||5.3||1.5||3.3||3.4|
|Nodak Multicross 85||3.1||3.1||4.2||3.5|
|Jacques Sib bred 1 E||1.8||4.4||2.4||2.9|
|Table 19. Corn Silage Production Trial - 1954 - 1961|
|Description||Yield in Tons Per Acre1||8-Year Av.||4-Year Av.|
|AES - 101||---||---||4.8||4.2||3.9||2.6||3.5||2.0||---||3.0|
|U. M. 164||---||---||---||---||4.4||2.7||4.2||2.7||---||3.5|
|1Yields through 1958 on green weight basis. From 1959 on 70% moisture basis.|
|Table 20. Corn Maturity Yield Trial - 1961|
|Relative maturity and Description||Yield- Tons/Acre @ 70% Moisture||%
|Kingscrost KF1||80 day||3.0||2.8||3.3||3.0||3.40||77.2|
|Jacques 850||85 day||3.2||2.5||3.9||3.2||3.80||77.7|
|Trojan D62||90 day||3.5||2.8||4.7||3.7||2.70||75.4|
|Pfister 28||95 day||3.0||2.8||3.3||3.0||3.30||79.3|
|Pfister 32||100 day||4.4||3.2||4.0||3.9||3.50||74.6|
|Pfister 43||105 day||3.7||3.5||4.9||4.0||3.70||77.8|
|Pfister 44||110 day||2.5||3.7||4.6||3.6||3.50||80.8|
|Pfister Dw.||115 day||2.1||3.2||3.7||3.0||4.40||78.0|
|Pfister 323||120 day||2.8||4.6||4.7||4.0||2.90||78.8|
Experiments with barley in 1961 included the varietal field plot trials, the Great Plains nursery planting and a special nursery of material furnished by Dr. Glenn S. Peterson, North Dakota State University.
Betzes, highest yielding variety in this year's trial produced only 16.3 bushels per acre on fertilized summer fallow. These are the lowest barley yields recorded from this trial since 1949.
Data from the field plot trials are summarized in Tables 21 and 22.
Results from the 1961 Great Plains nursery planting are given in Table 23.
Material grown in the special nursery for Dr. Peterson was harvested and forwarded to him.
|Table 21. Agronomic data from the Barley Variety Trial - 1961|
|Description||Yield in Bushels Per Acre||Test
|Std. error % 16.4 LSD @ 5% 2.8 bu.; Seeded April 19, 1961 on summerfallow; Fertilized at 86 pounds per acre with 11-48-0|
|Table 22. Comparative Yields - Barley Variety Trial - 1961|
|Description||Yield in Bushels Per Acre||Averages||Av.
|Table 23. Agronomic data from the Uniform Great Plains Barley Nursery - 1961|
|Yield-Bu. Per Acre||Test
|Trebi x Spartan||10003||11.8||10.0||12.8||11.5||47.5||20||15||18|
|C.I. 7114 x Velvon II||10006||9.8||7.0||11.0||9.3||40.0||19||15||15|
|Velvon II x Spartan||10422||4.0||13.0||7.8||8.3||47.5||24||18||13|
|36Ab 1991 x Titan||10639||7.5||17.8||9.0||11.4||46.5||24||18||10|
|Glacier x Compana||10861||7.8||16.8||10.8||11.8||43.5||25||18||12|
|Arivat x Afghanistan||10076||3.5||8.0||3.5||5.0||46.0||25||18||12|
|Seeded April 18, 1961|
Experiments with flax at the Dickinson Experiment Station in 1961 included a varietal field plot trial of six varieties seeded on summerfallow on May 8, and the Uniform early-sown flax nursery which was planted on April 20.
This year's flax variety trial was a total failure because of the drought.
Yields from the flax variety trial for the past ten years are given in Table 24.
Very poor yields were harvested from the nursery planting this year because of the drought. The earlier seeding date of April 20 did not seem to make a difference in this year's production.
Yields from this year's flax nursery planting are given in Table 25.
|Table 24. Comparative Yields -Flax Variety Trials - 1952-1961|
|Table 25. Agronomic data from the Uniform Early-Sown Flax Nursery - 1961|
|Entry No.||Name or Cross||C.I. No.||Yield-bu. Per Acre||Test Wt.||Ht.
|Days From Sowing|
|6||(Rnw x Bis) (Ko x Rwg) (Rwd||1823||1.2||1.8||1.5||1.5||51.0||13||61|
|7||Repit 117 x Redson||1825||1.0||1.6||1.2||1.3||51.0||10||54|
|8||Resel C. I. 1606||1914||1.3||2.1||1.7||1.7||50.0||10||61|
|9||Dak. x Cryst-B.S.||1915||1.0||1.9||1.3||1.4||49.5||13||61|
|10||Cryst x Rock (Cree)||1916||1.0||1.8||1.2||1.3||49.5||14||61|
|11||Rwd x (Val x Raja)||2264||.8||2.3||1.0||1.4||48.5||11||63|
|14||B-5128 Sel N.D. 2||2278||2.6||.5||.5||1.2||48.5||13||64|
|15||B-5128 Sel N. D. 4||2279||.5||1.7||.6||.9||46.5||13||64|
|Seeded April 20, 1961|
Experiments with oats at the Dickinson Experiment Station in 1961 included a field plot trial of 12 varieties, the North Central States Uniform Oat nursery planting and a special planting of 1958 Aberdeen selections.
Yields in the 1961 oat variety trial were the poorest harvested at the Dickinson Station since 1941 when yields of oats were reduced by a severe hail storm. Yields this year rank with the poor oat years of 1931, 1933, 1934, 1936 and 1937.
Data from the oat variety trials are summarized in Tables 26 and 27.
Yields in the 1961 nursery plantings were the poorest recorded for many years because of the drought.
Data from this year's nursery plantings are given in Tables 28 and 29.
|Table 26. Agronomic data from the Oats Variety Trial - 1961|
|Description||Yield in Bushels Per Acre||Test
|1Yields adjusted for 30% hull.|
|Table 27. Comparative Yields - Oat Variety Trial 1961|
|Description||Yield in Bushels Per Acre||Averages||Av.
|1 Yield adjusted for absence of hull. Estimated 30%; Average test weight is for 1958-1961|
|Table 28. North Central States Oat Nursery Yields - 1961|
|Yield-Bushels Per Acre||Dates||Height Inches||Test
|Description of Material Included in the 1961 North Central States Uniform Oat Performance Nursery|
|CI. No.||Variety or Cross|
|1||7552||Ajax x Ransom|
|2||4170||Andrew: Bond x Rainbow (ck)|
|3||7669||(Beacon x Hawkeye-Victoria) x Rodney|
|4||7670||[(Beaver-Garry x Clinton) x Clintland] x Minor|
|5||7671||[(Beaver-Garry x Clinton) x Clintland] x Minor|
|6||7672||(Beaver-Garry x Clinton) x Waubay x [(Bonda x Hajira-Joanette) x Santa Fe]|
|7||7673||[(Bond-Rainbow x Hajira-Joanette) x Landhafer] x Andrew3|
|8||7674||[(Bond-Rainbow x Hajira-Joanette) x Landhafer] x Andrew3|
|9||7675||[(Bonda x Hajira-Joanette) x Santa Fe] x Marion x (Roxton-R.L. 1276 x Ajax-R.L. 1276)|
|10||7563||Bonham5 x (Cherokee2 x R.L. 2105)|
|11||7676||(Cherokee x Ark 674) x Newton|
|12||7677||Clintland x (Clinton2-Ark 674 x Milford)|
|13||7678||Clintland x (Garry x Hawkeye-Victoria)|
|14||7453||Clintland x (Garry x Hawkeye-Victoria)|
|15||7555||Clintland8 x [Victoria x (Hajira x Banner)] x (Victory x Hajira) x Roxton|
|16||7462||Clintland 602 x Mo. 0-205|
|17||7679||Clintland 602 x Mo. 0-205|
|18||7680||Clintland 602 x Mo. 0-205|
|19||7681||Clintland 602 x Mo. 0-205|
|20||7556||Clinton x Garry|
|21||7454||Clinton x [(Victoria x Hajira-Banner) x Victory]|
|22||4259||Clinton 59: D69 x Bond (ck)|
|23||7640||Clinton 59 x [(Hajira-Joanette x Bond-Rainbow) x Santa Fe] x Andrew-Landhafer|
|24||7463||Clinton 597-Landhafer x Milford|
|25||7461||Clinton 596-Landhafer x [(Victoria x Hajira-Banner) x (Victory-Hajira x Roxton)]|
|26||7269||Dodge: Clintland x (Garry x Hawkeye-Victoria)|
|27||6662||Garry: Victory x (Victoria x Hajira-Banner) (ck)|
|28||7472||[Garry x (Santa Fe x R.L. 1942)] x R.L. 2228|
|29||7473||[Garry x (Santa Fe x R.L. 1942)] x R.L. 2228|
|30||2027||Gopher: Sixty-Day Selection (ck)|
|31||7467||[Landhafer x (Mindo x Hajira-Joanette)] x Andrew x Clintland|
|32||7682||[Landhafer x (Mindo x Hajira-Joanette)] x Andrew2 x Rodney|
|33||7683||[Landhafer x (Mindo x Hajira-Joanette)] x Andrew x Clinton x Rodney|
|34||7685||Logan x (Beacon x Hawkeye-Victoria)|
|35||7684||Marne2 x [(Beaver-Garry x Clinton) x Clintland]|
|36||7680||Minor x [Beaver-Garry x Clinton) x Clintland]|
|37||7687||Minor x [Beaver-Garry x Clinton) x Clintland]|
|38||7560||Minton x (Beacon x Hawkeye-Victoria)|
|39||7466||Mo. o-205 x (Clinton 597-Landhafer)3 x [(Clinton x Boone-Cartier) x R.L. 2105]|
|40||7688||Newton x Garry|
|41||7528||Niagara: Garry x [(Goldwin x Victoria-Rainbow) x Branch]|
|42||7690||Putnam x [Landhafer x (Mindo x Hajira-Joanette)] x Andrew|
|43||7691||Putnam4 x [Landhafer x (Mindo x Hajira-Joanette)] x Andrew|
|44||7531||Putnam 61: Putnam4 x [Landhafer x (Mindo x Hajira-Joanette)] x Andrew|
|45||7561||Richland-Bond x (Garry x Hawkeye-Victoria)|
|47||7464||[Roxton x (Victoria x Hajira-Banner)] x [Ajax x (Victoria x Hajira-Banner)] x (Clinton 597 x Landh)|
|48||7524||Tioga: Garry x Goldwin-Clinton|
|49||7448||[(Victoria x Hajira-Banner) x (Victory x Hajira-Ajax)] x Mo. 0-2052|
|50||7689||Waubay x [(Bonda x Hajira-Joanette) x Santa Fe]|
|R.L. 1276 = (Banner x Hajira) x Victoria
R.L. 1942 = [Victoria x (Hajira x Banner)] x Ajax
R.L. 2105 = [Victoria x (Hajira x Banner)] x (Victory x Hajira) x Roxton
R.L. 2228 = (Santa Fe x R.L. 1942) x Garry
|Table 29. Coffmans 1958 Aberdeen Oat Selections - 1961|
|Yield-Bushels Per Acre||Test
|1||58 ab 2774||7589||14.5||16.0||15.0||15.2||25.0|
|2||58 ab 2776||7590||13.0||14.0||13.5||13.5||25.0|
|3||58 ab 2778||7592||17.5||20.0||11.5||16.3||24.0|
|4||58 ab 2779||7593||14.0||19.0||16.5||16.5||23.5|
|5||58 ab 2780||7571||11.0||16.0||16.5||14.5||23.0|
|6||58 ab 2781||7572||12.5||13.5||15.5||13.8||25.0|
|7||58 ab 2783||7574||14.0||14.5||19.5||16.0||24.5|
|8||58 ab 2785||7576||14.0||13.0||13.0||13.3||25.0|
|9||58 ab 2786||7577||18.0||15.0||19.0||17.3||25.5|
|10||58 ab 2787||7578||18.5||16.5||19.0||18.0||25.0|
|11||58 ab 2788||7579||16.0||15.5||19.0||16.8||25.5|
|12||58 ab 2789||7580||15.5||17.5||17.5||16.8||25.0|
|13||58 ab 2790||7581||24.5||9.0||18.0||17.2||25.5|
Fairly good yields of winter rye were harvested in 1961 considering the droughty growing conditions. Elk was the poorest winter survivor and was disappointing in this respect.
Data on the winter rye variety trial are given in Tables 30 and 31.
|Table 30. Agronomic data from the Rye Variety Trial - 1961|
|Description||Yield-Bushels Per Acre||Test
|Table 31. Comparative Yields - Winter Rye Variety Trial - 1961|
|Description||Yield in Bushels Per Acre||Averages||Av.
|1Average test weight for Elk is for 1960-1961.|
Highest yield in this year's regional safflower planting at Dickinson was 3.0 bushels per acre.
Safflower is not a particularly good crop under droughty growing conditions and yields were poor this year for this reason.
Data on this year's safflower trial are given in Tables 32 and 33.
Iodine and oil percentage determinations were made by John E. Bear, USDA.
|Table 32. Agronomic data on the Regional Safflower Nursery - 1961|
|Yield-Bushels Per Acre||Test
|U. S. 10||2.1||3.1||1.5||4.7||3.3||2.7||2.9||36.2||7||7-19|
|Table 33. Determinations of Oil Percentage and Iodine Number - 1961 Regional Safflower Trial|
|Description||Iodine Number||% Oil|
The Hard Red Winter Wheat Regional Performance Nursery was seeded September 20, 1960 on summerfallow and emergence and fall growth was fairly good. Spring survival was zero for all entries.
Table 34 lists entries in this year's planting.
Minter winter wheat planted with the winter rye in field plot trials was considered a total failure this spring.
Work with winter wheat is being expanded at this Station to include seedings made with hoe or furrow-type drills on both fallow and stubble land.
|Table 34. Northern Regional Hard Red Winter Wheat Performance Nursery - 1961|
|Entry No.||Pedigree||C.I. No.||Source|
|7||Nebred x Red Chief||13195||Nebraska|
|8||Yogo x (Tk x Oro 221)-117||13542||Montana|
|9||(Yogo x Rescue 21) x Marmin-1065||13544||Montana|
|10||Marmin x (Yogo x Rescue 5)-342||13545||Montana|
|12*||Nebred-Hope-Tk x Cnn-Pnc (N. 56178)||13546||Nebraska|
|13*||Tk-Cheyenne x Hope-Cheyenne2 (N. 57167)||13547||Nebraska|
|14||South Dakota Selection||13526||South Dakota|
|15||South Dakota Selection||13528||South Dakota|
|16||South Dakota Selection||13198||South Dakota|
Experiments with spring wheat in 1961 included field plot trials of 14 varieties of hard red spring and six varieties of durum wheat, the Uniform Regional Nursery, the Uniform Bunt Nursery, and nurseries of material produced at Dickinson. Most of this material is early generation material for purposes of selection and yield data were not recorded on this material this year.
Yields and other agronomic data recorded from the 1961 trials with wheat are given in Table 35 through 40.
In addition to the field plot and nursery trials, this year the Dickinson Station cooperated in growing 12 bushel lots of four varieties and smaller lots of two other varieties for the Crop Quality Council milling and baking quality tests.
|Table 35. Agronomic data from the Hard Red Spring Wheat Variety Trial - 1961|
|Description||Yield in Bushels Per Acre||Test
|ND 102 Sib||10.2||12.1||13.5||11.9||56.0||25||24||20|
|Table 36. Comparative Yields - Hard Red Spring Wheat Variety Trial - 1961|
|Description||Yield in Bushels Per Acre||Averages||Av.
|*Average test weights are for years yields are given|
|Table 37. Agronomic data from the Durum Wheat Variety Trial - 1961|
|Description||Yield in Bushels Per Acre||Test
|Table 38. Comparative Yields - Durum Variety Trial - 1961|
|Description||Yield in Bushels Per Acre||Averages||Av.
|Table 39. Agronomic data from the Uniform Regional Spring Wheat Nursery - 1961|
|Description||C.I. No.||Yield-Bu. Per Acre||Test
|Lee2 x Kenya Farmer||13463||12.8||9.0||14.6||12.1||58.0||26||28||20|
|(Thatcher6-Kenya Farmer) x (Thatcher7-Frontana)||13625||11.0||10.8||13.2||11.7||59.0||23||25||19|
|Conley x N.D. 40-2||13462||12.6||12.2||15.0||13.3||59.0||24||27||21|
|N.D. 81 x Lee||13349||9.2||8.2||13.8||10.4||57.5||24||26||19|
|(Lee x N. D. 81 sib) x Lee||13453||9.6||8.6||11.8||10.0||57.5||24||26||18|
|N. D. 81 sib x N. D. 1||13603||6.6||8.4||14.0||9.7||57.0||26||26||17|
|N. D. 81 sib x Conley||13608||9.0||9.4||9.2||9.2||59.5||26||28||18|
|CT231 x Conley||13565||11.8||11.6||12.8||12.1||59.0||23||25||21|
|CT231 x Conley||13566||8.8||11.0||7.2||9.0||59.0||23||25||19|
|Conley x N. D. 81||13567||9.2||9.4||9.0||9.2||59.0||22||28||19|
|ND140 x ND138||13568||6.8||8.0||7.6||7.5||58.0||23||28||18|
|ND138 x (Lee x FP1186035)||13569||6.8||9.2||10.4||8.8||59.0||22||24||18|
|ND138 x (Lee x FP1186035)||13570||4.6||8.0||9.0||7.2||60.0||23||24||18|
|Conley x ND142||13571||9.0||11.0||10.8||10.3||58.0||23||28||19|
|Frontana x Thatcher4||13572||9.0||15.0||11.0||11.7||58.5||25||25||19|
|(Frontana x Thatcher2) x (II-44-29 x Thatcher2)||13573||8.6||11.6||10.2||10.1||56.5||23||24||20|
|Lee x No. 58||13574||10.2||15.0||10.2||11.8||58.0||21||24||19|
|Lee x No. 58||13575||10.8||11.2||11.8||11.3||57.5||19||24||20|
|Rival x II-50-17||13576||11.0||8.0||10.8||9.9||59.5||21||24||22|
|(Rushmore x Supresa PW36) x (Thatcher-Triumph 630)||13577||9.6||10.8||9.6||10.0||58.0||21||24||20|
|Selkirk x W250||13584||6.4||10.0||9.4||8.6||56.5||21||24||21|
|KT-Tc3 x II-44-29 x Tc2||13465||9.4||5.0||7.0||7.1||59.0||23||26||22|
|Table 40. Uniform Regional Spring Wheat Bunt Nursery - 1961|
|Percent Smutty Heads|
|8||Lee2 x Kenya Farmer||13463||2||1||1.5|
|9||(Thatcher6-Kenya Farmer) x (Thatcher7-Frontana)||13625||1||0||0.5|
|10||Conley x N.D. 40-2||13462||1||0||0.5|
|11||N. D. 81 x Lee||13349||1||2||1.5|
|12||(Lee x N. D. 81 sib) x Lee||13453||1||2||1.5|
|13||N. D. 81 sib x N. D. 1||13603||0||2||1.0|
|14||N. D. 81 sib x Conley||13608||4||5||4.5|
|15||CT231 x Conley, 55.302 A-4-5-3-2-1-1||13565||1||0||0.5|
|16||CT231 x Conley, 55.302 A-9-6-5-1-7||13566||1||0||0.5|
|17||Conley x N. D. 81, 56.51 A-1-2-10-5||13567||2||0||1.0|
|18||ND140 x ND138, 57.79 A-2-28-4||13568||5||2||3.5|
|19||ND138 x (Lee x FP1186035), 57.434 A-1-1-1-3||13569||7||1||4.0|
|20||ND138 x (Lee x FP1186035), 57.434 A-2-3-1-3||13570||1||0||0.5|
|21||Conley x ND142, 58.82 A-1-1-4||13571||1||2||1.5|
|22||Frontana x Thatcher4||13572||0||2||1.0|
|23||(Frontana x Thatcher2) x (II-44-29 x Thatcher2)||13573||6||0||3.0|
|24||Lee x No. 58||13574||4||1||2.5|
|25||Lee x No. 58||13575||2||1||1.5|
|26||Rival x II-50-17||13576||2||2||2.0|
|27||(Rushmore x Sunpresza PW36) x (Thatcher-Triumph 630)||13577||0||2||1.0|
|28||Selkirk x W250||B584||0||0||0|
|29||KT-Tc3 x II-44-29 x Tc2||13465||4||1||2.5|
|31||Lee x ND34||13322||0||2||1.0|
|32||K338AA x Ns 3880.191||13302||0||0||0|
|33||N2350 x 4021-K338AC||---||0||0||0|
|34||ND4 x Lee||13324||3||2||2.5|
|35||ND81 x ND1||13451||0||0||0|
|36||CT231 x Conley||--||1||0||0.5|
|37||Ftn x Tc5||---||0||2||1.0|
|38||Ftn x Tc5||---||0||0||0|
|39||Ftn-Tc3 x (II-44-29)-Tc2||---||0||0||0|
|40||II-50-25 x II-44-653||---||0||0||0|
|41||II-50-17 x Selkirk||---||2||2||2|
|42||II-50-72 x Selkirk||---||2||3||2.5|
|43||II-50-25 x Selkirk||---||2||4||3.0|
|44||II-50-25 x Selkirk||---||0||6||3.0|
|45||II-50-23 x II-42-22||---||10||7||8.5|
|46||II-50-17 x Rushmore||---||3||0||1.5|
|47||II-50-17 x Rushmore||---||3||4||3.5|
|48||II-50-17 x Rushmore||---||2||6||4.0|
|49||II-50-17 x Rushmore||---||5||11||8.0|
|50||II-50-17 x Rushmore||---||16||5||10.5|
|51||II-50-17 x Rushmore||---||3||5||4.0|
|52||II-50-72 x Rushmore||---||0||3||1.5|
Yields on continuous cropping, cornland and summerfallow, fertilizer and unfertilized; North Dakota Farm Research, Vol. 21 No. 11, May-June, 1961. Conlon, T. J. and Douglas, R. J.
Spring Moisture and Yields Compared; North Dakota Farm Research, Vol. 21 No. 12, July-August, 1961. Conlon, T. J. and Douglas, R. J.
Stubble Tillage Practices - Three methods compared at Dickinson; North Dakota Farm Research, Vol. 21 No. 12, July-August, 1961. Conlon, T. J. and Douglas, R. J.
Results of Clipping Trials with Cool Season Grasses; Whitman, W. C., Peterson, D. R., and Conlon, T. J.; North Dakota Farm Research, Vol. 22 No. 2, November-December, 1961
Winter Wheat Production in North Dakota; Extension Service Circular A-354 April, 1961; Jensen, L. A. and Conlon, T. J.
|Radio with County Agent, Maurice A. Ellingson:|
|January 5||Fall Tillage vs. No Fall Tillage of Stubble|
|January 26||Winter Wheat Work at Dickinson|
|March 9||New Trials Planned for 1961|
|April 20||Small Grain Trials at Dickinson for 1961|
|May 4||Weed Spraying in 1961|
|June 15||Insect Damage to Wheat, Trees, and Shrubs|
|July 6||Crops Field Day|
|August 3||Results of Wheat Variety Trials at the DES|
|August 31||Results of Wheat Variety Trials at the DES|
|September 21||Results of Barley and Oat Variety Trials at the DES|
|September 28||Winter Wheat Trials at the DES|
|October 19||Commercial Fertilizer Trials at the DES in 1961|
|November 9||Roughage Production Trials in 1961|
|November 30||Livestock Research Roundup Plans|
|December 21||Summary for 1961|
|November 4||On material to be discussed at the Twelfth Annual Livestock Research Roundup|
|Conferences - 1961|
|January 10-13||Annual Branch Station Conference|
|Public Meetings - 1961||Attendance|
|Adams County Crop Imp. Ass'n.||30|
|Hettinger Station Sheep Day||Attended|
|Stark County Crop Imp. Ass'n.||35|
|Slope County Crop Imp. Ass'n.||100|
|Valley City Winter Show||Grain Judge|
|Hettinger County Crop Imp. Ass'n.||25|
|Sixth Grade Dickinson Elementary School||60|
|Wishek FFA - Tour of the Dickinson Experiment Station||30|
|Barons Club - Tour of the Dickinson Experiment Station||30|
|Crops Field Day - Dickinson Experiment Station||225|
|DSTC Agriculture Class - Tour of DES||30|
|Rotary Club - Tour of the Dickinson Experiment Station||60|
|Morton County 4-H Achievement Day||Judge|
|Richardton 4-H Achievement Day||Judge|
|Golden Valley 4-H Achievement Day||Judge|
|Stark 4-H Achievement Day||Judge|
|Dunn 4-H Achievement Day||Judge|
|Stark County Soil Conservation Achievement Banquet||75|
|Dickinson High School Career Day||125|