Feed intake and performance of beef calves fed creep feed
with dried corn gluten feed and wheat midds

V. L. Anderson and D. V. Dhuyvetter
Carrington Research Extension Center and Animal and Range Sciences Dept.
North Dakota State University
(Progress Report)

Abstract
Beef calves (n=96) nursing crossbred mature cows in drylot were allotted to eight pens for the evaluation of four different creep feed treatments during a 56 days study starting August 1, 1995. The pelleted creep feeds were formulated using wheat midds (WM) and/or dried corn gluten feed (CGF) in reciprocal amounts of 100, 67, 33 and 0%. Feed consumption, average daily gain, and feed efficiency appear to be similar except for 100% CGF calf gains were numerically lower and feed efficiency for 100% WM appears to be more desirable. This is the first years data of a two year project. At this point it appears that both feed ingredients are palatable in creep feed with proportional use depending on cost.
Key words: Wheat Midds, Corn Gluten Feed, Creep Feed, Beef Calves

Introduction
Grain processing has increased in North Dakota in the recent past. The major co-products from the milling of wheat and production of corn fructose syrup are wheat middlings or wheat midds (WM) and corn gluten feed (CGF). Nearly 500 tons of WM and 400 tons of dried CGF will be produced per day in North Dakota in the near future. These commodities have substantial feed and economic value if used appropriately. Wheat midds are utilized in large quantities in many commercial feeds such as range cake, creep feeds and carriers for mineral, protein and ionophores. Corn gluten feed is sold wet or dry. Wet feeds are used largely in feedlots close the processing plants. Dry feeds are more transportable and have a longer shelf life. CGF is higher in protein but both ingredients have a similar proportion of escape or by-pass protein. This experiment was conducted to determine the palatability of creep feeds formulated with WM, CGF, or combinations of the two.

Experimental Procedure
Ninety six crossbred mature cows and their calves were allotted to one of eight drylot pens at the end of breeding season. Four creep feed treatments were replicated with 12 pairs per pen. The creep feed treatments were: 1) 100% wheat midds, 2) 67% wheat midds-33% corn gluten feed, 3) 33% wheat midds - 67% corn gluten feed, and 4) 100% corn gluten feed. The creep feeds were pelleted at the Northern Crops Institute feed mill at NDSU. A vitamin/mineral package was added prior to pelleting. The analysis of corn gluten feed and wheat midds is given in table 1. Corn gluten feed was procured from the Archer Daniels Midland corn fructose plant in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Wheat midds were purchased from the Dakota Growers Pasta Company in Carrington, ND.

The trial started on August 1, 1995 and concluded on September 26 at weaning. Calves were weighed at the intermediate 28 day period on August 29. Creep feed was offered daily to appetite in fenceline bunks adjacent to the cow bunks. Description of the calves and their dams is presented in Table 2. Cows were offered the same diet in all pens consisting of 45 pounds corn silage, 12 pounds chopped alfalfa hay, and 6 pounds chopped straw. Cows were fed a totally mixed ration in fenceline bunks once daily.


Table 1. Nutrient analysis of corn gluten feed and wheat middlings
                            Wheat Midds     Corn Gluten Feed
Dry matter                      88.5               88.0
                            -------Dry matter basis---------
Protein, %                      17.9               22.0
Acid detergent fiber, %         11.04              10.0
NEg (Mcal/lb)                   60                 62
TDN (estimate), %               79                 83.0
Calcium, %                        .11                .20
Phosphorous, %                    .95               1.11
Potassium, %                     1.28                .64

Results and Discussion
Overall, there appears to be little difference in creep feed intake due ingredients used. Gains were numerically lower for the 100% corn gluten feed creep feed compared to the other diets. Feed efficiency appears to be similar except for the 100% wheat midds creep feed which appears to show an advantage. No statistical comparisons were made as this is a progress report on the first years data of a two year project.

Starch content of the midds was 33% suggesting more energy is left in wheat midds than generally considered. Calculated TDN values are 79% for wheat midds which is substantially greater than values given in NRC(1984) which are generally reported at or near 70%. This may be due to WM produced in the milling of durum contains the bran, germ(high in fat) and other minor components removed in other milling processes.

Protein content is more than adequate in each of the two creep feeds based on current recommendations of 14-16%. Most co-product feeds are high in protein and fiber. These feeds are often less expensive than energy sources such as corn grain, making it more economical to feed higher levels of protein than required. It seems logical to consider methods of utilizing excess protein in economical production systems.


Table 2. Background information on the calves and their dams.
                                      Treatment
Corn gluten feed           0       33        67      100     
Wheat Midds              100       67        33        0        SE
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Calf birth weight, lb   92.8       92.9      93.8     92.9     2.44    
Calf sex a               2.54       2.58      2.54     2.53     .09
Calf sire breed b        2.58       2.67      2.67     2.63     .11
Cow age, yrs.            4.75       4.79      4.63     4.75    4.45
-------------------------------------------------------------------
a Calf sex, 2=Female, 3=Male
b Calf sire breed, 2=Limousin, 3= Red Angus


Table 3. Performance of nursing calves on creep feeds formulated with wheat midds and corn gluten feed.
                                            Treatment
Corn gluten feed               0          33         67         100     
Wheat Midds                  100          67         33           0
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Period 1   
Feed intake, lb                5.05        6.38       5.54     5.87    
Average daily gain, lb         2.75        2.87       3.10     2.26    
Feed efficiency, lb            1.84        2.22       1.79     2.59

Period 2
Feed intake, lb                9.00        7.98       8.62     7.93
Average daily gain, lb         3.09        2.77       2.57     3.00    
Feed efficiency, lb            2.91        2.88       3.35     2.63
  
Overall
Avg. feed intake, lb           7.02        7.18       7.07     6.89
Average daily gain, lb         2.94        2.82       2.83     2.64
Avg. feed efficiency, lb       2.38        2.55       2.57     2.61

This trial was partially supported by the donation of corn gluten feed from Archer Dainiels Midland, Cedar Rapids, IA

Literature Cited
NRC. 1984. Nutrient Requirements of beef cattle, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.


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