Reciprocal levels of wheat middlings and corn gluten feed in creep feed diets for nursing beef calves

Final Report


V. L. Anderson and D. Dhuyvetter

Carrington Research Extension Center and Animal and Range Sciences Dept.

North Dakota State University

Abstract

Beef calves (n=191) nursing crossbred mature cows in drylot were allotted to eight pens for the evaluation of four different creep feed treatments during a 56 day study starting August 1 on two consecutive years. The pelleted creep feeds were formulated using wheat midds (WM) and/or dried corn gluten feed (CGF) in reciprocal amounts of 100, 67, 33 and 0%. Creep feed intake was greater (P<.05) for the 33% treatment at 7.94 pounds per day compared to 7.22 for the 100% midds treatment with the other two diets intermediate. Average daily gain, and feed efficiency are similar (P<.05) for all treatments. Daily gain was 2.99 pounds per day and feed efficiency totaled 2.49 pounds per day averaged across all treatment. The co-products of wheat midds and corn gluten feed appear to be very useful as major ingredients in creep feed rations.

Key words: Wheat Midds, Corn Gluten Feed, Creep Feed, Beef Calves


Introduction

Grain processing has increased in North Dakota in the recent past. The major co-products from the milling of wheat and production of corn fructose syrup are wheat middlings (WM) and corn gluten feed (CGF). Nearly 500 tons of WM and 400 tons of CGF are produced per day in North Dakota. These commodities have substantial feed and economic value if used appropriately. Wheat midds are utilized in large quantities in many commercial feeds such as range cake, creep feeds and carriers for mineral, protein and ionophores. Corn gluten feed is sold wet or dry. Wet feeds are used largely in feedlots close the processing plants. Dry feeds are more transportable and have a longer shelf life. CGF is higher in protein and has a higher proportion of by-pass or escape protein. This experiment was conducted to determine the palatability of creep feeds formulated with WM, dried CGF, or combinations of the two.

Experimental Procedure

Crossbred mature cows (n=96 in 1995 and 79 in 1996) and their calves were allotted to one of eight drylot pens at the end of breeding season in the two year trial. Four creep feed treatments were replicated with equal number of pairs assigned to each pen. The creep feed treatments were: 1) 100% wheat midds, 2) 67% wheat midds-33% corn gluten feed, 3) 33% wheat midds - 67% corn gluten feed, and 4) 100% corn gluten feed. The creep feeds were pelleted at the Northern Crops Institute feed mill at NDSU. A vitamin/mineral package was added prior to pelleting. The analysis of corn gluten feed and wheat midds is given in Table 1. Corn gluten feed was procured from the corn fructose plant in Blair, NE. Wheat midds were sourced from the Dakota Growers Pasta Company at Carrington, ND.

The trial started on August 1, in 1995 and August 5 in 1996 and concluded 56 days later at weaning. Calves were weighed on a 28 day interval providing an intermediate weight. Creep feed was offered daily to appetite in calf sized fenceline bunks in a creep area in the vicinity of the bunkline where cows were fed. Creep bunks were read similar to a feedlot with an increase when bunks were slick and a decrease with accumulating creep feed. Description of the calves and their dams is presented in Table 2. Cows were offered the same diet in all pens consisting of 45 pounds corn silage, 12 pounds chopped alfalfa hay, and 6 pounds chopped straw. Cows were fed a totally mixed ration in fenceline bunks once daily.

Results and Discussion

Overall, there appears to be little difference in performance of nursing calves due to treatment. Table 3 gives feed intake, gain and feed efficiency by treatment, by period, by year and overall averages. Feed intake was greater (P<.05) for calves on 33% midds than 100% midds diet with 67% and 0% treatments intermediate. Intake averaged 7.22, 7.62, 7.93 and 7.52 pounds per head daily. Average daily gains were 2.97, 3.03, 3.08 and 2.88 pounds per day for the 100, 67, 33 and 0% treatments respectively, producing feed efficiencies of 2.43, 2.52, 2.60, and 2.62 pounds of feed per pound of gain.

Less feed (P<.05) was consumed during the first 28 day period as calves gradually became accustomed to eating creep feed and started to need more energy than milk and what forage could be consumed from the cow bunks. Calves consumed more (P<.05) creep feed the second year of the trial also

No palatability problems or health challenges in the form of bloating calves or acidosis were observed. Calves tended to develop loose stools at the introduction of creep feed but after a few weeks, stools firmed up.

Starch content of the midds was 33% suggesting more energy is left in wheat midds than generally considered. Calculated TDN values of 79% for wheat midds reflect the same perspective based on ADF analysis. Reported values however are near 70% (NRC, 1984). The higher nutritional value for the midds used in this study may be due to the inclusion of the germ (high in fat) and other minor high starch components not removed in the milling processes at Dakota Growers.

Protein content is more than adequate in each of the two feeds based on current creep feed recommendations of 15-16%. Most co-product feeds are high in protein and fiber. These feeds are often less expensive than energy sources such as corn grain, making them more economical to feed higher levels of protein than required. Other processing co-products available in the area that may have potential for creep feed include barley malt pellets, soy hulls, and distillers dried grain. Co-products used for creep feed should be introduced gradually and calves monitored closely for a few weeks as in all ration or management changes for livestock.

Major factors affecting co-product use are cost and availability. Seasonal price swings from excess supply or reduced demand may give an advantage, especially if on farm storage is available. Most pelleted co-products will store for extended periods of time. Contact your county agent for information on procuring these feeds. Data from this study indicate wheat midds and corn gluten feed are useful in creep feeds.

 

Literature Cited

NRC, 1996. Nutrient Requirements of beef cattle, Seventh Revised Edition, National Academy Press, Washington, D. C.

NRC, 1984. Nutrient Requirements of beef cattle, Sixth Revised Edition, National Academy Press, Washington, D. C.

Appreciation is expressed to Archer Daniels Midland, Cedar Rapids, IA for donation of pelleted corn gluten feed used in this study.

Table 1. Nutrient analysis of corn gluten feed and wheat middlings.

Wheat Midds

Corn Gluten Feed

Dry matter

88.5

88.0

------------Dry matter basis-----------

Protein, %

17.9

22.0

Acid detergent fiber, %

11.04

10.0

NEg (Mcal/lb)

60

62

TDN (estimate), %

79

83.0

Calcium, %

.11

.20

Phosphorous, %

.95

1.11

Potassium, %

1.28

.64


Table 2. Background information on the calves and their dams.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Treatment - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Corn gluten feed

0

33

67

100

Wheat Midds

100

67

33

0

SE

Calf birth weight, lb

92.8

92.9

93.8

92.9

2.44

Calf sex a

2.49

2.48

2.58

2.61

.12

Calf sire breed b

2.58

2.67

2.67

2.63

.11

Cow age, yrs.

4.75

4.79

4.63

4.75

.45
a Calf sex, 2=Female, 3=Male

b Calf sire breed, 2=Limousin, 3= Red Angus

Table 3. Performance of nursing calves on creep feeds formulated with wheat midds and corn gluten feed.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Treatment - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Wheat Midds

100

67

33

0

Corn gluten feed

0

33

67

100

St Err

Daily Creep Feed Intake, lb

Period 1

Year 1

5.05

6.38

5.54

5.87

Year 2

6.69

7.39

7.73

7.24

2 Yr Average

5.87

6.88

6.64

6.56

Period 2

Year 1

9.00

7.98

8.62

7.93

Year 2

8.17

8.77

9.86

9.07

2 Yr Average

8.58

8.40

9.24

8.50

2 Period Average

Year 1

7.02

7.18

7.07

6.89

Year 2

7.43

8.07

8.77

8.14

2 Yr Summary

7.22a

7.62ab

7.94b

7.52ab

.25

Average Daily Gain, lb

Period 1

Year 1

2.75

2.87

3.10

2.26

Year 2

2.99

3.01

2.99

2.66

2 Yr Average

2.87

2.94

3.05

2.46

Period 2

Year 1

3.09

2.77

2.57

3.00

Year 2

2.99

3.48

3.71

3.57

2 Yr Average

3.04

3.13

3.14

3.28

2 Period Average

Year 1

2.94

2.82

2.83

2.64

Year 2

2.99

3.24

3.34

3.11

2 Yr Summary

2.97

3.03

3.08

2.88

.46

Feed Efficiency (feed intake per pound of gain)

Period 1

Year 1

1.84

2.22

1.79

2.59

Year 2

2.24

2.45

2.59

2.72

2 Yr Average

2.04

2.34

2.19

2.66

Period 2

Year 1

2.91

2.88

3.35

2.63

Year 2

2.73

2.52

2.66

2.54

2 Yr Average

2.82

2.70

3.01

2.59

2 Period Average

Year 1

2.38

2.55

2.57

2.61

Year 2

2.48

2.49

2.62

2.62

2 Yr Summary

2.43

2.52

2.60

2.62

.48

a, b values with different superscripts are significantly different (P<.05).


1997 Beef and Bison Contents