Feedlot performance of yearling steers fed wheat midds in finishing diets

V. L. Anderson
Carrington Research Extension Center
North Dakota State University

Introduction
Wheat midds, a co-product of milling durum or spring wheat, are increasing in volume in North Dakota due to increasing milling. Nearly 500 tons per day will be available in the near future in the state. Wheat midds consitute 20- 21% of the pre-milled wheat by weight. Currently, a very hgih percentage of the midds leave the state to be used in feed manufacturing and feedlot rations in other states. With the value added processing focusing on flour and pasta for human food, the possiblity exists to increase the value of wheat midds by feeding cattle during the growing and finishing period.
Wheat midds are marketed in bulk or meal form at most mills. The meal form has a lower bulk density than pellets creating logistical problems. The meal product bridges easily in a bin, reduces the carrying capacity of truck and rail containers and requires front end loaders for handling. Pelleted midds are easier to handle but the differene in feeding pellets vs meal is unknown. This paper is animal performance part of a study to eveluate the difference in pelleted vs meal form wheat midds in finishing rations for beef steers.

Experimental procedure
Forty four head of preconditioned crossbred steer calves (avg wt 763 pounds) were allotted to two treatments in four pens on December 22, 1995. Steers in alll four pens were fed a finishing ration of approximately 80% concentrate. Wheat midds were included as 50% of the concentrate during the first two 21 day weigh periods and as 20% of the concentrate during the last two 21 day weigh periods. Two pens were fed pelleted wheat midds and two pens were fed wheat midds in the meal form during the 4 period study. Remaining ration ingredients included dry rolled corn grain, corn silage, chopped alfalfa hay, feedlot mineral and an ionophore supplements (Bovatec). Table 1 gives ration formulations for the 50% and 20% midds diets. Wheat midds were procured from the the Dakota Growers Pasta Company. Midds were pelleted at G and R Feeds in New Rockford, ND using a 3/16 th inch die. Pelleted midds were stored in a hopper bottom grain tank and added to the feed mixing wagon by auger. Meal form wheat midds were stored on a concrete floor in a covered hay shed and added to the feed mixer wagons by front end loader.
Steers were individually weighed at the start of the trial, and every 21 days. Bunks were read daily and ration changes made to reflected increase or decrease in intake. Steers were fed once daily in fenceline feedbunks using a truck mounted Little Augie feed wagon for mixing and delivery of the totally mixed ration. Feed intake was recorded daily using the trucks scale.

Results
Steer performance data is reported in Table 2. It is apparent that pelleting midds supports increased gains with no differences observed in feed intake. Feed intake was withing 1% but gains were nearly 14% higher (.43 lb) with pelleted wheat mids than in meal form at the 50% level. At the 20% level, gains were 3.5% (.12 lb) greater with pelleted midds and identical intake. Feed efficiency reflects the differnces in gain at equal feed intake.
It is generally thought that pelleting will cause an increase in intake due to higher bulk density (less space per unit of weight). The more rapid pellets degrade in the warm moist rumen, the less difference in intake would be expected. Pelleting wheat midds in this study translates into a substantial economic advantage for feeding pellets provided the increased cost is less than the increased gain.


Table 1. Ration formulations for steers fed pelleted or meal form wheat midds at 50% or 20% of the finishing diet.
Ingredient                       50% Midds          20% Midds
-----------------------          --------Percent as fed------
Rolled corn grain                  36.1                57.8
Wheat midds                        36.1                15.4
Corn silage                        18.1                18.1
Chopped alfalfa hay                 7.2                 7.2
Ionophore/mineral suppl             2.5                 2.5


Table 2. Performance of steers fed 50% or 20% wheat midds in pelleted or meal form in finishing diets.
                                   Meal              Pelleted

50% Wheat midds 
        ADG, lbs.                  3.11                 3.54
        Dry Matter intake, lbs.   23.16                22.98
        Feed/gain                  7.45                 6.49

20% Wheat midds 
        ADG, lbs.                  3.39                 3.51
        Dry Matter intake, lbs.   23.98                23.99
        Feed/gain                  7.07                 6.83

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