Influence of Level of Flaxseed Addition and Time Fed Flaxseed on Carcass Characteristics, Sensory Panel Evaluation, and Fatty Acid Content of Fresh Beef

 

T.D. Maddock1, V.L. Anderson2, P.T. Berg1, R.J. Maddock3, M.J. Marchello1

1NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Dept, 2NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center, and

3SDSU Animal And Range Sciences Dept.

 

 

Ninety crossbred steers were randomly divided into six treatment groups and finished to determine if differing levels of flaxseed addition and time fed flaxseed would affect carcass composition, sensory panel evaluations, and/or fatty acid profiles in fresh beef, specifically alpha-linolenic (18:3, n-3), and an omega-3 fatty acid associated with flax.  Treatments included corn as a control diet, barley as a basal diet, and 3% or 6% flaxseed addition to the barley diet for the last 28 or 56 days of the feeding period.  Once cattle were visually determined to be finished they were shipped to a commercial slaughter facility for harvest. No differences (P < 0.05) were found between treatments for 12th rib fat thickness, REA, or marbling.  Flaxseed addition did increase marbling score when compared to the basal barley diet (P = 0.03).  Beef IMPS # 180 boneless strip loins were removed from the carcass and used for sensory panel evaluation and fatty acid profiles.  Sensory evaluation of tenderness was lower (P < 0.05) in steers fed 6% flaxseed vs. those fed 3 percent flaxseed.  Sensory evaluation of juiciness was higher (P = 0.02) for corn than all other treatments, but no differences (P > 0.05) were found among treatments that included barley.  Flavor was not affected by flaxseed addition (P < 0.45).  Flaxseed inclusion in the barley diet increased (P <0.01) alpha-linolenic fatty acid content.  Six percent inclusion had higher (P = 0.04) alpha-linolenic fatty acid content than 3%, and steers fed flaxseed 56 d had higher (P < 0.01) alpha-linolenic fatty acid content than those steers fed 28 d.  Flaxseed addition did not change other measured fatty acid content (P > 0.10).  The inclusion of flaxseed into barley diets for finishing beef steers increased alpha-linolenic fatty acid content without significantly affecting flavor or measured carcass quality traits.

 

Keywords:  Flaxseed, Omega-3, Carcass, Beef

 

Table 1. Effects of corn or barley and flaxseed addition on sensory characteristics of beef.

 

Treatment

 

 

Item

Corn

Bly

3% 28d

6% 28d

3% 56d

6% 56d

SE

P

Tend

5.68c

5.60bc

5.78c

4.92a

5.50bc

5.24ab

0.16

<0.01

Juic

5.76b

5.45ab

5.36a

5.24a

5.14a

5.28a

0.14

0.02

Flavor

5.36

5.44

5.30

5.20

5.52

5.30

0.12

0.45

a,b,c Least squares means within row lacking a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).  Higher score is reflective of more desirable sensory response.

 

 

Table 2. P-values for contrasts of corn or barley and flaxseed addition on sensory characteristics of beef.

Item

Corn

vs.

Barleya

Barley

Vs

Flaxa

28d

vs.

56da

3%

vs.

6%a

 

 

Interactiona

Tenderness

0.71

0.16

0.90

<0.01

0.05

Juiciness

0.11

0.20

0.48

0.96

0.34

Flavor

0.63

0.41

0.17

0.17

0.58

a Contrasts are corn diet vs. barley diet, barley diet vs. all diets including flax, diets that included flax fed for 28 d vs. diets that included flax fed 56 d, diets that included 3 percent flax vs. diets that included 6 percent flax, and the interaction of days fed flax (28 or 56) and the level of flax included (3% or 6%).


Table 3. Effects of corn or barley and flaxseed addition on carcass characteristics of beef.

 

                                       Treatments                

 

 

Item

Corn

Bly

3% 28d

6% 28d

3% 56d

6% 56d

SE

P

Carcass WT

764.1

747.1

756.6

761.0

754.0

758.1

9.7

0.87

PYG

2.9

2.9

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

0.1

0.93

REA

12.6

12.9

13.2

13.1

12.7

12.6

0.3

0.70

KPH

1.9

1.8

1.8

1.7

1.9

1.9

0.1

0.73

12th Rib Fat

0.38

0.38

0.41

0.40

0.39

0.40

0.03

0.93

YG

2.7

2.5

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.7

0.1

0.77

MARB

366

315

363

381

359

337

19

0.17

Dress P

60.2

60.6

60.9

60.5

60.4

60.3

0.4

0.92

L

33.2

32.8

32.0

32.9

32.5

33.5

0.4

0.15

A

16.4

16.1

15.7

16.2

16.4

16.2

0.3

0.42

B

3.5

3.5

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.3

0.1

0.64

 

 

Table 4. P-values for contrasts of corn or barley and flaxseed addition on carcass characteristics of beef.

Item

Corn

vs.

Barleya

Barley

Vs

Flaxa

28d

vs.

56da

3%

vs.

6%a

 

 

Interactiona

Carcass WT

0.22

0.34

0.78

0.66

0.98

PYG

0.99

0.41

0.72

0.89

0.79

REA

0.45

0.85

0.14

0.79

0.90

KPH

0.58

0.83

0.17

0.93

0.45

12th Rib Fat

0.99

0.41

0.72

0.89

0.79

YG

0.30

0.38

0.26

0.78

0.90

MARB

0.06

0.03

0.20

0.91

0.30

Dress P

0.54

0.85

0.43

0.57

0.79

L

0.41

0.91

0.18

0.03

0.94

A

0.35

0.93

0.22

0.67

0.17

B

0.80

0.11

0.95

0.88

0.81

a Contrasts are corn diet vs. barley diet, barley diet vs. all diets including flax, diets that included flax fed for 28 d vs. diets that included flax fed 56 d, diets that included 3 percent flax vs. diets that included 6 percent flax, and the interaction of days fed flax (28 or 56) and the level of flax included (3% or 6%).

 

 


Table 5. Effects of corn or barley and flaxseed addition on fatty acid content of beef

 

Treatments

 

 

Item

Corn

Bly

3% 28d

6% 28d

3% 56d

6% 56d

SE

P

12:0

2.78

2.68

2.74

2.91

2.78

2.64

0.10

0.57

14:0

0.38

0.41

0.42

0.42

0.42

0.40

0.02

0.47

16:0

26.49

26.27

26.71

26.97

26.39

26.08

0.42

0.69

16:1

3.37

3.04

3.19

3.23

3.03

2.93

0.14

0.22

18:0

15.74

16.03

15.96

15.42

15.84

16.18

0.36

0.68

18:2w6c

3.56

4.47

3.69

4.05

4.02

4.25

0.30

0.22

18:2w6t

0.28

0.27

0.27

0.36

0.46

0.33

0.09

0.60

18:3w3

0.34a

0.39ab

0.41ab

0.43bc

0.48c

0.56d

0.03

<0.01

18:3w6

0.15

0.17

0.21

0.28

0.36

0.21

0.09

0.57

20:0

0.00

0.00

0.02

0.01

0.01

0.00

0.00

0.37

20:4w6

0.02

0.03

0.02

0.04

0.04

0.03

0.00

0.11

22:0

0.09

0.10

0.09

0.09

0.09

0.07

0.01

0.70

22:6w3

0.40

0.47

0.44

0.51

0.58

0.48

0.08

0.62

24:0

0.13

0.16

0.16

0.17

0.16

0.14

0.02

0.67

24:1

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.08

0.09

0.05

0.02

0.20

a,b,c Least squares means within row lacking a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).

 

 

Table 6. P-values for contrasts of corn or barley and flaxseed addition on carcass characteristics of beef

Item

Corn

vs.

Barleya

Barley

Vs

Flaxa

28d

vs.

56da

3%

vs.

6%a

 

 

Interactiona

12:0

0.28

0.09

0.71

0.60

0.41

14:0

0.47

0.43

0.25

0.91

0.13

16:0

0.70

0.55

0.15

0.95

0.49

16:1

0.08

0.70

0.09

0.81

0.59

18:0

0.54

0.62

0.35

0.77

0.20

18:2w6c

0.02

0.13

0.36

0.31

0.82

18:2w6t

0.95

0.40

0.36

0.81

0.18

18:3w3

0.18

<0.01

<0.01

0.04

0.24

18:3w6

0.88

0.34

0.62

0.61

0.20

20:0

0.90

0.34

0.24

0.16

0.49

20:4w6

0.27

0.95

0.37

0.85

0.01

22:0

0.51

0.26

0.58

0.51

0.34

22:6w3

0.48

0.73

0.45

0.81

0.23

24:0

0.20

0.69

0.52

0.80

0.39

24:1

0.87

0.16

0.51

0.91

0.04

a Contrasts are corn diet vs. barley diet, barley diet vs. all diets including flax, diets that included flax fed for 28 d vs. diets that included flax fed 56 d, diets that included 3 percent flax vs. diets that included 6 percent flax, and the interaction of days fed flax (28 or 56) and the level of flax included (3% or 6%).